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INNOVATIVE METHOD OF TEACHING
Introduction:
Education is a light that shows the mankind the right direction to surge. The purpose of education is not just
making a student literate but adds rationale thinking, knowledge ability and self-sufficiency. When there is a
willingness to change, there is hope for progress in any field. Creativity can be developed and innovation
benefits both students and teachers.
Importance of Education:
Islam attaches such great importance to knowledge and education. When the Quran began to be revealed, the
first word of its first verse was 'Iqra' that is, read. Education is thus the starting point of every human
activity. A scholar is accorded great respect in the hadith. According to a hadith the ink of the pen of a
scholar is more precious than the blood of a martyr. The reason being that martyr is engaged in defense work
while a Scholar builds individuals and nations along positive lines. In this way he bestows a real life to the
world.
“Education is the manifestation of perfection already in man”
(Swami Vivekananda)
Methodology:
The traditional or innovative methods of teaching are critically examined, evaluated and some modifications
in the delivery of knowledge are suggested. As such, the strengths and weaknesses of each teaching
methodology are identified and probable modifications that can be included in traditional methods are
suggested.
Definition:
“Innovative teaching is a proactive approach to integrate new teaching strategies and methods into a
classroom.”
Innovative tools:
 I hear and I forget.
 I see and I believe.
 I do and I understand.
(Confucius)
Ideas of Innovative Teachers:
 Simple exercises for improving empathy
 Dilemmas, decision making
 Joint decisions
 Developing a set
 Dramatization of well-known stories
 Situation games
 Simulation
 Tableau/Group of photographs
 Trial
 Dispute
Effective Innovative Teaching Process:
Types of Innovative Teaching Methods:
 Micro-Teaching Method.
 Stimulation Teaching Method.
 Programed Instruction Teaching Method.
 Individualized Instruction Teaching Method
 Computer Assisted Teaching method.
Micro Teaching
Introduction:
 A method of teacher training/ teaching technique.
 Simplifies the complex teaching process so that the student-teacher can cope with it.
 Scaled Down Teaching Encounter.
 Teaching reduced in Class size, Concept, time and number of pupils.
Definition:
“Teaching of a small unit of content to the small group of students (6-10 numbers) in a small amount
of time (5-10 min.) To train inexperience student-teachers for acquiring teaching skills. To improve
the skills of experience teachers.”
OR
“Microteaching is a technique for, improvement of skills preferably by self-practice and self-criticism.
Remember that it is not at all a teaching method, rather than, it is a device for skill practice, it has been
borrowed from Sports and Medical Sciences.”
Charteristics:
1) Duration of teaching as well as number of students is less.
2) Content is divided into smaller units.
3) Only one teaching skill is considered at a time.
Activities.Students
Teachers
4) Provision of immediate feedback.
5) In micro teaching cycle, there is facility of re-planning, re-teaching and re-evaluation.
6) It puts the teacher under the microscope
7) All the faults of the teacher are observed.
8) The problem of discipline can also be controlled.
Comparison of Microteaching and Traditional teaching Method:
Microteaching Method Traditional Method
1. Class consists of 40 to 60 students. 1. Class consists of a small group of 6 to
10 students.
2. The teacher practices several skills at
a time.
2. The teacher takes up one skill at a
time.
3. The duration is 40 to 45 minutes. 3. Duration of time for teaching is 5 to 7
minutes
4. Immediate feed-back is not available. 4. There is immediate feed-back.
5. There is no control over situation. 5. Teaching is carried on under
controlled situation.
6. The role of the supervisor is vague. 6. The role of the supervisor is specific
and well defined to improve teaching.
7. Pattern of classroom interaction
cannot be studied.
7. Pattern of classroom interaction can
be studied objectively.
Microteaching Cycle:
Skills of Micro teaching Techniques:
 Introduction Skill
 Skill of Probing Questions
 Skill of Explanation
 Skill of Stimulus Variation
 Skill of Black-board Writing
 Skill of Achieving Closure
1. Introduction Skill:
o Establishing rapports with the learners
o Linking with past experiences
o link between introduction and main parts
o Use of appropriate devices/ techniques like questioning, examples, etc.
2. Skill of Probing Question:
o Probing questions are those which help the pupils to think in depth about the various aspects of the
problem.
o By asking such questions again, the teacher makes the pupils more thoughtful.
o Enable the pupils to understand the subject deeply.
3. Skill of Explanation:
It involves the ability of a teacher to describe logically „How‟, „Why‟ and „What‟ of
concept.
Precautions for skill of Explaining:
o In simple language.
o Should not be given the shape of an advice.
o Should be in a sequence.
o Should be according to the age, experience and mental level of the pupils.
4. Skill of Stimulus Variation:
o Teacher movement
o Teacher gestures
o Change in voice
o Focusing
o Change in the interaction pattern
o Pausing
o Student‟s physical participation
5. Skill of Black-board Writing:
Components of the skill of blackboard writing are:
o Legibility
o Size and alignment
o Highlighting main points
o Utilization of the space
o Blackboard summary
o Correctness
o Position of the teacher and
o Contact with the pupils.
6. Skill of Achieving Closure:
o Questions and statements by the teacher related to the consolidation of the major points covered
during the lesson
o Opportunities provided by the teacher to the pupils for linking the present knowledge with the past
knowledge.
o Opportunities provided by the teacher to the pupils for applying the knowledge gained during the
lesson to the new situations.
Feedback in Micro teaching:
o Helpful information or criticism that is given to someone to say what can be done to improve a
performance, product etc.
o The success of micro teaching depends on feedback.
o It is used in various forms in case of micro teaching by the supervisor, video-tape, films, T.V., which
are various sources of feedback.
