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HADITH
Definition:
“The saying of holy prophet ‫ﷺ‬ is known as hadith.”
BASICS OF HADITH
1. History of hadith:
A hadith is composed of two parts: the matn (text) and the isnad (chain of reporters). A
highly reliable and trustworthy chain of narrators (isnad) is pre-requisite for the text (matan).
To be acceptable. The collections of the reports claiming to quote what the
prophet Muhammad ‫ﷺ‬ said verbatim on any matter. The term comes from
the Arabic meaning "report", "account" or "narrative". Hadiths are second only to
the Quran in developing Islamic jurisprudence, [4]
and regarded as important tools for
understanding the Quran and commentaries (tafsir) on it.
The hadith literature is based on spoken reports that were in circulation in society after the
death of Muhammad ‫.ﷺ‬ Unlike the Quran itself, which was compiled under the official
direction of the early Islamic State in Medinah, the hadith reports were not compiled by a
central authority. Hadith were evaluated and gathered into large collections during the 8th
and 9th centuries, genertions after the death of Muhammad, after the end of the era of the
"rightful" rashidun caliphate, over 1000 km from where Muhammad lived.
The writing and documentation of the Sunnha is an interesting and important part of our
Islamic history. In all its details, the reader of this history can find all the indications that God
permitted the corruption of the so called Hadiths and Sunnha of the Prophet Muhammad ‫ﷺ‬
as He told us. God repeatedly told us in the Quran that His book, is complete, perfect and
fully detailed, see and if He so willed He would have given us hundreds of books, not just
one Quran, see and God knew that the Quran is enough and that those who do not find the
Quran to be enough will be committing idol-worship by having people like Bukhary,
Moslem, Ahmed and others as partners with God, in setting the law for this great and perfect
religion.
Hadiths and the Guided Khalifas:
The four guided Khalifas who ruled the Muslim Umma (nation) after the death of the Prophet
Muhammad ‫,ﷺ‬ respected the order of the Prophet and prohibited the writing and collection
of Hadiths. They did believe God in his book and accepted the commandment of the Prophet
‫.ﷺ‬
Abu Bakr at one point was not sure whether to keep what he knows of hadiths or not. He had
collected 500 Hadiths during very long companionship of the Prophet Muhammad ‫,ﷺ‬ but
he could not sleep the night until he burned them. Omar Ibn Al-Khattab insisted on
destroying the Hadiths collected by his son Abdullah. Islamic history mentioned the story of
Omar Ibn Al-Khattab restraining four of the Prophet's ‫ﷺ‬ companions because of their
insistence on telling Hadiths, these were Ibn Masoud, Abu Al-Dardaa, Abu Masoud Al-
Anssary and Abu Tharr Al-Ghaffary. Omar called Abu Hurayra a liar and threatened to send
him back to Yemen where he came from if he does not stop telling these lies about the
prophet Muhammad ‫.ﷺ‬ He stopped until Omar died then started again. Ali Ibn Abu Talib,
the fourth Khalifa in one of his speeches said, "I urge all those who have writing taken from
the messenger of God to go home and erase it. The people before you were annihilated
because they followed the Hadiths of their scholars and left the book of their Lord." (Sunan
Al-Daramy)
Khalifa Omar Ibn Abdul Aziz, the Beginning of the End:
Abu Hurayra narrated more Hadiths than anybody else including Abu Bakr, Omar, Ali, and
Aysha who lived with the prophet ‫ﷺ‬ all their lives. In less than two years of being with the
prophet, Abu Hurayra narrated more Hadiths than all these companions of the prophet
altogether. He narrated 5374 Hadiths. Ibn Hanbal quoted 3848 of his Hadiths in his book. The
Guided Halifax, Al-Khulafaa Al-Rashedun, who ruled the Muslim Umma after the death of
the Prophet Muhammad ‫ﷺ‬ respected the Prophet‟s wish in not writing anything but the
Quran and denounced any attempt of writing the Hadiths and Sunnha Their example, was
followed for the first two centuries after the Prophet's ‫ﷺ‬ death. By that time, the lies about
the prophet Muhammad ‫ﷺ‬ was widespread and the people deserted the Quran to look for
Hadiths, that is when the Khalifa Omar Ibn Abdel-Aziz issued an order to permit the writing
of Hadiths and Sunnha thinking that he would put an end to the lies about the Prophet
Muhammad ‫.ﷺ‬ In his ruling he disregarded the commandments of God in the Quran and
the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad ‫ﷺ‬ and the examples of his predecessors and the
objection of many of the scholars in his time. Since then Islam moved from the religion of
God, the Quran, to the infamous Hadiths and Sunnha that were originally prohibited by God
and His Prophet ‫.ﷺ‬ Praise be to God, He preserved and protected His PERFECT religion,
Islam (Submission in English) in His Book that He insisted on calling the best hadith.
The Early Writing of Hadiths:
As for the notion that Hadiths were written as early as the Prophet's ‫ﷺ‬ time, this is
historically correct but the prophet ‫ﷺ‬ he and those who ruled after him condemned these
writings and looked at those who wrote these Hadiths with disgrace. The hadiths books
mentioned that the Prophet Muhammad ‫ﷺ‬ burned the collected hadiths, and was very
angry at people making "another book with the book of Allah." Abu Baker and Omar Ibn Al-
Khattab, were also reported to burn the Hadiths collections.
 This prohibition of hadiths was continued until Omar in Abdel-Aziz permitted the
writing of Hadiths and Sunnha, then many books and appeared containing Hadiths,
e.g. Ibn Greeg, Malik Ibn Anas, Mohammed Ibn Is'haq. The most famous from
among these were the book of Malik Ibn Anas, (Al-Muwattaa). That had about 500
Hadiths. At the end of the second century the books known as (Masaned) appeared,
e.g. the Masnad of Ahmed Ibn Hanbal that has about 40,000 Hadiths. In the first half
of the third century the famous six books of hadiths appeared and these are the books
used by many of the scholars these days.
