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METHODS OF TEACHING
PROJECT METHOD
Introduction:
Project method is one of the modern method of teaching in which, the student point of view is
given importance in designing the curricula and content of studies. This method is based on
philosophy of pragmatism and principles of learning by doing. In this strategy pupils perform
constructive activities in natural condition. A project is a list of real life that has been
imparted into the school. It demands the work from pupil.
Definition:
According to W.H Kilpatric
“A project is a whole hearted purposeful activity proceeding in a social environment”
According to Ballord
“A project is a bit of real life that has been imparted into the school”
According to Thomas and Long
“It is voluntary undertaking which involves constructive efforts or through and eventuates
into objective result”
Charteristics of Project Method:
 It takes the students beyond the walls of class room. It is carried out in a natural
setting, thus making learning realistic and experiential.
 It encourages investigative learning and solutions of practical problems. It is focused
on the student to enlist his/her active involvement in the task set.
 It encourages the spirit of scientific enquiry as it involves validation of hypothesis
based on evidence gathered from the field through investigation.
 It promotes a better knowledge of the practical aspects of knowledge gained from
books.
 It enhances the student’s social skills, as it requires interaction with the social
environment.
 Teacher plays a facilitative role rather than the role of an expert. It encourages the
spirit of research in students.
 It allows the students a great degree of freedom to choose from among the options
given to them; hence it provides a psychological boost.
TYPES OF PROJECTS:
I. Individual and Social project: In this project students are assigned a problem related to
their interest, capacity, attitude and needs.
II. Group project: The problem is solved by the group of pupils in the class. Here the social
citizenship qualities and synergism are develops.
III. Simple project: In the simple projects the student are completing only one work at a
time. It gives the deep information about the project in the one angle; the students get
deeper and broader knowledge about the problem.
IV. Complex project: The students are carried out more than one work at a time. They are
focuses on the work in various subject and angles. Here the students get the knowledge
about the work in various activities and dimensions.
V. Constructive project: Practical or physical task such as construction of article, making a
model, digging the well and playing drama are done in this type of project.
VI. Aesthetic project: Appreciation powers of the students are develop in this type of project
through the musical programmers, beautification of something, appreciation of poems and
so on.
VII. Problematic project: In this type of project develops the problem solving capacity of the
students through their experiences. It is based on the cognitive domain.
VIII. Drill project: It is for the mastery of the skill and knowledge of the student. It increases
the work efficacy and capacity of the students.
MARITS OF PROJECT METHOD:
 As students get proper freedom to execute the project in accordance with their interest
and abilities, because of which they get their psychological needs satisfied to
considerable extent.
 This method is not subject centered but due importance is being provided to the
students also.
 Through this method, students are provided with various opportunities by which they
can satisfy their interest and desire.
 Habit of critical thinking gets developed among the students through this method.
Through this method, student gets an ample chance in which they can develop
coordination among their body and minds.
 Through this method, science teaching can be done with considerable success, as
science is a practical subject and this method is also scientific and practical in nature.
 With this method, teacher can lead a well-balanced development of the students.
 This method helps in promoting social interactions and co-operations among the
students, as they have to work in a group and have to interact with various persons of
gathering information.
 As student gain knowledge directly through their own effort, thus, they acquire
permanent kind of information, which is retained by them since a long period of time.
 Mostly the projects are undertaken in classroom as classroom assignments, because of
which load of home work from students get reduced to considerable extent.
 It helps to widen the mental horizon of pupil. It sets up a challenge to solve a problem
and this stimulates constructive and creative thinking.
DEMARITS OF PROJECT METHOD
 This method takes a lot of time to plan and execute a single project. For proper
execution of a project, a large no of financial resources are required.
 It is not possible to design different projects for different topics and it is not also
possible to cover all the topics or content in a single project.
 Such method can only be proving successful if the teacher is highly knowledgeable,
alert and exceptionally gifted.
 Systematic and adequate learning is not provided by this method, as it is a method of
incidental learning. Through this method, students learn only what is required by them
in relation to the completion of the project.