Advantages of Microteaching:
1. It focuses on sharpening and developing specific teaching skills and
eliminating errors.
2. It enables understanding of behaviors important in class-room teaching.
3. It increases the confidence of the learner teacher.
4. It is a vehicle of continuous training for both beginners and for senior
teachers.
5. It provides experts supervision and constructive feedback.
6. It is a useful innovation in teacher education.
7. It develops greater awareness of individual differences.
8. It helps the teacher trainee of many problems such as indiscipline and anxiety.
9. It helps the teacher to prepare in better way.
10. It helps to reduce strain on practicing school.
11. The same unit again.
Disadvantages of Microteaching:
1. It fails of provide necessary training to teacher to teach in a normal class-room.
2. Limited number of students fails to arouse interest in teaching.
3. It is only of a limited application.
4. They require more time for planning.
5. Some-times it becomes difficult for the teacher to divide a bigger unit into smaller units.
6. Many times it creates administrative difficulties.
7. It hampers the class-room climate.
8. It is an artificial situation.
9. It requires the supervisors to be more critical.
10. It requires insightful supervisors.
Simulation Method of Teaching
History:
 World War II
o “Monte Carlo” simulation: originated with the work on the atomic bomb. Used to simulate
bombing raids. Given the security code name “Monte-Carlo”.
o Still widely used today for certain problems which are not analytically solvable (for example:
complex multiple integrals…)
 Late „50s, early „60s
o Computers improve
o First languages introduced: SIMSCRIPT, GPSS (IBM)
o Simulation viewed at the tool of “last resort”
 Late „60s, early „70s
o Primary computers were mainframes: accessibility and interaction was limited
o GASP IV introduced by Pritsker. Triggered a wave of diverse applications. Significant in the
evolution of simulation.
 Late „70s, early „80s
o SLAM introduced in 1979 by Pritsker and Pegden.
o Models more credible because of sophisticated tools.
o SIMAN introduced in 1982 by Pegden. First language to run on both a mainframe as well as a
microcomputer.
 Late „80s through present
o Powerful PCs
o Languages are very sophisticated (market almost saturated)
o Major advancement: graphics. Models can now be animated.
Introduction:
Simulation is a particular type of modeling. Building a model is a well-recognized way of understanding the
world; it is a simplification of some structure or a system. On the other hand, it can be a prediction, a
substitute for experiential learning, or simply for entertainment. Here, we must mention the major difference
between simulation and experimentation – in simulation one is experimenting with a model and not with a
phenomenon. In our modern world we sometimes don‟t have the time to deal with a phenomenon, thus new
technologies
Have brought us models which complete Aristotle’s saying:
“The things we have to learn before we do them, we learn by doing them.”
Definition:
“Simulation is the process of designing a model of a real system and conducting experiments with this
model for the purpose of either understanding the behavior of the system and/or evaluating various strategies
for the operation of the system.”
Charteristics:
 COMPUTER SYSTEMS: hardware components, software systems, networks, data base
management, information processing, etc.
 MANUFACTURING: material handling systems, assembly lines, automated production facilities,
inventory control systems, plant layout, etc.
 BUSINESS: stock and commodity analysis, pricing policies, marketing strategies, cash flow
analysis, forecasting, etc.
 GOVERNMENT: military weapons and their use, military tactics, population forecasting, land use,
health care delivery, fire protection, criminal justice, traffic control, etc.
 CRUISE LINE OPERATION: Simulate the arrival and check-in process at the dock. Discovered
the process they had in mind would can in delays before getting on the ship.
 PRIVATE ISLAND ARRIVAL: How to transport passengers to the beach area? Drop-off point
far from beach. Used simulation to determine whether to invest in trams, how many trams to
purchase, average transport and waiting times, etc.
 BUS MAINTENANCE FACILITY: Investigated “best” way of scheduling preventative
maintenance trips.
 ALIEN ENCOUNTER ATTRACTION: Visitors move through three areas. Encountered major
variability when ride opened due to load and unload times (therefore, visitors waiting long periods
before getting on the ride). Used simulation to determine the length of the individual shows so as to
avoid bottlenecks.
Advantages:
o Can be used to study existing systems without disrupting the ongoing operations.
o Proposed systems can be “tested” before committing resources.
o Allows us to control time.
o Allows us to identify bottlenecks.
o Allows us to gain insight into which variables are most important to system performance.
o Simulations concentrate on learning the process of problem more readily than other techniques.
o Because they simulate real life situations, learning is more readily generalized from the classroom to
the real world.
o Simulations can be very effective in developing student‟s attitudes, especially self-confidence and a
questioning approach.
Disadvantages:
o Model building is an art as well as a science. The quality of the analysis
depends on the quality of the model and the skill of the modeler.
o Simulation results are sometimes hard to interpret.
o Simulation analysis can be time consuming and expensive. Should not be used when an
analytical method would provide for quicker results.
o Simulations are time consuming to design and execute.
o The instructor does not have must control over which way a class period goes once the
simulation to precede so the instructor must be prepared to handle a variety of circumstances.
Programed Instruction
Introduction:
Learning begins at birth and ends at death; learning is an intervening variable between something that
happens in the world and the subsequent behavior of the learner. The concept of instructional design started
during and immediately following the World War II by the military training command, the psychologists
was revealing important new information about how human learning takes place, including the importance
of specifying details of a task to be learned or performed.
In the early 1950 much interest was being shown in educational applications of the learning theory known as
behaviorism. B.F. skinner, the psychologist, developed a stimulus –response (S-R) model based on the
principle that learning takes place through a series of small steps in which the learner must actively
participate. The theoretical view of learning proposed by skinner and it is applications through programmed
instruction have most influential for the emergence of the instructional design process.