1. Sahih Bukhary.
2. Sahih Moslem.
3. Sunan Abu Daoud.
4. Sunan Al-Termethy.
5. Sunan Al-Nesaay.
6. Sunan Ibn Mageh.
In these books a new religion was written that dominated over the Quran despite the claim for
the opposite. In writing these books, the authors did not care if the hadiths they are writing
contradict the Quran or the other Hadiths or the common sense. In reality they fulfilled the
promise of God in 6:112-113
"We have permitted the enemies of every prophet - human and jinn devils - to inspire in each
other fancy words in order to deceive. Had your Lord willed, they would not have done it.
You shall disregard them and their FABRICATIONS. This is to let the minds of those who
do not believe in the Hereafter listen to such fabrications, and accept them, and thus expose
their real convictions. "
Kinds of Hadith:
There are three types hadith i.e.
 Quail Hadith
 Faili Hadith
 Taqreeri Hadith
 Quidsi Hadith
Quali Hadith:
“It is the kind of Hadith in which the sayings of the prophet ‫ﷺ‬
are mentioned is known as quali hadith”
Faili Hadith:
“It is that kind of Hadith in which the deeds and lifestyle of the holy prophet ‫ﷺ‬ is
mentioned is known as faili hadith”
Taqreeri Hadith:
“It is the kind of Hadith in which the silence of the holy Prophet ‫ﷺ‬
is mentioned when his companion did some thing or said something in his presence is known
as taqreeri hadith”
Quidsi Hadith:
“The kind of hadith in which the prophet ‫ﷺ‬ said exactly the same thing and words as
Allah said is known as quidsi hadith”
On the Basis of Narrator:
Khabar-i mutawatir: A mutawatir hadith is reported by such a large number of narrators
that cannot be perceived to have jointly forged and narrated a tradition about an issue without
a compelling force. Sometimes a hadith is believed to be khabar-i mashhur. But a little
research reveals that it has been transmitted by a single narrator in each of first three layers in
the isnad. Such narratives are reported by a large number of reporters in the third or fourth
layer. In the opinion of Amin Ahsan Islahi, all such narratives which are usually termed as
khabar-i mutawatir should be thoroughly investigated.
Khabar-i wāhid: Signifies a historical narrative that falls short of yielding certain
knowledge. Even if more than one person reports the narrative, that does not make it certain
and conclusive truth except when the number of narrators reporting it grows to the level that
the possibility of their consensus on forging a lie is perfectly removed.
On The Basis of Reliability:
Ṣaḥiḥ : Transmitted through an unbroken chain of narrators all of whom are of sound
character and memory. Such a hadith should not clash with a more reliable report and
must not suffer from any other hidden defect.
Ḥasan : Transmitted through an unbroken chain of narrators all of whom are of sound
character but weak memory. This hadith should not clash with a more reliable report and
must not suffer from any other hidden defect.
Ḍaif : Which cannot gain the status of hasan because it lacks one or more elements of a
hasan hadith. For example, if the narrator is not of sound memory and sound character,
or if there is a hidden fault in the narrative or if the chain of narrators is broken.
Mawḍu : Fabricated and wrongly ascribed to Muhammad.
Maqlub : It is that hadith, in two different narrations of which the names of narrators
have been changed.
On the Basis of Epistemic Values:
I. A hadith which are clearly genuine and acceptable:
The narratives that contain reports testified by the "human intellect" and that which are
aligned with common sense. The narratives that are a corollary of the Quranic text and
the Sunnah. The narratives that have been received as acceptable by the ummah as a whole.
II. A hadith which are clear fabrications
The narratives that offend reason. The narratives that contradict the Quran and the Sunnah.
The narratives that discuss issues of prime importance in the religion which require absolute
certainty. The individual narratives regarding issues which, by their very nature, demand that
they should have been reported by a large number of people are also not acceptable.
III. A hadith whose status is not clear:
Narratives that give contradicting directives on a single issue and make it difficult to
determine the final command in that regard form the third category. While deciding on the
applicability of the directives contained in these type of a hadith, only such narratives should
be accepted as valid which correspond to and accord with the wording of the collated
narratives, textual evidence from the Quran and the Sunnah.
SUNNAH AND HADITH
Hadith:
Definition:
“The saying of holy prophet ‫ﷺ‬ is known as hadith.”
Explanation:
Hadith is the tacit approval of the prophet ‫ﷺ‬ to a behavior or way of doing. There are
scholars in Islam called Muhaddithin who talk about two classes of Hadith namely Kahabar-
i-Tawatur and Khabar-i-Wahid or multiple evidence Hadith and single evidence Hadith.
According to these scholars, Hadith is taswib or the approval of the prophet ‫.ﷺ‬ If a
follower acted in a particular manner in the presence of the Prophet ‫ﷺ‬ who did not say a
thing and also did not disapprove of the behavior, it was considered as an approval of the
prophet ‫.ﷺ‬ In general, Hadith is the narration of Prophet‟s ‫ﷺ‬ life and what he approved
of in his life. Hadith literature is Islamic literature that contains narrations of the life of the
Prophet ‫ﷺ‬ and all things that he approved.
Example:
Hadith is a saying or verbal communication that is attributed to prophet Mohammad ‫ﷺ‬ For
example the hadith would say I heard from my grand uncle, he heard from his father and he
heard from the friend of his grandfather, and he heard from Abu-huraira that prophet
Mohammad on that occassion said: In the above, prophet Mohammad ‫ﷺ‬ is attributed to be
saying something. That something now becomes "hadith".
Sunnah:
Definition:
“Is a form of Hadith, in which Prophet Mohammad is not supposed to be saying something,
but some guy with the similar chain of narrations is saying that a guy (like Abu-Huraira or
someone else) saw him "doing" something”.
Explanation:
Hadith is the tacit approval of the prophet to a behavior or way of doing. There are scholars
in Islam called Muhaddithin who talk about two classes of Hadith namely Kahabar-i-Tawatur
and Khabar-i-Wahid or multiple evidence Hadith and single evidence Hadith. According to
these scholars, Hadith is taswib or the approval of the prophet. If a follower acted in a
particular manner in the presence of the Prophet who did not say a thing and also did not
disapprove of the behavior, it was considered as an approval of the prophet.
In general, Hadith is the narration of Prophet‟s life and what he approved of in his life.
Hadith literature is Islamic literature that contains narrations of the life of the Prophet and all
things that he approved.
