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PSYCHOLOGY
WITH
ABHINAV GAUR KAPTAAN
Cambridge AS Level
Psychological Research
Methods
 Experiments
 Self Reports and Case Studies
 Observations and Correlations
 Research Process
 Ethical Considerations
 Evaluating Research
Contents
 The Independent Variable (IV) is the variable that is manipulated by the researcher to check
its effect on the dependent variable.
 The Dependent Variable (DV) is the variable being measured by the researcher.
 Experiments look for a causal relationship in which an independent variable is manipulated
to cause a change in the dependent variable.
Experiments
Experiments Types:
 Laboratory experiment : the experiment is conducted in an unnatural and controlled
environment. The IV is manipulated by the researcher.
 Field experiment : the experiment takes place in natural settings, and the IV is manipulated
by the researcher.
 Natural experiment : the experiment takes place in a natural setting and the IV is not
directly manipulated by the researcher. It happens naturally by chance.
 Quasi-experiment : the researcher has lots of control over the procedure, but not over the
allocation of participants.
Experiments
Abbreviated 'Participants' to 'Ps'.
 Experimental Design : how participants are allocated to the conditions of the study.
Experimental Design Types:
 Independent measures design : different groups of participants are used for each level of
the IV.
 Repeated measures design : each participant takes part in every condition of the study.
 Matched pairs design : participants are matched in pairs according to a characteristic they
have, that is similar.
Experiments
 Questionnaires : research method using written questions.
Question Types:
Close-ended (pre-set answer choices, quantitative data)
 Easier to analyse than interviews as it isn’t affected by researcher bias when calculating
results.
 Simple to summarise, and derive results, & conclusions from.
Open-ended (qualitative data)
 Produces in-depth and detailed responses.
 Difficult to quantify.
General Questionnaire Evaluations
 Easy for participants to ignore questions – low generalisability.
 When 2 researchers interpret results there may be a lack of inter-rater reliability.
Self Report
 Interviews : research method using verbal questions asked directly.
Interview Types:
 Structured (fixed questions)
 Unstructured (questions depend on the answer of the respondent)
 Semi-structured (fixed and unwritten questions).
Self Report
 Case Studies : are detailed investigations about a single person or a small group. The
maximum amount of qualitative and quantitative data is gathered.
 Observations : are detailed outcomes of what has been recorded over a period of
significant time.
Observation Types
 Naturalistic observation: participants' behaviour is observed in their natural environment
without it having any manipulations from the researcher.
 Controlled Observation: participants’ behaviour is observed in a setting that has been
manipulated by the researcher (maybe in the participants’ natural environment).
 Unstructured: researcher records all of the behaviours being exhibited by the subject.
 Structured: researcher records only the particular behaviour being studied.
Self Report
 A correlation is a statistical relationship that suggests the probability of a true relationship
between the IV and DV of the study. A correlational relationship is not necessarily a causal
relationship.
 To make sure whether a correlational relationship is causal, the two variables must be
investigated in a laboratory environment where extraneous variables are controlled.
Correlations
Variables Types
 Operationalisation: defining variables to accurately manipulate, measure, quantify, and
replicate.
 Pilot studies : are conducted to analyse the technical and financial risks and to assess the
feasibility of the study. Any plausible confounding variables are found and controlled to
ensure it does not affect the real trial.
 Standardised procedures : are important to ensure that all participants undergo the same
procedure. This helps to increase reliability and replicability.
Research Process
Sampling Participants
 Opportunity sampling : participants are chosen because they are available.
 Volunteer (self-selecting) sampling : participants are invited to participate. Those who reply
will be part of the sample.
 Random sampling : all participants are chosen randomly. Could be with a draw, or random
number generator.
Research Process
 Reliability : the consistency of the outcome.
 Validity : the extent to which the study measures what is intended to study.
 Ecological Validity : the extent to which the results of the study represent real-life
behaviour.
 Generalisability : the extent to which the results represent the behaviour of the target
population.
 Test-retest : a way to measure the consistency of a test. The test is used twice and if the
scores on both tests are similar, then it has good reliability.
 Demand Characteristics : when participants change their behaviour as they derive cues on
what is expected of them.
 Inter-rater reliability : the extent to which similar conclusions are produced by two
researchers interpreting the same qualitative responses.
 Inter-observer reliability : the extent to which similar observations are produced by two
researchers observing the same event.