Definition:
“It‟s a procedure for identifying the instructional process to increase learning and improve performance”
(Kemp, 1985)
“A programmed instruction is a method of self-instruction that enlists machines or specially prepared books
to teach information”
(Chris Jordan)
Charteristics:
o Programmed instruction usually provides a systematic means of stimulus and immediate
reinforcement. It has been proposed by some that the three essential features for effective
programmed instruction are:
- An ordered sequence of items for which the student should respond.
- The student‟s response.
- Provision for immediate response confirmation.
o The subject matter is broken down in to small steps called frames and arranged sequentially.
o Frequent response of the student is required.
o There is an immediate confirmation of the right answers given by the learners.
o The content and the sequence of the frames are subjected to actual try out by students and revised on
the basis of data gathered by the programmer.
o Each student progresses at his own pace without any threat of being exposed to any humiliation in a
heterogeneous class.
o The assumption about the learner is clearly stated in the programmed learning materials.
o The objectives underlying programming instructions are defined explicitly and in operational terms
so that the terminal behavior is made observable and measureable.
o The interaction between the learner and the programmer is emphasized in
o Continuous evaluation is possible by recording the student‟s response.
o The strategy provides sufficient situations for teaching the students to discriminate between ranges of
possibilities and reduce generalization.
Advantages:
o Students can proceed at their own pace and at time convenient to them. A slow
learner is not embarrassed.
o This offers a method of teaching project leaders and others in local communities.
o Those who setup programmed instruction units may be motivated to plan their efforts
more deliberately and more thoroughly than with traditional teaching.
o It may be less complicated to keep materials in current Programmed Instruction unit
than it is to update in a textbook.
o Programmed Materials can be prepared for and adapted to fit almost any local situation related to
nationality, economic or cultural variations in a community.
o Material can be exchanged from country to country and from state to state, giving flexibility and
variety to extension.
Disadvantages:
o It is difficult to develop an instructional programme.
o Only cognitive objectives can be achieved.
o Due to tight schedule of time table, students cannot be left to learn at their own
pace. It would be very difficult to learn the content the subject matter in a limited
period of time.
o There is no chance for students creativity, there response are highly structured.
o Development of programme is not economical in terms of cost and time.
o In absence of the teacher, students may spoil the disciplinary tone of the class, or they will be
helpless when any problem arises.
o It cannot be applied at primary level of education or at higher education.
Background:
 It is an approach to the teaching learning process whose effectiveness is universally recognized and
accepted.
 It is a teaching methodology that is to be used for a specific purpose and an identified client.
 It is the answer to the perennial quest for a “tailor-planned” mode of instruction.
 Sometimes termed programmed instruction if the teaching material follows a “programmed” style of
presentation.
Definition:
“It is a method of instruction in which content, instructional technology (such as materials) and pace of
learning are based upon the abilities and interests of each individual learner.”
Charteristics:
o The student must have sophomore standing.
o A minimum of a GPA of 2.5
o Internships must justify academic credit. An internship must be a learning alternative to the
classroom, not just work.
o Retroactive credit is not possible, and will not be applied.
o The completed AFII (Application for Individualized Instruction) should be submitted to the
Academic Services Office prior to registration for the semester in which it is to occur.
o All individualized instruction experiences shall be for at least one credit, and no single experience –
independent study, directed study or internship-may exceed six (6) credit hours without the approval
of the Vice President of Academic Affairs.
o No more than 15 hours of Individualized Instruction shall be applied toward graduation.
o Internships must be the student‟s major or minor, with the exception of one three-hour exploratory
internship which may be taken outside the student‟s major or minor.
o Volunteer/community service that satisfies requirements for scholarship funds cannot be considered
individualized instruction or internships.
o Waiver of any of the above requirements is the discretion of the Vice President of Academic Affairs.
Advantages:
o Students have the constant attention of the teacher so they can listen to and speak
more English than they might in a group situation.
o Students can contribute to classes more and feel part of the learning process by
bringing material like books, songs, articles from local newspapers to class.
o Their strengths and weaknesses are addressed more consistently and fully without the competition of
other students for the teacher‟s time.
o They can become better learners through learner training with their teacher.
o There are less time constraints so they can go at their own pace and not feel pressured by the
progress of other students.
o According to the Natural Method, as suggested by Stephen Krashen, learners acquire language best
through the modified input of the teacher. This means that the teacher adapts their language to the
level of the student and in one-to-one classes the amount and type of input can be maximized by the
teacher to benefit the student.
Disadvantages:
o There is a similar potential for exhaustion as they too can be in constant
interaction in an unnatural way with the teacher.
o It can be difficult to measure progress without other students to compare with and
the possible lack of a syllabus.
o There can be a lack of individual study time. They might not have the same “sink
in time” as they would have in a group. This can go against the acquisition of
language, especially if teachers don‟t give enough restricted practice (Scrivener, 1987) of new
language and students don‟t absorb the language as effectively as they would if they had more time
to reflect and process input in a class where the teacher might be more comfortable with silent
periods.
o The lesson format can become monotonous if a teacher lacks the confidence to experiment with
change of pace and type of activity. They might assume a student would not be open to activities
such as dictation, songs, moving around the class, chants, drilling, etc.
Computer Assisted Method of Teaching
Introduction:
 Computer based instruction (CBI) is defined as the use of the computer in the delivery of instruction.
 Other similar terms include computer based training (CBT), computer assisted instruction (CAI), and
computer assisted learning (CAL).
 CBI is the oldest form of computer use in education; when most people think of computer
applications in education, they think of CBI first.