Example:
The Quran presents the general principles of praying, fasting, paying zakah, or making
pilgrimage, "without the illustration found in Hadith, for these acts of worship remain as
abstract imperatives in the Quran"
ULUMUL-AL-HADITH
A popular work that introduces and addressing the challenges levelled against ulum al-hadith
is al-Sunnah was Makanatiha by Mustafa al-Sibai, which responds to some of the objections
raised by Orientalists. Alternatively, or additionally, Knur-al-Din „Itr has al-Sunnah al-
Mutahirah wa al-Tahadiyat covering similar ground. Abd al-Rahman al-Muallami‟s al-Anwar
al-Kashia addresses criticism of narrators, Abu Hurayrah specifically. These should be
followed by On Schacht‟s Origins of Muhammad Jurisprudence by Mustafa al-Azami, Harald
Motzki‟s collection of articles in Analyzing Muslim Traditions, and The Evolution of a
Hadith by Dr. Iftikhar Zaman.
One should now learn the biographies of the major narrators through al-Mashur min al-
Asanid al-Hadith by Abd al-Shakur al-Zuraqi, as well as his Tabaqat al-Mukthirin. One
should research these major figures in the books of rijal, beginning with Tahrir Taqrib al-
Taqrib by Shuayb-al-Arnaut and Bashar Awwad Maruf as well as Awad Allah‟s Tahdhib
Taqrib al-Tahdhib for the summary then Ibn Hajar‟s Tahdhib al-Tahdhib for more detail, and
finally al-Mizzi‟s Tahdhib al-Kamal for reference to teachers, students, and detailed criticism.
The chains should be checked in Tuhfat-al-Ashraf by al-Mizzi to see which hadiths they
produced. These are the figures that will feature prominently in one‟s study of the major
works, and so getting the gist of their biographies beforehand gives one a massive advantage
later on. One must know how nuanced grading can be and will learn that refraining from rash
judgments on chains of hadith without extensive research of each chain and hadith in context
is wise and proper.
At this juncture, al-Hazimi‟s Shurut al-Aimmah al-Khams, which discusses the conditions
each of the Imams stipulated for including hadiths in their collections, should be read and
summarized in a chart. Keep referring back to this chart throughout and try to determine
whether al-Hazimi‟s deductions are always precise.
Sahih-al-Bukhari: He must accompanied by Ibn Hajar‟s classic commentary Fath al-Bari,
for those with aspiration, or al-Qastallani‟s Irshad al-Sari, which is based on Fath al-Bari and
al-Aynis Umdat al-Qari. Ibn Hajar‟s introduction to Fath al-Bari contains many fine points of
detail and criticism, addressing some of the objections in al-Daraqutni‟s al-Ilzimat
HADITH
Submitted to: Miss Hafiza Gulnaz Fatima
Submitted by: Saba Iftikhar (49)
Dated: 23/11/2015
, which should be read alongside this introduction with the audio commentary of Abdullah-al-
Sad. This will further introduce one, in addition to the previous study of al-Tamyiz, to ilal al-
hadith (hidden defects), which is the most difficult aspect of „ulum al-hadith. Nur al-Din „It‟s
book on al-Bukhari‟s fiqh and chapter headings, al-Imam al-Bukhari wa al-Fiqh al-Tarajim,
should also be consulted. One good modern commentary by Anwar Shah al-Kashmiri, Faydh-
al-Bari, also discusses the fiqh of al-Bukhari‟s chapter titles really well, and also objects to
Ibn Hajar at times, but Indian Hanafi hadith commentaries tend to be motivated by defending
Hanafi fiqh against the Ahl al-Hadith more than trying to understand the methodology of the
authors. The best edition to study Sahih al-Bukhari is undoubtedly still al-Sultaniyah edited
by Muhammad Zuhayr al-Nasr, followed by the Maknaz al-Islami edition. All other editions ,
A good teacher should be able to point these out and differentiate between them. Another key
point to note is that Imam Muslim never wrote chapter headings or titles. He simply gathered
the hadiths of a particular issue together in order of strength. Later, commentators wrote
chapter headings, which they deduced from the contents of the topical hadiths. Most editions
of Sahih Muslim use Imam al-Nawawi‟s chapter headings, due to his great standing in both
fiqh and hadith. However, one should check earlier and later commentaries to see how
different scholars have understood the chapters. Sometimes, chapter headings have misplaced
Muslim‟s priorities in certain narrations as well as missing the methodological point being
made by focusing on the fiqh rather than the method. The best edition of Sahih Muslim is
still al-„Amirah edited by Muhammad Zuhayr al-Nasr. One should also benefit from al-
Faryabi‟s edition due to its useful footnotes drawing on al-Daraqutni‟s criticisms, among
others.
How many hadith?
The number of hadiths collected and attributed to the prophet Muhammed is in the hundreds
of thousands, as much as 700,000. The majority of these hadith are pure lies and fabrications
and were rejected by the early Muslim scholars who thought they can figure out which hadith
is authentic and which is not. Let us look at some of the famous hadiths collectors and what
they collected.
(1) Malik Ibn Anas: Collected about 500 hadiths in his famous book, "Al-Muwattaa"
(2) Ahmed Ibn Hanbal: Collected about 40,000 hadiths, in his famous "Musnad".He chose
these 40,000 hadiths from among 700,000 hadiths. In other words he thought 660,000 hadith
were un-proven, lies and/or fabrications and the others may be authentic. That is 94% lies and
fabrications
(3) Bukhari : Collected about 600,000 hadiths and accepted 7275 hadiths and considered
592,725 hadiths to be un-proven hadiths, lies and/or fabrications, that is almost 99% of what
he collected .
(4) Moslem : Collected 300,000 hadiths and only accepted 4000 of them, and refused about
296,000, that is almost 99% of these collected hadiths .
LEGAL POSITION OF HADITH
Position and justification of Sunnah as a Source of Law:
 Sunnah is the second primary source of Islamic law and its position is next after the
Qur‟an.
 In case when the jurist does not find a text in the Qur‟an for a case he has to settle, he
has to recourse to the Sunnah in derivation of the rule.
 The Sunnah of sound and complete chain of narrator which meant for legislation and
legal rules is as an authoritative source of Islamic law.
 Proof of the Sunnah as the source of law is established by Qur‟an and Ijma‟.
Proofs by the Quran
 1. The Quran points out that whatever originated from Messenger of Allah does not
come out from his own desire but it is a type of revelation.