Evaluating Research
THANK YOU
ABHINAV GAUR KAPTAAN
SUBSCRIBE ON YOUTUBE
https://www.youtube.com/@agkddn

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Research Methods in Psychology | Cambridge AS Level | Cambridge Assessment International Education

  • 1. PSYCHOLOGY WITH ABHINAV GAUR KAPTAAN Cambridge AS Level Psychological Research Methods
  • 2.  Experiments  Self Reports and Case Studies  Observations and Correlations  Research Process  Ethical Considerations  Evaluating Research Contents
  • 3.  The Independent Variable (IV) is the variable that is manipulated by the researcher to check its effect on the dependent variable.  The Dependent Variable (DV) is the variable being measured by the researcher.  Experiments look for a causal relationship in which an independent variable is manipulated to cause a change in the dependent variable. Experiments
  • 4. Experiments Types:  Laboratory experiment : the experiment is conducted in an unnatural and controlled environment. The IV is manipulated by the researcher.  Field experiment : the experiment takes place in natural settings, and the IV is manipulated by the researcher.  Natural experiment : the experiment takes place in a natural setting and the IV is not directly manipulated by the researcher. It happens naturally by chance.  Quasi-experiment : the researcher has lots of control over the procedure, but not over the allocation of participants. Experiments
  • 6.  Experimental Design : how participants are allocated to the conditions of the study. Experimental Design Types:  Independent measures design : different groups of participants are used for each level of the IV.  Repeated measures design : each participant takes part in every condition of the study.  Matched pairs design : participants are matched in pairs according to a characteristic they have, that is similar. Experiments
  • 7.
  • 8.  Questionnaires : research method using written questions. Question Types: Close-ended (pre-set answer choices, quantitative data)  Easier to analyse than interviews as it isn’t affected by researcher bias when calculating results.  Simple to summarise, and derive results, & conclusions from. Open-ended (qualitative data)  Produces in-depth and detailed responses.  Difficult to quantify. General Questionnaire Evaluations  Easy for participants to ignore questions – low generalisability.  When 2 researchers interpret results there may be a lack of inter-rater reliability. Self Report
  • 9.  Interviews : research method using verbal questions asked directly. Interview Types:  Structured (fixed questions)  Unstructured (questions depend on the answer of the respondent)  Semi-structured (fixed and unwritten questions). Self Report
  • 10.  Case Studies : are detailed investigations about a single person or a small group. The maximum amount of qualitative and quantitative data is gathered.  Observations : are detailed outcomes of what has been recorded over a period of significant time. Observation Types  Naturalistic observation: participants' behaviour is observed in their natural environment without it having any manipulations from the researcher.  Controlled Observation: participants’ behaviour is observed in a setting that has been manipulated by the researcher (maybe in the participants’ natural environment).  Unstructured: researcher records all of the behaviours being exhibited by the subject.  Structured: researcher records only the particular behaviour being studied. Self Report
  • 11.  A correlation is a statistical relationship that suggests the probability of a true relationship between the IV and DV of the study. A correlational relationship is not necessarily a causal relationship.  To make sure whether a correlational relationship is causal, the two variables must be investigated in a laboratory environment where extraneous variables are controlled. Correlations
  • 12. Variables Types  Operationalisation: defining variables to accurately manipulate, measure, quantify, and replicate.  Pilot studies : are conducted to analyse the technical and financial risks and to assess the feasibility of the study. Any plausible confounding variables are found and controlled to ensure it does not affect the real trial.  Standardised procedures : are important to ensure that all participants undergo the same procedure. This helps to increase reliability and replicability. Research Process
  • 13. Sampling Participants  Opportunity sampling : participants are chosen because they are available.  Volunteer (self-selecting) sampling : participants are invited to participate. Those who reply will be part of the sample.  Random sampling : all participants are chosen randomly. Could be with a draw, or random number generator. Research Process
  • 14.  Reliability : the consistency of the outcome.  Validity : the extent to which the study measures what is intended to study.  Ecological Validity : the extent to which the results of the study represent real-life behaviour.  Generalisability : the extent to which the results represent the behaviour of the target population.  Test-retest : a way to measure the consistency of a test. The test is used twice and if the scores on both tests are similar, then it has good reliability.  Demand Characteristics : when participants change their behaviour as they derive cues on what is expected of them.  Inter-rater reliability : the extent to which similar conclusions are produced by two researchers interpreting the same qualitative responses.  Inter-observer reliability : the extent to which similar observations are produced by two researchers observing the same event. Evaluating Research
  • 15. THANK YOU ABHINAV GAUR KAPTAAN SUBSCRIBE ON YOUTUBE https://www.youtube.com/@agkddn