Definition:
“It is an approach to teaching and learning in which computer technology is used as an aid to the
presentation, reinforcement and assessment of material to be learned, usually including a substantial
interactive element.”
Charteristics:
 Promoting interactive learning:
o Presenting interactive learning material in text and/or multimedia format.
o Facilitating interactive learning activities by utilising videoconferencing facilities.
o Facilitating interaction with peers and experts in virtual reality.
 Promoting educational management:
o Establishing electronic databases for diagnosing learning needs and problems.
o Providing for automated learning assessment and remedial activities.
 Providing additional learning opportunities:
o Providing supplementary electronic learning material in addition to the traditional textbook.
o Facilitating information searches by using the Internet.
Common Categories of CBI:
 Drill and Practice
 Tutorial
 Simulation
 Instructional Game
 Problem-Solving
 Other
Drill and Practice:
o Exercises designed to increase fluency in a new skill or body of knowledge or to refresh an existing
skill or body of knowledge.
o This approach assumes that the learners have previously been introduced to the content.
o Traditionally associated with basic skills in topics such :
 Mathematics
 Language arts
 Terminology
o Good programs provide user control, give feedback and reinforcement, and help learners master
skills.
o Good for basic skills/knowledge where rapid student response is desired.
o Usually best to use in a series of brief sessions.
o Mainly intended for use by individuals.
o Should be geared to a level appropriate for the students.
Tutorial:
o A form of CBI in which the computer assumes the role of a tutor -- introducing content,
providing practice, and assessing learning.
o Tutorials are used to introduce new content to learners in much the same manner that a human
teacher might.
o Because tutorials present content to students, they can be used in any area of the curriculum for:
 remediation when learners lack necessary background knowledge.
 enrichment when learners wish to go beyond the basics.
 introduction of content to all learners (freeing the instructor to do other things).
o Good for verbal and conceptual learning.
o May require significant investment of students‟ time.
o Can be effectively used by individuals or groups of 2-3 students.
o Should be followed by opportunities for student application of knowledge.
Simulation:
o A form of CBI that provides a simplified representation of a real situation, phenomenon, or
process.
o Provides the opportunity for students to apply knowledge in a realistic format but without the
time, expense, or risk associated with the real thing.
o One of the best ways to use CBI in the sciences and other subject areas; simulation makes good
use of what the computer does well.
o Simulations can mimic physical objects or phenomena, processes, procedures, and situations.
o Best used for application of knowledge, problem solving, and thinking skills.
o Time involvement may be brief or extended depending on the simulation.
o Good for small groups of students, although can be used by individuals.
o Often requires guidance and follow-up for effective use.
Instructional Game:
o Usually another type of CBI (e.g., drill and practice or simulation) modified to include gaming
elements.
o Generally features
 an end goal and rules of play.
 sensory appeal.
 motivational elements (e.g., competition, cooperation, challenge, fantasy).
o Examples of this type of CBI are found throughout education. Usually, they are aimed at younger
learners such as those in the elementary grades.
o Games can substitute for worksheets and exercises, as a reward, or, in some cases, to foster
cooperation.
Problem Solving:
o CBI program that is designed to foster thinking or problem solving skills, but does not fit into one of
the other categories.
o Usually focuses on a specific type of problem solving and provides practice on a number or variety
of problems.
o Problem solving applications sometimes focus on specific topics areas (e.g., mathematics, science)
and sometimes they are designed to promote general problem-solving abilities (e.g., pattern
recognition, prediction).
Advantages of CBI:
o Interactive.
o Provides immediate feedback.
o Infinitely patient.
o Motivates learners.
o Provides consistency in presentation.
o Can adjust difficulty to level of learner.
o Able to branch to provide appropriate content presentation to the learner.
o Can present concepts or processes dynamically and using multiple forms of representation.
o Can maintain records of student performance.
o Frees the instructor to do other things.
Disadvantages of CBI:
o Equipment and software can be costly.
o Development takes time and money.
o Not all learning outcomes are well addressed by CBI.
o Unsophisticated applications may not make good use of the computer.
o Simple CBI has limited modalities (but multimedia is changing that).
o The need for teachers and training directors to move from accepted methods that work to a new and
relatively untried method.
o The diversity of computing hardware and CAL languages compete with little apparent coordination
from professionals in the educational world.
o The cost of hardware, CAL course materials (courseware), and individuals to help implement the
process.
Comparison of Innovative Teaching methods:
SrNo. Methods Definition Advantages Disadvantages
1. Microteaching Teaching of a small unit of
content to the small group of
students in a small amount of
time To train inexperience
student-teachers for acquiring
teaching skills. To improve the
skills of experience teachers.
It increases the
confidence of the
learner teacher.
It fails of provide necessary
training to teacher to teach in
a normal class-room.
2. Simulation Simulation is the process of
designing a model of a real
system and conducting
experiments with this model for
the purpose of either
understanding the behavior of the
system and/or evaluating various
strategies for the operation of the
system.
Can be used to study
existing systems
without disrupting
the ongoing
operations.
Simulation analysis can be
time consuming and
expensive. Should not be
used when an analytical
method would provide for
quicker results.
3. Programmed
Instruction
It‟s a procedure for identifying
the instructional process to
increase learning and improve
performance
This offers a method
of teaching project
leaders and others in
local communities.
There is no chance for
students creativity, there
response are highly
structured.
4. Indiviulized
Inatruction
It is a method of instruction in
which content,
instructional technology (such as
materials) and pace of learning
are based upon the abilities and
interests of
each individual learner.
There are less time
constraints so they
can go at their own
pace and not feel
pressured by the
progress of other
students.