 “Nor does he say of desire. It is no less than inspiration sent down to him”
 2. There are many verses of the Qur‟an command the believer to follow the
Sunnahi.e. to obey the Messenger of Allah
 “O ye who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger…”
 Obedience to Messenger is obedience to Allah.
 “He who obey the Messenger, obeys Allah” (al-Nisa‟(4): 80)
 •To follow whatever is brought by Messenger and to refrain whatever is prohibited by
him.
 “And whatever the Messenger gives you, take (observe) it, and whatever he forbids
you, abstain from it.” (al-Hashr(59):7)
 •To refer any dispute to Qur‟an and Sunnah
 “ O ye who believe! Obey Allah and Obey the Messenger and those charged with
authority among you. If ye differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and
His Messenger…”
The relationship between the Quran and Sunnah:
 The Sunnahhas close relationship with the Qur‟an.
 It is a secondary and complementary to the Qur‟an.
 It is an elaboration and explanation of the Qur‟an.
 Recourse to the Sunnahis required in case if the words of the Qur‟an convey
ambiguous meaning and have possibility of more than one meaning.
 Thus the Sunnahplays significant role with respect to the Qur‟an in explanation of
legal rules.
 Muslims from the time of Messenger of Allah till today are in agreement that the
Sunnah is a source of Islamic law.
 The Muslims are bound to follow legal injunctions that are derived from Sunnah and
they do not differentiate between the legal injunction which laid down by the Qur‟an
and the Sunnah.
The Role of SunnahWith Respect To The Quran:
1. The Sunnahreemphasizes and reiterates the injunction of the Qur‟an. That is a particular
injunction is based on two authorities and derived from two sources. This indicates that
such particular injunction is established by the Qur‟an and supported by the Sunnah.
Example: Injunction relating to the prohibition of taking a property of other person without
his consent.
a) “It is unlawful to possess a property of a Muslim without his express consent”
This Sunnah emphasizes the Quranic injunction
b) “O ye who believe! Eat not up your property among yourselves unjustly except it be a
trade amongst you by mutual consent…”
2. The Sunnah explains and clarifies the verses of the Quran. This is in three ways.
a) Explains and elaborates the concise verses of the Quran.
Example: The Sunnah explains the manner of performing prayer, fasting, types of Riba etc
b) Specify the generality of rule of the Quran.
Example: The Sunnah “He who kills the deceased will not inherit” specifies the generality of
the rule contained in the Quanicverse “Allah command you concerning your children: for the
male is the equal of the portion of two female.”
c) Restrict the absolute rule of the Quran.
Example: The Sunnahs restrict the absolute rule of the verse “As to the thief male or female
cut off his or her hands: A punishment by way of example from Allah for their crime…”
3) The Sunnahabrogates the rule established by the Quran.
Example: According to majority of Muslim jurists, the Sunnah: “No will should be made to
legal heir” abrogates the verse prescribed to make a will to parent and near relatives i.e. “ It is
prescribed for you, when death approaches one of you, if he leaves behind some goods to
make a will for parent and near relatives.”
4) The Sunnah lays down legal injunction that is silent by the Quran.
Example:
The prohibition of wearing a gold ring by man. Prohibition of combining a woman together
with her paternal auntie and maternal auntie in marriage.Permissible of the carrion of the sea
etc.
Classifications and types of the Sunnah:
 Classification of Sunnahas according to its nature
1)Verbal Sunnahor the Sunnahby word :
 It is the sayings of Allah‟s Messenger (peace be upon him) meant for legislation and
legal rules. The Sunnahin this sense is synonym of Hadith. A large number of the
Sunnahis of this type.
2)Practical or actual Sunnah(al-Sunnahal-Fi’liyyah):
 It is the actions of Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) having legal content such
as his prayer, fasting and pilgrimage to Mecca.
3) Tacit Sunnah(al-Sunnahal-Taqririyyah) or the Sunnahby the tacit approval or
disapproval of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him):
 It is the commission of certain acts, by word or deed, by some Companions and the
Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) keeps silent. His silence and not objecting to
the word or deed of Companion is called tacit Sunnah. Meaning that the Messenger of
Allah (peace be upon him) allows them to continue to do the act and confirmed the
validity of their words and deeds.
 Example: The Prophet does not object the playing of spear by two boy in the mosque.
 The eating of lizard (iguana) by the companions.
Classification of Sunnahas according to its manner of transmission:
1) Sunnahwith continuous chain (al-Muttasilah): A Sunnahwhose chain of
transmitters is continuous and not broken.
2) Sunnahwith broken chain (ghayrmuttasilah): A Sunnahwhose chain of narrators is
not continuous but broken.
Sunnahwith continuous chain:
 According the majority of Muslim jurists, there are two types of the Sunnahwith
respect to the continuous chain: SunnahMutawatirahand SunnahAhad.
 The Hanafijurists added a third category in between these two. It is
calledSunnahMashhurah.
 It is to be noted that the classification of the Sunnahinto mutawatirah, mashhurahand
ahadis based on the transmitters of the three periods i.e. the period of the
Companions, the period of the Successors and the period of the Followers of the
Successors.
 This is because the Sunnahwas compiled after the period of the Followers of the
Successors and all the Sunnahsbecome well-known.
SunnahMutawatirah:
“It is one narrated by such a large number of people whose secret agreement on lie is usually
impossible, and that is from the beginning of the chain to its end.”
Position of Sunnah:
The position of Sunnah Mutawatirah is definitive with respect to its transmission or
establishment. This means that we are sure and certain about its attribution to the Messenger
of Allah (peace be upon him). In this respect, it is similar to the Quran.
SunnahMashhurah(well known Sunnah): It is one whose number of narrators does not
reach the level of tawaturin the first generation but reaches this extent after that.
 The position of the Sunnah Mashhurah is lesser in strength than the Sunnah
Mutawatirah but is stronger than Sunnah Ahad.
 On the other hand, according to majority of Muslim jurists, this type of Sunnah is
considered as Sunnah Ahad and thus it is probable in its establishment.
SunnahAhad(solitary sunnah): It is one narrated by one, two or more narrators from the
beginning of the chain to its end.
 The position of the Sunnah Ahad is probable with respect to its transmission and
establishment.
