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ERIKSON’S THEORY OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT AND ITS
EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS
Introduction:
 Erik Erikson was a psychoanalyst who developed the theory of psychosocial
development.
 He was born on June 15, 1902 in Karlsruhe Germany.
 His classic work "Childhood and Society" set forth his theory of the life cycle.
 Young Man Luther, Identity: Youth and Crisis, and Gandhi's Truth are his other
influential works.
 He believed that the achievements and failures of earlier stages influence later stages,
whereas later stages modify and transform earlier ones.
 Erikson's conceptualization of psychosocial development based its model the
epigenetic principle of organismic growth in utero.
 Erikson views psychosocial growth occurs in phases
STAGES OF ERIKSON’S THEORY:
Stage-1: Infancy (0-18 Months)
Psychological task: Trust vs Mistrust
Description of task: The infant whose needs are met by caretaker develops a sense of trust in
others. A sense of trust helps the acceptance of limits and boundaries. Trust if nurtured and
basic needs are met, children learn that others can be dependable and reliable. Mistrust if
there is cold parental care or lack of nurturing, children learn the world is undependable,
unpredictable and possibly dangerous.
Educational Implication: Meet physical needs consistently and provide physical affection at
regular intervals. Show the students that teachers are reliable and dependable, to win their
trust.
Stage-2: Early Childhood (18 Months-2 Years)
Psychological task: Anatomy vs Shame
Description of task: The toddler tries to learn independence and self-confidence. Autonomy
if self-sufficient behavior is encouraged in appropriate venues, children develop as
individuals. Shame if caretakers demand too much and no autonomy is allowed, children
develop shame and doubt about their ability to handle problems.
Educational implication: Provide consistent, reasonable discipline, opportunities for
students to do for themselves, and positive role models. Support students in their efforts to
plan and carry out activities. To develop anatomy in students and not shame.
Stage-3: Elementary School Year (3-6)
Psychological task: Initiative vs Guilt
Description of task: The child tries to develop skills in physical, cognitive and social areas.
Initiative if independence to plan and undertake activities is given, children learn to plan and
take responsibility for their own needs and activities. Guilt if adults discourage a child’s plans
or activities, children develop guilt about needs and desires.
Educational Implication: Support efforts to plan and carry out activities, help with realistic
choices that consider other’s needs. Provide opportunities for physical, cognitive and social
skills development. To teach them initiative not guilt.
Stage-4: Secondary School Years (6-12)
Psychological task: Industry vs Inferiority
Description of task: Industry if patterns of working hard, persisting at lengthy tasks and
putting work before pleasure are rewarded, children learn to take pride in their
accomplishments. Inferiority if children are punished or cannot meet expectations, feelings of
inferiority about their own abilities develop.
Educational Implication: Give opportunities for children to achieve recognition and praise
by producing things. Children learn to form social relationships. Success leads to a feeling of
competence and failure leads to a feeling of inferiority.
Stage-5: Adolescence (12-18)
Psychological task: Identity vs Confusion
Description of task: The adolescent tries out several roles and forms an integrated, single
identity. Identity if students are treated as adults and challenged with realistic goals, they will
achieve a sense of identity regarding the role they will play as adults. Role Confusion if
students are treated as children, they will have mixed ideas and feelings about where they fit
into society.
Educational Implication: Treat students as adults, challenge them with realistic goals, and
address issues of identity. Provide opportunities to explore various career options and a
variety of social and political beliefs system. To teach them identity not confusion.
Stage-6: Young Adulthood (18-40)
Psychological task: Intimacy vs Isolation
Description of task: Body and ego must be masters of organ modes and of the other nuclear
conflicts in order to face the fear of ego loss in situations which call for self-abandon. The
avoidance of these experiences leads to openness and self-absorption. Sense of complexity of
life; merging of sensory, logical and aesthetic perception.
Educational Implication: Young adults learn to form intimate relationships. Success leads
to strong relationships and failure leads to feelings of loneliness and isolation.
Stage-7: Middle Adulthood (40-65)
Psychological task: Generativity vs Stagnation
Description of task: The middle aged person tries to contribute to the world through family
relationships, work productivity and creativity. Generativity is the concern of establishing
and guiding the next generation. Socially-valued work and disciplines are expressions of
generativity
Educational Implication: Adults begin to care for things that will outlive them. Success
leads to a feeling of accomplishment while failure leads to a lack of involvement in one's
society.
Stage-8: Retirement Years (65- Death)
Psychological task: Integrity vs Despair
Description of task: The elderly person thinks back on life, experiencing satisfaction or
disappointment. The culmination is a sense of acceptance of oneself and a sense of
fulfillment.
Educational Implication: Older adults look back for a sense of fulfillment. Success leads to
a feeling of wisdom and failure leads to regret. : Provide opportunities to maintain self-
concept and satisfaction.