There is a similar potential
for exhaustion as they too can
be in constant interaction in
an unnatural way with the
teacher.
5. Computer Assisted
Instruction
It is an approach to teaching and
learning in which computer
technology is used as an aid to the
presentation, reinforcement and
assessment of material to be
learned, usually including a
substantial interactive element
Can present concepts
or processes
dynamically and
using multiple forms
of representation.
The need for teachers and
training directors to move
from accepted methods that
work to a new and relatively
untried method.
Innovative method of teaching

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Innovative method of teaching

  • 1. INNOVATIVE METHOD OF TEACHING Introduction: Education is a light that shows the mankind the right direction to surge. The purpose of education is not just making a student literate but adds rationale thinking, knowledge ability and self-sufficiency. When there is a willingness to change, there is hope for progress in any field. Creativity can be developed and innovation benefits both students and teachers. Importance of Education: Islam attaches such great importance to knowledge and education. When the Quran began to be revealed, the first word of its first verse was 'Iqra' that is, read. Education is thus the starting point of every human activity. A scholar is accorded great respect in the hadith. According to a hadith the ink of the pen of a scholar is more precious than the blood of a martyr. The reason being that martyr is engaged in defense work while a Scholar builds individuals and nations along positive lines. In this way he bestows a real life to the world. “Education is the manifestation of perfection already in man” (Swami Vivekananda) Methodology: The traditional or innovative methods of teaching are critically examined, evaluated and some modifications in the delivery of knowledge are suggested. As such, the strengths and weaknesses of each teaching methodology are identified and probable modifications that can be included in traditional methods are suggested. Definition: “Innovative teaching is a proactive approach to integrate new teaching strategies and methods into a classroom.” Innovative tools:  I hear and I forget.  I see and I believe.  I do and I understand. (Confucius) Ideas of Innovative Teachers:  Simple exercises for improving empathy  Dilemmas, decision making  Joint decisions  Developing a set  Dramatization of well-known stories  Situation games  Simulation  Tableau/Group of photographs
  • 2.  Trial  Dispute Effective Innovative Teaching Process: Types of Innovative Teaching Methods:  Micro-Teaching Method.  Stimulation Teaching Method.  Programed Instruction Teaching Method.  Individualized Instruction Teaching Method  Computer Assisted Teaching method. Micro Teaching Introduction:  A method of teacher training/ teaching technique.  Simplifies the complex teaching process so that the student-teacher can cope with it.  Scaled Down Teaching Encounter.  Teaching reduced in Class size, Concept, time and number of pupils. Definition: “Teaching of a small unit of content to the small group of students (6-10 numbers) in a small amount of time (5-10 min.) To train inexperience student-teachers for acquiring teaching skills. To improve the skills of experience teachers.” OR “Microteaching is a technique for, improvement of skills preferably by self-practice and self-criticism. Remember that it is not at all a teaching method, rather than, it is a device for skill practice, it has been borrowed from Sports and Medical Sciences.” Charteristics: 1) Duration of teaching as well as number of students is less. 2) Content is divided into smaller units. 3) Only one teaching skill is considered at a time. Activities.Students Teachers
  • 3. 4) Provision of immediate feedback. 5) In micro teaching cycle, there is facility of re-planning, re-teaching and re-evaluation. 6) It puts the teacher under the microscope 7) All the faults of the teacher are observed. 8) The problem of discipline can also be controlled. Comparison of Microteaching and Traditional teaching Method: Microteaching Method Traditional Method 1. Class consists of 40 to 60 students. 1. Class consists of a small group of 6 to 10 students. 2. The teacher practices several skills at a time. 2. The teacher takes up one skill at a time. 3. The duration is 40 to 45 minutes. 3. Duration of time for teaching is 5 to 7 minutes 4. Immediate feed-back is not available. 4. There is immediate feed-back. 5. There is no control over situation. 5. Teaching is carried on under controlled situation. 6. The role of the supervisor is vague. 6. The role of the supervisor is specific and well defined to improve teaching. 7. Pattern of classroom interaction cannot be studied. 7. Pattern of classroom interaction can be studied objectively. Microteaching Cycle:
  • 4. Skills of Micro teaching Techniques:  Introduction Skill  Skill of Probing Questions  Skill of Explanation  Skill of Stimulus Variation  Skill of Black-board Writing  Skill of Achieving Closure 1. Introduction Skill: o Establishing rapports with the learners o Linking with past experiences o link between introduction and main parts o Use of appropriate devices/ techniques like questioning, examples, etc. 2. Skill of Probing Question: o Probing questions are those which help the pupils to think in depth about the various aspects of the problem. o By asking such questions again, the teacher makes the pupils more thoughtful. o Enable the pupils to understand the subject deeply. 3. Skill of Explanation: It involves the ability of a teacher to describe logically „How‟, „Why‟ and „What‟ of concept. Precautions for skill of Explaining: o In simple language. o Should not be given the shape of an advice. o Should be in a sequence. o Should be according to the age, experience and mental level of the pupils. 4. Skill of Stimulus Variation: o Teacher movement o Teacher gestures o Change in voice o Focusing o Change in the interaction pattern o Pausing o Student‟s physical participation 5. Skill of Black-board Writing: Components of the skill of blackboard writing are: o Legibility o Size and alignment
  • 5. o Highlighting main points o Utilization of the space o Blackboard summary o Correctness o Position of the teacher and o Contact with the pupils. 6. Skill of Achieving Closure: o Questions and statements by the teacher related to the consolidation of the major points covered during the lesson o Opportunities provided by the teacher to the pupils for linking the present knowledge with the past knowledge. o Opportunities provided by the teacher to the pupils for applying the knowledge gained during the lesson to the new situations. Feedback in Micro teaching: o Helpful information or criticism that is given to someone to say what can be done to improve a performance, product etc. o The success of micro teaching depends on feedback. o It is used in various forms in case of micro teaching by the supervisor, video-tape, films, T.V., which are various sources of feedback. Advantages of Microteaching: 1. It focuses on sharpening and developing specific teaching skills and eliminating errors. 2. It enables understanding of behaviors important in class-room teaching. 3. It increases the confidence of the learner teacher. 4. It is a vehicle of continuous training for both beginners and for senior teachers. 5. It provides experts supervision and constructive feedback. 6. It is a useful innovation in teacher education. 7. It develops greater awareness of individual differences. 8. It helps the teacher trainee of many problems such as indiscipline and anxiety. 9. It helps the teacher to prepare in better way. 10. It helps to reduce strain on practicing school. 11. The same unit again.