CONCLUSION:
These were just some examples of how Satan controlled the books of hadiths and tried to
distort Islam. It is comforting to know that the true believers have their Islam well protected
and preserved when they follow the book that is protected by God Almighty, the Quran.
These examples show us why God called on His worshipers to follow no other hadiths but
His hadiths, the Quran.
It also shows to us why the messenger of God will complain to God on the Day of Judgment
that the Muslims deserted the Quran .
.

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Basics of Hadith

  • 1. HADITH Definition: “The saying of holy prophet ‫ﷺ‬ is known as hadith.” BASICS OF HADITH 1. History of hadith: A hadith is composed of two parts: the matn (text) and the isnad (chain of reporters). A highly reliable and trustworthy chain of narrators (isnad) is pre-requisite for the text (matan). To be acceptable. The collections of the reports claiming to quote what the prophet Muhammad ‫ﷺ‬ said verbatim on any matter. The term comes from the Arabic meaning "report", "account" or "narrative". Hadiths are second only to the Quran in developing Islamic jurisprudence, [4] and regarded as important tools for understanding the Quran and commentaries (tafsir) on it. The hadith literature is based on spoken reports that were in circulation in society after the death of Muhammad ‫.ﷺ‬ Unlike the Quran itself, which was compiled under the official direction of the early Islamic State in Medinah, the hadith reports were not compiled by a central authority. Hadith were evaluated and gathered into large collections during the 8th and 9th centuries, genertions after the death of Muhammad, after the end of the era of the "rightful" rashidun caliphate, over 1000 km from where Muhammad lived. The writing and documentation of the Sunnha is an interesting and important part of our Islamic history. In all its details, the reader of this history can find all the indications that God permitted the corruption of the so called Hadiths and Sunnha of the Prophet Muhammad ‫ﷺ‬ as He told us. God repeatedly told us in the Quran that His book, is complete, perfect and fully detailed, see and if He so willed He would have given us hundreds of books, not just one Quran, see and God knew that the Quran is enough and that those who do not find the Quran to be enough will be committing idol-worship by having people like Bukhary, Moslem, Ahmed and others as partners with God, in setting the law for this great and perfect religion. Hadiths and the Guided Khalifas: The four guided Khalifas who ruled the Muslim Umma (nation) after the death of the Prophet Muhammad ‫,ﷺ‬ respected the order of the Prophet and prohibited the writing and collection
  • 2. of Hadiths. They did believe God in his book and accepted the commandment of the Prophet ‫.ﷺ‬ Abu Bakr at one point was not sure whether to keep what he knows of hadiths or not. He had collected 500 Hadiths during very long companionship of the Prophet Muhammad ‫,ﷺ‬ but he could not sleep the night until he burned them. Omar Ibn Al-Khattab insisted on destroying the Hadiths collected by his son Abdullah. Islamic history mentioned the story of Omar Ibn Al-Khattab restraining four of the Prophet's ‫ﷺ‬ companions because of their insistence on telling Hadiths, these were Ibn Masoud, Abu Al-Dardaa, Abu Masoud Al- Anssary and Abu Tharr Al-Ghaffary. Omar called Abu Hurayra a liar and threatened to send him back to Yemen where he came from if he does not stop telling these lies about the prophet Muhammad ‫.ﷺ‬ He stopped until Omar died then started again. Ali Ibn Abu Talib, the fourth Khalifa in one of his speeches said, "I urge all those who have writing taken from the messenger of God to go home and erase it. The people before you were annihilated because they followed the Hadiths of their scholars and left the book of their Lord." (Sunan Al-Daramy) Khalifa Omar Ibn Abdul Aziz, the Beginning of the End: Abu Hurayra narrated more Hadiths than anybody else including Abu Bakr, Omar, Ali, and Aysha who lived with the prophet ‫ﷺ‬ all their lives. In less than two years of being with the prophet, Abu Hurayra narrated more Hadiths than all these companions of the prophet altogether. He narrated 5374 Hadiths. Ibn Hanbal quoted 3848 of his Hadiths in his book. The Guided Halifax, Al-Khulafaa Al-Rashedun, who ruled the Muslim Umma after the death of the Prophet Muhammad ‫ﷺ‬ respected the Prophet‟s wish in not writing anything but the Quran and denounced any attempt of writing the Hadiths and Sunnha Their example, was followed for the first two centuries after the Prophet's ‫ﷺ‬ death. By that time, the lies about the prophet Muhammad ‫ﷺ‬ was widespread and the people deserted the Quran to look for Hadiths, that is when the Khalifa Omar Ibn Abdel-Aziz issued an order to permit the writing of Hadiths and Sunnha thinking that he would put an end to the lies about the Prophet Muhammad ‫.ﷺ‬ In his ruling he disregarded the commandments of God in the Quran and the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad ‫ﷺ‬ and the examples of his predecessors and the objection of many of the scholars in his time. Since then Islam moved from the religion of God, the Quran, to the infamous Hadiths and Sunnha that were originally prohibited by God and His Prophet ‫.ﷺ‬ Praise be to God, He preserved and protected His PERFECT religion, Islam (Submission in English) in His Book that He insisted on calling the best hadith. The Early Writing of Hadiths:
  • 3. As for the notion that Hadiths were written as early as the Prophet's ‫ﷺ‬ time, this is historically correct but the prophet ‫ﷺ‬ he and those who ruled after him condemned these writings and looked at those who wrote these Hadiths with disgrace. The hadiths books mentioned that the Prophet Muhammad ‫ﷺ‬ burned the collected hadiths, and was very angry at people making "another book with the book of Allah." Abu Baker and Omar Ibn Al- Khattab, were also reported to burn the Hadiths collections.  This prohibition of hadiths was continued until Omar in Abdel-Aziz permitted the writing of Hadiths and Sunnha, then many books and appeared containing Hadiths, e.g. Ibn Greeg, Malik Ibn Anas, Mohammed Ibn Is'haq. The most famous from among these were the book of Malik Ibn Anas, (Al-Muwattaa). That had about 500 Hadiths. At the end of the second century the books known as (Masaned) appeared, e.g. the Masnad of Ahmed Ibn Hanbal that has about 40,000 Hadiths. In the first half of the third century the famous six books of hadiths appeared and these are the books used by many of the scholars these days. 1. Sahih Bukhary. 2. Sahih Moslem. 3. Sunan Abu Daoud. 4. Sunan Al-Termethy. 5. Sunan Al-Nesaay. 6. Sunan Ibn Mageh. In these books a new religion was written that dominated over the Quran despite the claim for the opposite. In writing these books, the authors did not care if the hadiths they are writing contradict the Quran or the other Hadiths or the common sense. In reality they fulfilled the promise of God in 6:112-113 "We have permitted the enemies of every prophet - human and jinn devils - to inspire in each other fancy words in order to deceive. Had your Lord willed, they would not have done it. You shall disregard them and their FABRICATIONS. This is to let the minds of those who do not believe in the Hereafter listen to such fabrications, and accept them, and thus expose their real convictions. " Kinds of Hadith: There are three types hadith i.e.  Quail Hadith  Faili Hadith  Taqreeri Hadith  Quidsi Hadith Quali Hadith:
  • 4. “It is the kind of Hadith in which the sayings of the prophet ‫ﷺ‬ are mentioned is known as quali hadith” Faili Hadith: “It is that kind of Hadith in which the deeds and lifestyle of the holy prophet ‫ﷺ‬ is mentioned is known as faili hadith” Taqreeri Hadith: “It is the kind of Hadith in which the silence of the holy Prophet ‫ﷺ‬ is mentioned when his companion did some thing or said something in his presence is known as taqreeri hadith” Quidsi Hadith: “The kind of hadith in which the prophet ‫ﷺ‬ said exactly the same thing and words as Allah said is known as quidsi hadith” On the Basis of Narrator: Khabar-i mutawatir: A mutawatir hadith is reported by such a large number of narrators that cannot be perceived to have jointly forged and narrated a tradition about an issue without a compelling force. Sometimes a hadith is believed to be khabar-i mashhur. But a little research reveals that it has been transmitted by a single narrator in each of first three layers in the isnad. Such narratives are reported by a large number of reporters in the third or fourth layer. In the opinion of Amin Ahsan Islahi, all such narratives which are usually termed as khabar-i mutawatir should be thoroughly investigated. Khabar-i wāhid: Signifies a historical narrative that falls short of yielding certain knowledge. Even if more than one person reports the narrative, that does not make it certain and conclusive truth except when the number of narrators reporting it grows to the level that the possibility of their consensus on forging a lie is perfectly removed. On The Basis of Reliability: Ṣaḥiḥ : Transmitted through an unbroken chain of narrators all of whom are of sound character and memory. Such a hadith should not clash with a more reliable report and must not suffer from any other hidden defect. Ḥasan : Transmitted through an unbroken chain of narrators all of whom are of sound character but weak memory. This hadith should not clash with a more reliable report and must not suffer from any other hidden defect.
  • 5. Ḍaif : Which cannot gain the status of hasan because it lacks one or more elements of a hasan hadith. For example, if the narrator is not of sound memory and sound character, or if there is a hidden fault in the narrative or if the chain of narrators is broken. Mawḍu : Fabricated and wrongly ascribed to Muhammad. Maqlub : It is that hadith, in two different narrations of which the names of narrators have been changed. On the Basis of Epistemic Values: I. A hadith which are clearly genuine and acceptable: The narratives that contain reports testified by the "human intellect" and that which are aligned with common sense. The narratives that are a corollary of the Quranic text and the Sunnah. The narratives that have been received as acceptable by the ummah as a whole. II. A hadith which are clear fabrications The narratives that offend reason. The narratives that contradict the Quran and the Sunnah. The narratives that discuss issues of prime importance in the religion which require absolute certainty. The individual narratives regarding issues which, by their very nature, demand that they should have been reported by a large number of people are also not acceptable. III. A hadith whose status is not clear: Narratives that give contradicting directives on a single issue and make it difficult to determine the final command in that regard form the third category. While deciding on the applicability of the directives contained in these type of a hadith, only such narratives should be accepted as valid which correspond to and accord with the wording of the collated narratives, textual evidence from the Quran and the Sunnah. SUNNAH AND HADITH Hadith: Definition: “The saying of holy prophet ‫ﷺ‬ is known as hadith.” Explanation: Hadith is the tacit approval of the prophet ‫ﷺ‬ to a behavior or way of doing. There are scholars in Islam called Muhaddithin who talk about two classes of Hadith namely Kahabar- i-Tawatur and Khabar-i-Wahid or multiple evidence Hadith and single evidence Hadith.
  • 6. According to these scholars, Hadith is taswib or the approval of the prophet ‫.ﷺ‬ If a follower acted in a particular manner in the presence of the Prophet ‫ﷺ‬ who did not say a thing and also did not disapprove of the behavior, it was considered as an approval of the prophet ‫.ﷺ‬ In general, Hadith is the narration of Prophet‟s ‫ﷺ‬ life and what he approved of in his life. Hadith literature is Islamic literature that contains narrations of the life of the Prophet ‫ﷺ‬ and all things that he approved. Example: Hadith is a saying or verbal communication that is attributed to prophet Mohammad ‫ﷺ‬ For example the hadith would say I heard from my grand uncle, he heard from his father and he heard from the friend of his grandfather, and he heard from Abu-huraira that prophet Mohammad on that occassion said: In the above, prophet Mohammad ‫ﷺ‬ is attributed to be saying something. That something now becomes "hadith". Sunnah: Definition: “Is a form of Hadith, in which Prophet Mohammad is not supposed to be saying something, but some guy with the similar chain of narrations is saying that a guy (like Abu-Huraira or someone else) saw him "doing" something”. Explanation: Hadith is the tacit approval of the prophet to a behavior or way of doing. There are scholars in Islam called Muhaddithin who talk about two classes of Hadith namely Kahabar-i-Tawatur and Khabar-i-Wahid or multiple evidence Hadith and single evidence Hadith. According to these scholars, Hadith is taswib or the approval of the prophet. If a follower acted in a particular manner in the presence of the Prophet who did not say a thing and also did not disapprove of the behavior, it was considered as an approval of the prophet. In general, Hadith is the narration of Prophet‟s life and what he approved of in his life. Hadith literature is Islamic literature that contains narrations of the life of the Prophet and all things that he approved.