Erickson Theory of Moral Development
Erickson Theory of Moral Development

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Erickson Theory of Moral Development

  • 1. ERIKSON’S THEORY OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT AND ITS EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Introduction:  Erik Erikson was a psychoanalyst who developed the theory of psychosocial development.  He was born on June 15, 1902 in Karlsruhe Germany.  His classic work "Childhood and Society" set forth his theory of the life cycle.  Young Man Luther, Identity: Youth and Crisis, and Gandhi's Truth are his other influential works.  He believed that the achievements and failures of earlier stages influence later stages, whereas later stages modify and transform earlier ones.  Erikson's conceptualization of psychosocial development based its model the epigenetic principle of organismic growth in utero.  Erikson views psychosocial growth occurs in phases STAGES OF ERIKSON’S THEORY: Stage-1: Infancy (0-18 Months) Psychological task: Trust vs Mistrust Description of task: The infant whose needs are met by caretaker develops a sense of trust in others. A sense of trust helps the acceptance of limits and boundaries. Trust if nurtured and basic needs are met, children learn that others can be dependable and reliable. Mistrust if there is cold parental care or lack of nurturing, children learn the world is undependable, unpredictable and possibly dangerous. Educational Implication: Meet physical needs consistently and provide physical affection at regular intervals. Show the students that teachers are reliable and dependable, to win their trust. Stage-2: Early Childhood (18 Months-2 Years) Psychological task: Anatomy vs Shame Description of task: The toddler tries to learn independence and self-confidence. Autonomy if self-sufficient behavior is encouraged in appropriate venues, children develop as individuals. Shame if caretakers demand too much and no autonomy is allowed, children develop shame and doubt about their ability to handle problems. Educational implication: Provide consistent, reasonable discipline, opportunities for students to do for themselves, and positive role models. Support students in their efforts to plan and carry out activities. To develop anatomy in students and not shame.
  • 2. Stage-3: Elementary School Year (3-6) Psychological task: Initiative vs Guilt Description of task: The child tries to develop skills in physical, cognitive and social areas. Initiative if independence to plan and undertake activities is given, children learn to plan and take responsibility for their own needs and activities. Guilt if adults discourage a child’s plans or activities, children develop guilt about needs and desires. Educational Implication: Support efforts to plan and carry out activities, help with realistic choices that consider other’s needs. Provide opportunities for physical, cognitive and social skills development. To teach them initiative not guilt. Stage-4: Secondary School Years (6-12) Psychological task: Industry vs Inferiority Description of task: Industry if patterns of working hard, persisting at lengthy tasks and putting work before pleasure are rewarded, children learn to take pride in their accomplishments. Inferiority if children are punished or cannot meet expectations, feelings of inferiority about their own abilities develop. Educational Implication: Give opportunities for children to achieve recognition and praise by producing things. Children learn to form social relationships. Success leads to a feeling of competence and failure leads to a feeling of inferiority. Stage-5: Adolescence (12-18) Psychological task: Identity vs Confusion Description of task: The adolescent tries out several roles and forms an integrated, single identity. Identity if students are treated as adults and challenged with realistic goals, they will achieve a sense of identity regarding the role they will play as adults. Role Confusion if students are treated as children, they will have mixed ideas and feelings about where they fit into society. Educational Implication: Treat students as adults, challenge them with realistic goals, and address issues of identity. Provide opportunities to explore various career options and a variety of social and political beliefs system. To teach them identity not confusion. Stage-6: Young Adulthood (18-40) Psychological task: Intimacy vs Isolation Description of task: Body and ego must be masters of organ modes and of the other nuclear conflicts in order to face the fear of ego loss in situations which call for self-abandon. The avoidance of these experiences leads to openness and self-absorption. Sense of complexity of life; merging of sensory, logical and aesthetic perception.
  • 3. Educational Implication: Young adults learn to form intimate relationships. Success leads to strong relationships and failure leads to feelings of loneliness and isolation. Stage-7: Middle Adulthood (40-65) Psychological task: Generativity vs Stagnation Description of task: The middle aged person tries to contribute to the world through family relationships, work productivity and creativity. Generativity is the concern of establishing and guiding the next generation. Socially-valued work and disciplines are expressions of generativity Educational Implication: Adults begin to care for things that will outlive them. Success leads to a feeling of accomplishment while failure leads to a lack of involvement in one's society. Stage-8: Retirement Years (65- Death) Psychological task: Integrity vs Despair Description of task: The elderly person thinks back on life, experiencing satisfaction or disappointment. The culmination is a sense of acceptance of oneself and a sense of fulfillment. Educational Implication: Older adults look back for a sense of fulfillment. Success leads to a feeling of wisdom and failure leads to regret. : Provide opportunities to maintain self- concept and satisfaction.