  • 6. Disadvantages of Microteaching: 1. It fails of provide necessary training to teacher to teach in a normal class-room. 2. Limited number of students fails to arouse interest in teaching. 3. It is only of a limited application. 4. They require more time for planning. 5. Some-times it becomes difficult for the teacher to divide a bigger unit into smaller units. 6. Many times it creates administrative difficulties. 7. It hampers the class-room climate. 8. It is an artificial situation. 9. It requires the supervisors to be more critical. 10. It requires insightful supervisors. Simulation Method of Teaching History:  World War II o “Monte Carlo” simulation: originated with the work on the atomic bomb. Used to simulate bombing raids. Given the security code name “Monte-Carlo”. o Still widely used today for certain problems which are not analytically solvable (for example: complex multiple integrals…)  Late „50s, early „60s o Computers improve o First languages introduced: SIMSCRIPT, GPSS (IBM) o Simulation viewed at the tool of “last resort”  Late „60s, early „70s o Primary computers were mainframes: accessibility and interaction was limited o GASP IV introduced by Pritsker. Triggered a wave of diverse applications. Significant in the evolution of simulation.  Late „70s, early „80s o SLAM introduced in 1979 by Pritsker and Pegden. o Models more credible because of sophisticated tools. o SIMAN introduced in 1982 by Pegden. First language to run on both a mainframe as well as a microcomputer.
  • 7.  Late „80s through present o Powerful PCs o Languages are very sophisticated (market almost saturated) o Major advancement: graphics. Models can now be animated. Introduction: Simulation is a particular type of modeling. Building a model is a well-recognized way of understanding the world; it is a simplification of some structure or a system. On the other hand, it can be a prediction, a substitute for experiential learning, or simply for entertainment. Here, we must mention the major difference between simulation and experimentation – in simulation one is experimenting with a model and not with a phenomenon. In our modern world we sometimes don‟t have the time to deal with a phenomenon, thus new technologies Have brought us models which complete Aristotle’s saying: “The things we have to learn before we do them, we learn by doing them.” Definition: “Simulation is the process of designing a model of a real system and conducting experiments with this model for the purpose of either understanding the behavior of the system and/or evaluating various strategies for the operation of the system.” Charteristics:  COMPUTER SYSTEMS: hardware components, software systems, networks, data base management, information processing, etc.  MANUFACTURING: material handling systems, assembly lines, automated production facilities, inventory control systems, plant layout, etc.  BUSINESS: stock and commodity analysis, pricing policies, marketing strategies, cash flow analysis, forecasting, etc.  GOVERNMENT: military weapons and their use, military tactics, population forecasting, land use, health care delivery, fire protection, criminal justice, traffic control, etc.  CRUISE LINE OPERATION: Simulate the arrival and check-in process at the dock. Discovered the process they had in mind would can in delays before getting on the ship.  PRIVATE ISLAND ARRIVAL: How to transport passengers to the beach area? Drop-off point far from beach. Used simulation to determine whether to invest in trams, how many trams to purchase, average transport and waiting times, etc.  BUS MAINTENANCE FACILITY: Investigated “best” way of scheduling preventative maintenance trips.  ALIEN ENCOUNTER ATTRACTION: Visitors move through three areas. Encountered major variability when ride opened due to load and unload times (therefore, visitors waiting long periods before getting on the ride). Used simulation to determine the length of the individual shows so as to avoid bottlenecks. Advantages: o Can be used to study existing systems without disrupting the ongoing operations.