  • 7. Example: The Quran presents the general principles of praying, fasting, paying zakah, or making pilgrimage, "without the illustration found in Hadith, for these acts of worship remain as abstract imperatives in the Quran" ULUMUL-AL-HADITH A popular work that introduces and addressing the challenges levelled against ulum al-hadith is al-Sunnah was Makanatiha by Mustafa al-Sibai, which responds to some of the objections raised by Orientalists. Alternatively, or additionally, Knur-al-Din „Itr has al-Sunnah al- Mutahirah wa al-Tahadiyat covering similar ground. Abd al-Rahman al-Muallami‟s al-Anwar al-Kashia addresses criticism of narrators, Abu Hurayrah specifically. These should be followed by On Schacht‟s Origins of Muhammad Jurisprudence by Mustafa al-Azami, Harald Motzki‟s collection of articles in Analyzing Muslim Traditions, and The Evolution of a Hadith by Dr. Iftikhar Zaman. One should now learn the biographies of the major narrators through al-Mashur min al- Asanid al-Hadith by Abd al-Shakur al-Zuraqi, as well as his Tabaqat al-Mukthirin. One should research these major figures in the books of rijal, beginning with Tahrir Taqrib al- Taqrib by Shuayb-al-Arnaut and Bashar Awwad Maruf as well as Awad Allah‟s Tahdhib Taqrib al-Tahdhib for the summary then Ibn Hajar‟s Tahdhib al-Tahdhib for more detail, and finally al-Mizzi‟s Tahdhib al-Kamal for reference to teachers, students, and detailed criticism. The chains should be checked in Tuhfat-al-Ashraf by al-Mizzi to see which hadiths they produced. These are the figures that will feature prominently in one‟s study of the major works, and so getting the gist of their biographies beforehand gives one a massive advantage later on. One must know how nuanced grading can be and will learn that refraining from rash judgments on chains of hadith without extensive research of each chain and hadith in context is wise and proper. At this juncture, al-Hazimi‟s Shurut al-Aimmah al-Khams, which discusses the conditions each of the Imams stipulated for including hadiths in their collections, should be read and summarized in a chart. Keep referring back to this chart throughout and try to determine whether al-Hazimi‟s deductions are always precise. Sahih-al-Bukhari: He must accompanied by Ibn Hajar‟s classic commentary Fath al-Bari, for those with aspiration, or al-Qastallani‟s Irshad al-Sari, which is based on Fath al-Bari and al-Aynis Umdat al-Qari. Ibn Hajar‟s introduction to Fath al-Bari contains many fine points of detail and criticism, addressing some of the objections in al-Daraqutni‟s al-Ilzimat
  • 8. HADITH Submitted to: Miss Hafiza Gulnaz Fatima Submitted by: Saba Iftikhar (49) Dated: 23/11/2015
  • 9. , which should be read alongside this introduction with the audio commentary of Abdullah-al- Sad. This will further introduce one, in addition to the previous study of al-Tamyiz, to ilal al- hadith (hidden defects), which is the most difficult aspect of „ulum al-hadith. Nur al-Din „It‟s book on al-Bukhari‟s fiqh and chapter headings, al-Imam al-Bukhari wa al-Fiqh al-Tarajim, should also be consulted. One good modern commentary by Anwar Shah al-Kashmiri, Faydh- al-Bari, also discusses the fiqh of al-Bukhari‟s chapter titles really well, and also objects to Ibn Hajar at times, but Indian Hanafi hadith commentaries tend to be motivated by defending Hanafi fiqh against the Ahl al-Hadith more than trying to understand the methodology of the authors. The best edition to study Sahih al-Bukhari is undoubtedly still al-Sultaniyah edited by Muhammad Zuhayr al-Nasr, followed by the Maknaz al-Islami edition. All other editions , A good teacher should be able to point these out and differentiate between them. Another key point to note is that Imam Muslim never wrote chapter headings or titles. He simply gathered the hadiths of a particular issue together in order of strength. Later, commentators wrote chapter headings, which they deduced from the contents of the topical hadiths. Most editions of Sahih Muslim use Imam al-Nawawi‟s chapter headings, due to his great standing in both fiqh and hadith. However, one should check earlier and later commentaries to see how different scholars have understood the chapters. Sometimes, chapter headings have misplaced Muslim‟s priorities in certain narrations as well as missing the methodological point being made by focusing on the fiqh rather than the method. The best edition of Sahih Muslim is still al-„Amirah edited by Muhammad Zuhayr al-Nasr. One should also benefit from al- Faryabi‟s edition due to its useful footnotes drawing on al-Daraqutni‟s criticisms, among others. How many hadith? The number of hadiths collected and attributed to the prophet Muhammed is in the hundreds of thousands, as much as 700,000. The majority of these hadith are pure lies and fabrications and were rejected by the early Muslim scholars who thought they can figure out which hadith is authentic and which is not. Let us look at some of the famous hadiths collectors and what they collected. (1) Malik Ibn Anas: Collected about 500 hadiths in his famous book, "Al-Muwattaa" (2) Ahmed Ibn Hanbal: Collected about 40,000 hadiths, in his famous "Musnad".He chose these 40,000 hadiths from among 700,000 hadiths. In other words he thought 660,000 hadith were un-proven, lies and/or fabrications and the others may be authentic. That is 94% lies and fabrications (3) Bukhari : Collected about 600,000 hadiths and accepted 7275 hadiths and considered 592,725 hadiths to be un-proven hadiths, lies and/or fabrications, that is almost 99% of what he collected . (4) Moslem : Collected 300,000 hadiths and only accepted 4000 of them, and refused about 296,000, that is almost 99% of these collected hadiths . LEGAL POSITION OF HADITH
  • 10. Position and justification of Sunnah as a Source of Law:  Sunnah is the second primary source of Islamic law and its position is next after the Qur‟an.  In case when the jurist does not find a text in the Qur‟an for a case he has to settle, he has to recourse to the Sunnah in derivation of the rule.  The Sunnah of sound and complete chain of narrator which meant for legislation and legal rules is as an authoritative source of Islamic law.  Proof of the Sunnah as the source of law is established by Qur‟an and Ijma‟. Proofs by the Quran  1. The Quran points out that whatever originated from Messenger of Allah does not come out from his own desire but it is a type of revelation.  “Nor does he say of desire. It is no less than inspiration sent down to him”  2. There are many verses of the Qur‟an command the believer to follow the Sunnahi.e. to obey the Messenger of Allah  “O ye who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger…”  Obedience to Messenger is obedience to Allah.  “He who obey the Messenger, obeys Allah” (al-Nisa‟(4): 80)  •To follow whatever is brought by Messenger and to refrain whatever is prohibited by him.  “And whatever the Messenger gives you, take (observe) it, and whatever he forbids you, abstain from it.” (al-Hashr(59):7)  •To refer any dispute to Qur‟an and Sunnah  “ O ye who believe! Obey Allah and Obey the Messenger and those charged with authority among you. If ye differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger…” The relationship between the Quran and Sunnah:  The Sunnahhas close relationship with the Qur‟an.  It is a secondary and complementary to the Qur‟an.  It is an elaboration and explanation of the Qur‟an.  Recourse to the Sunnahis required in case if the words of the Qur‟an convey ambiguous meaning and have possibility of more than one meaning.  Thus the Sunnahplays significant role with respect to the Qur‟an in explanation of legal rules.  Muslims from the time of Messenger of Allah till today are in agreement that the Sunnah is a source of Islamic law.  The Muslims are bound to follow legal injunctions that are derived from Sunnah and they do not differentiate between the legal injunction which laid down by the Qur‟an and the Sunnah. The Role of SunnahWith Respect To The Quran: 1. The Sunnahreemphasizes and reiterates the injunction of the Qur‟an. That is a particular injunction is based on two authorities and derived from two sources. This indicates that such particular injunction is established by the Qur‟an and supported by the Sunnah.