  • 8. o Proposed systems can be “tested” before committing resources. o Allows us to control time. o Allows us to identify bottlenecks. o Allows us to gain insight into which variables are most important to system performance. o Simulations concentrate on learning the process of problem more readily than other techniques. o Because they simulate real life situations, learning is more readily generalized from the classroom to the real world. o Simulations can be very effective in developing student‟s attitudes, especially self-confidence and a questioning approach. Disadvantages: o Model building is an art as well as a science. The quality of the analysis depends on the quality of the model and the skill of the modeler. o Simulation results are sometimes hard to interpret. o Simulation analysis can be time consuming and expensive. Should not be used when an analytical method would provide for quicker results. o Simulations are time consuming to design and execute. o The instructor does not have must control over which way a class period goes once the simulation to precede so the instructor must be prepared to handle a variety of circumstances. Programed Instruction Introduction: Learning begins at birth and ends at death; learning is an intervening variable between something that happens in the world and the subsequent behavior of the learner. The concept of instructional design started during and immediately following the World War II by the military training command, the psychologists was revealing important new information about how human learning takes place, including the importance of specifying details of a task to be learned or performed. In the early 1950 much interest was being shown in educational applications of the learning theory known as behaviorism. B.F. skinner, the psychologist, developed a stimulus –response (S-R) model based on the principle that learning takes place through a series of small steps in which the learner must actively participate. The theoretical view of learning proposed by skinner and it is applications through programmed instruction have most influential for the emergence of the instructional design process. Definition: “It‟s a procedure for identifying the instructional process to increase learning and improve performance” (Kemp, 1985) “A programmed instruction is a method of self-instruction that enlists machines or specially prepared books to teach information” (Chris Jordan)
  • 9. Charteristics: o Programmed instruction usually provides a systematic means of stimulus and immediate reinforcement. It has been proposed by some that the three essential features for effective programmed instruction are: - An ordered sequence of items for which the student should respond. - The student‟s response. - Provision for immediate response confirmation. o The subject matter is broken down in to small steps called frames and arranged sequentially. o Frequent response of the student is required. o There is an immediate confirmation of the right answers given by the learners. o The content and the sequence of the frames are subjected to actual try out by students and revised on the basis of data gathered by the programmer. o Each student progresses at his own pace without any threat of being exposed to any humiliation in a heterogeneous class. o The assumption about the learner is clearly stated in the programmed learning materials. o The objectives underlying programming instructions are defined explicitly and in operational terms so that the terminal behavior is made observable and measureable. o The interaction between the learner and the programmer is emphasized in o Continuous evaluation is possible by recording the student‟s response. o The strategy provides sufficient situations for teaching the students to discriminate between ranges of possibilities and reduce generalization. Advantages: o Students can proceed at their own pace and at time convenient to them. A slow learner is not embarrassed. o This offers a method of teaching project leaders and others in local communities. o Those who setup programmed instruction units may be motivated to plan their efforts more deliberately and more thoroughly than with traditional teaching. o It may be less complicated to keep materials in current Programmed Instruction unit than it is to update in a textbook. o Programmed Materials can be prepared for and adapted to fit almost any local situation related to nationality, economic or cultural variations in a community. o Material can be exchanged from country to country and from state to state, giving flexibility and variety to extension. Disadvantages: o It is difficult to develop an instructional programme. o Only cognitive objectives can be achieved. o Due to tight schedule of time table, students cannot be left to learn at their own pace. It would be very difficult to learn the content the subject matter in a limited period of time. o There is no chance for students creativity, there response are highly structured. o Development of programme is not economical in terms of cost and time.
  • 10. o In absence of the teacher, students may spoil the disciplinary tone of the class, or they will be helpless when any problem arises. o It cannot be applied at primary level of education or at higher education. Background:  It is an approach to the teaching learning process whose effectiveness is universally recognized and accepted.  It is a teaching methodology that is to be used for a specific purpose and an identified client.  It is the answer to the perennial quest for a “tailor-planned” mode of instruction.  Sometimes termed programmed instruction if the teaching material follows a “programmed” style of presentation. Definition: “It is a method of instruction in which content, instructional technology (such as materials) and pace of learning are based upon the abilities and interests of each individual learner.” Charteristics: o The student must have sophomore standing. o A minimum of a GPA of 2.5 o Internships must justify academic credit. An internship must be a learning alternative to the classroom, not just work. o Retroactive credit is not possible, and will not be applied. o The completed AFII (Application for Individualized Instruction) should be submitted to the Academic Services Office prior to registration for the semester in which it is to occur. o All individualized instruction experiences shall be for at least one credit, and no single experience – independent study, directed study or internship-may exceed six (6) credit hours without the approval of the Vice President of Academic Affairs. o No more than 15 hours of Individualized Instruction shall be applied toward graduation. o Internships must be the student‟s major or minor, with the exception of one three-hour exploratory internship which may be taken outside the student‟s major or minor. o Volunteer/community service that satisfies requirements for scholarship funds cannot be considered individualized instruction or internships. o Waiver of any of the above requirements is the discretion of the Vice President of Academic Affairs. Advantages: o Students have the constant attention of the teacher so they can listen to and speak more English than they might in a group situation. o Students can contribute to classes more and feel part of the learning process by bringing material like books, songs, articles from local newspapers to class.
  • 11. o Their strengths and weaknesses are addressed more consistently and fully without the competition of other students for the teacher‟s time. o They can become better learners through learner training with their teacher. o There are less time constraints so they can go at their own pace and not feel pressured by the progress of other students. o According to the Natural Method, as suggested by Stephen Krashen, learners acquire language best through the modified input of the teacher. This means that the teacher adapts their language to the level of the student and in one-to-one classes the amount and type of input can be maximized by the teacher to benefit the student. Disadvantages: o There is a similar potential for exhaustion as they too can be in constant interaction in an unnatural way with the teacher. o It can be difficult to measure progress without other students to compare with and the possible lack of a syllabus. o There can be a lack of individual study time. They might not have the same “sink in time” as they would have in a group. This can go against the acquisition of language, especially if teachers don‟t give enough restricted practice (Scrivener, 1987) of new language and students don‟t absorb the language as effectively as they would if they had more time to reflect and process input in a class where the teacher might be more comfortable with silent periods. o The lesson format can become monotonous if a teacher lacks the confidence to experiment with change of pace and type of activity. They might assume a student would not be open to activities such as dictation, songs, moving around the class, chants, drilling, etc. Computer Assisted Method of Teaching Introduction:  Computer based instruction (CBI) is defined as the use of the computer in the delivery of instruction.  Other similar terms include computer based training (CBT), computer assisted instruction (CAI), and computer assisted learning (CAL).  CBI is the oldest form of computer use in education; when most people think of computer applications in education, they think of CBI first. Definition: “It is an approach to teaching and learning in which computer technology is used as an aid to the presentation, reinforcement and assessment of material to be learned, usually including a substantial interactive element.” Charteristics:  Promoting interactive learning: o Presenting interactive learning material in text and/or multimedia format. o Facilitating interactive learning activities by utilising videoconferencing facilities. o Facilitating interaction with peers and experts in virtual reality.  Promoting educational management: o Establishing electronic databases for diagnosing learning needs and problems.