  • 11. Example: Injunction relating to the prohibition of taking a property of other person without his consent. a) “It is unlawful to possess a property of a Muslim without his express consent” This Sunnah emphasizes the Quranic injunction b) “O ye who believe! Eat not up your property among yourselves unjustly except it be a trade amongst you by mutual consent…” 2. The Sunnah explains and clarifies the verses of the Quran. This is in three ways. a) Explains and elaborates the concise verses of the Quran. Example: The Sunnah explains the manner of performing prayer, fasting, types of Riba etc b) Specify the generality of rule of the Quran. Example: The Sunnah “He who kills the deceased will not inherit” specifies the generality of the rule contained in the Quanicverse “Allah command you concerning your children: for the male is the equal of the portion of two female.” c) Restrict the absolute rule of the Quran. Example: The Sunnahs restrict the absolute rule of the verse “As to the thief male or female cut off his or her hands: A punishment by way of example from Allah for their crime…” 3) The Sunnahabrogates the rule established by the Quran. Example: According to majority of Muslim jurists, the Sunnah: “No will should be made to legal heir” abrogates the verse prescribed to make a will to parent and near relatives i.e. “ It is prescribed for you, when death approaches one of you, if he leaves behind some goods to make a will for parent and near relatives.” 4) The Sunnah lays down legal injunction that is silent by the Quran. Example: The prohibition of wearing a gold ring by man. Prohibition of combining a woman together with her paternal auntie and maternal auntie in marriage.Permissible of the carrion of the sea etc. Classifications and types of the Sunnah:  Classification of Sunnahas according to its nature 1)Verbal Sunnahor the Sunnahby word :  It is the sayings of Allah‟s Messenger (peace be upon him) meant for legislation and legal rules. The Sunnahin this sense is synonym of Hadith. A large number of the Sunnahis of this type. 2)Practical or actual Sunnah(al-Sunnahal-Fi’liyyah):  It is the actions of Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) having legal content such as his prayer, fasting and pilgrimage to Mecca. 3) Tacit Sunnah(al-Sunnahal-Taqririyyah) or the Sunnahby the tacit approval or disapproval of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him):  It is the commission of certain acts, by word or deed, by some Companions and the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) keeps silent. His silence and not objecting to the word or deed of Companion is called tacit Sunnah. Meaning that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) allows them to continue to do the act and confirmed the validity of their words and deeds.
  • 12.  Example: The Prophet does not object the playing of spear by two boy in the mosque.  The eating of lizard (iguana) by the companions. Classification of Sunnahas according to its manner of transmission: 1) Sunnahwith continuous chain (al-Muttasilah): A Sunnahwhose chain of transmitters is continuous and not broken. 2) Sunnahwith broken chain (ghayrmuttasilah): A Sunnahwhose chain of narrators is not continuous but broken. Sunnahwith continuous chain:  According the majority of Muslim jurists, there are two types of the Sunnahwith respect to the continuous chain: SunnahMutawatirahand SunnahAhad.  The Hanafijurists added a third category in between these two. It is calledSunnahMashhurah.  It is to be noted that the classification of the Sunnahinto mutawatirah, mashhurahand ahadis based on the transmitters of the three periods i.e. the period of the Companions, the period of the Successors and the period of the Followers of the Successors.  This is because the Sunnahwas compiled after the period of the Followers of the Successors and all the Sunnahsbecome well-known. SunnahMutawatirah: “It is one narrated by such a large number of people whose secret agreement on lie is usually impossible, and that is from the beginning of the chain to its end.” Position of Sunnah: The position of Sunnah Mutawatirah is definitive with respect to its transmission or establishment. This means that we are sure and certain about its attribution to the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him). In this respect, it is similar to the Quran. SunnahMashhurah(well known Sunnah): It is one whose number of narrators does not reach the level of tawaturin the first generation but reaches this extent after that.  The position of the Sunnah Mashhurah is lesser in strength than the Sunnah Mutawatirah but is stronger than Sunnah Ahad.  On the other hand, according to majority of Muslim jurists, this type of Sunnah is considered as Sunnah Ahad and thus it is probable in its establishment. SunnahAhad(solitary sunnah): It is one narrated by one, two or more narrators from the beginning of the chain to its end.  The position of the Sunnah Ahad is probable with respect to its transmission and establishment. CONCLUSION: These were just some examples of how Satan controlled the books of hadiths and tried to distort Islam. It is comforting to know that the true believers have their Islam well protected and preserved when they follow the book that is protected by God Almighty, the Quran.
  • 13. These examples show us why God called on His worshipers to follow no other hadiths but His hadiths, the Quran. It also shows to us why the messenger of God will complain to God on the Day of Judgment that the Muslims deserted the Quran . .