  • 12. o Providing for automated learning assessment and remedial activities.  Providing additional learning opportunities: o Providing supplementary electronic learning material in addition to the traditional textbook. o Facilitating information searches by using the Internet. Common Categories of CBI:  Drill and Practice  Tutorial  Simulation  Instructional Game  Problem-Solving  Other Drill and Practice: o Exercises designed to increase fluency in a new skill or body of knowledge or to refresh an existing skill or body of knowledge. o This approach assumes that the learners have previously been introduced to the content. o Traditionally associated with basic skills in topics such :  Mathematics  Language arts  Terminology o Good programs provide user control, give feedback and reinforcement, and help learners master skills. o Good for basic skills/knowledge where rapid student response is desired. o Usually best to use in a series of brief sessions. o Mainly intended for use by individuals. o Should be geared to a level appropriate for the students. Tutorial: o A form of CBI in which the computer assumes the role of a tutor -- introducing content, providing practice, and assessing learning. o Tutorials are used to introduce new content to learners in much the same manner that a human teacher might. o Because tutorials present content to students, they can be used in any area of the curriculum for:  remediation when learners lack necessary background knowledge.  enrichment when learners wish to go beyond the basics.  introduction of content to all learners (freeing the instructor to do other things).
  • 13. o Good for verbal and conceptual learning. o May require significant investment of students‟ time. o Can be effectively used by individuals or groups of 2-3 students. o Should be followed by opportunities for student application of knowledge. Simulation: o A form of CBI that provides a simplified representation of a real situation, phenomenon, or process. o Provides the opportunity for students to apply knowledge in a realistic format but without the time, expense, or risk associated with the real thing. o One of the best ways to use CBI in the sciences and other subject areas; simulation makes good use of what the computer does well. o Simulations can mimic physical objects or phenomena, processes, procedures, and situations. o Best used for application of knowledge, problem solving, and thinking skills. o Time involvement may be brief or extended depending on the simulation. o Good for small groups of students, although can be used by individuals. o Often requires guidance and follow-up for effective use. Instructional Game: o Usually another type of CBI (e.g., drill and practice or simulation) modified to include gaming elements. o Generally features  an end goal and rules of play.  sensory appeal.  motivational elements (e.g., competition, cooperation, challenge, fantasy). o Examples of this type of CBI are found throughout education. Usually, they are aimed at younger learners such as those in the elementary grades. o Games can substitute for worksheets and exercises, as a reward, or, in some cases, to foster cooperation. Problem Solving: o CBI program that is designed to foster thinking or problem solving skills, but does not fit into one of the other categories. o Usually focuses on a specific type of problem solving and provides practice on a number or variety of problems. o Problem solving applications sometimes focus on specific topics areas (e.g., mathematics, science) and sometimes they are designed to promote general problem-solving abilities (e.g., pattern recognition, prediction).
  • 14. Advantages of CBI: o Interactive. o Provides immediate feedback. o Infinitely patient. o Motivates learners. o Provides consistency in presentation. o Can adjust difficulty to level of learner. o Able to branch to provide appropriate content presentation to the learner. o Can present concepts or processes dynamically and using multiple forms of representation. o Can maintain records of student performance. o Frees the instructor to do other things. Disadvantages of CBI: o Equipment and software can be costly. o Development takes time and money. o Not all learning outcomes are well addressed by CBI. o Unsophisticated applications may not make good use of the computer. o Simple CBI has limited modalities (but multimedia is changing that). o The need for teachers and training directors to move from accepted methods that work to a new and relatively untried method. o The diversity of computing hardware and CAL languages compete with little apparent coordination from professionals in the educational world. o The cost of hardware, CAL course materials (courseware), and individuals to help implement the process. Comparison of Innovative Teaching methods: SrNo. Methods Definition Advantages Disadvantages 1. Microteaching Teaching of a small unit of content to the small group of students in a small amount of time To train inexperience student-teachers for acquiring teaching skills. To improve the skills of experience teachers. It increases the confidence of the learner teacher. It fails of provide necessary training to teacher to teach in a normal class-room.
  • 15. 2. Simulation Simulation is the process of designing a model of a real system and conducting experiments with this model for the purpose of either understanding the behavior of the system and/or evaluating various strategies for the operation of the system. Can be used to study existing systems without disrupting the ongoing operations. Simulation analysis can be time consuming and expensive. Should not be used when an analytical method would provide for quicker results. 3. Programmed Instruction It‟s a procedure for identifying the instructional process to increase learning and improve performance This offers a method of teaching project leaders and others in local communities. There is no chance for students creativity, there response are highly structured. 4. Indiviulized Inatruction It is a method of instruction in which content, instructional technology (such as materials) and pace of learning are based upon the abilities and interests of each individual learner. There are less time constraints so they can go at their own pace and not feel pressured by the progress of other students. There is a similar potential for exhaustion as they too can be in constant interaction in an unnatural way with the teacher. 5. Computer Assisted Instruction It is an approach to teaching and learning in which computer technology is used as an aid to the presentation, reinforcement and assessment of material to be learned, usually including a substantial interactive element Can present concepts or processes dynamically and using multiple forms of representation. The need for teachers and training directors to move from accepted methods that work to a new and relatively untried method.