 Generally, it is found that teachers do not possess much information regarding the
manner in which this method should be used as a result of which they hesitate from
using this method, as a result of which, its utility remains more or less limited or
negligible.
 Sometimes the projects may be too ambitious and beyond students capacity to
accomplish.
DRILL METHOD:
Introduction:
Drilling is a technique that has been used in foreign language classrooms for many years. It
was a key feature of audio-lingual method approaches to language teaching, which placed
emphasis on repeating structural patterns through oral practice. At its simplest, drilling means
listening to a model, provided by the teacher, or a tape or another student, and repeating what
is heard. This is a repetition drill, a technique that is still used by many teachers when
introducing new language items to their students.
Definition:
“A drill is a classroom technique used to practice new language. It involves the teacher
modeling a word or a sentence and the learners repeating it. There are different kinds of
drilling, such as choral drill, which involves the whole class, and substitution drill, where the
teacher changes the cue words after each repetition”
Characteristics of Drill Method:
 For the learners, drills can:
1. Provide for a focus on accuracy. Increased accuracy is one of the ways in which a
learner’s language improves so there is a need to focus on accuracy at certain stages of
the lesson or during certain task type.
2. Provide learners with intensive practice in hearing and saying particular word or phrases.
They can help learners get their tongues around difficult sounds or help them imitate
intonation that may be rather different from that of their first language.
3. Provide a safe environment for learners to experiment with producing the language. This
may help build confidence particularly among learners who are not risk takers.
4. Help students notice the correct form or pronunciation of a word phrase. Noticing or
consciousness rising of language is an important stage in developing language
competence.
5. Provide an opportunity for learners to get immediate feedback on their accuracy in terms
of teacher or peer correction. Many learners want to be corrected.
6. Help memorization and atomization of common language patterns and language chunks.
This may be particularly true for aural learners.
7. Meet students expectation, i.e. they may think drilling is an essential feature of language
classrooms.
 For The Teacher:
1. Help in term of classroom management, enabling us to vary the pace of the lesson or to
get all learners involved.
2. Help the teacher recognize if new language is causing problems in terms of form or
pronunciation.
TYPES OF DRILL METHOD:
I. The Repetition Drill: The teacher says models (the word or phrases) and the students
repeat it.
Example:
Teacher : It didn’t rain, so I needn’t have taken my umbrella
Students : It didn’t rain, so I needn’t have taken my umbrella
I. The Substitution Drill: Substitution drill can used to practice different structures or
vocabulary items (i. e one word or more word change during the drill)
Example:
Teacher: I go to school. He?
Students: He goes to school.
Teacher: They?
Students: They go to school.
II. The Question and Answer Drill: The teacher gives students practice with answering
questions. The students should answer the teacher’s questions very quickly. It is also
possible for the teacher to let the students practice to ask question as well. This gives
students practice with the question pattern.
Example:
Teacher: Does he go to school? Yes?
Students: Yes, he does.
III. The Transformation Drill: The teacher gives students a certain kind of sentence
pattern, an affirmation sentence for example. Students are asked to transform this
sentence into a negative sentence. Other examples of transformations to ask of students
are changing a statement into a question, an active sentence into a passive one, or
direct speech into a reported speech.
Example: (positive into negative)
Teacher: I clean the house.
Students: I don’t clean the house.
Teacher: She sings a song.
Students: She doesn’t sing a song.
IV. The Chain Drill: The teacher begins the chain by greeting a particular student, or asking
him a question. That student respond, then turns to the students sitting next to him. The
first student greets or asks a question of the second student and the chain continues. A
chain drill allows some controlled communication, even though it is limited. A chain drill
also gives the teacher an opportunity to check each student’s speech.
Example:
Teacher: What is the color of sky?
The color of sky is blue
what the color of banana?
Student A: The color of banana is yellow
what is the color of leaf?
Student B: The color of leaf is green
what is the color of our eyes?
Student C: The color of our eyes is black and white.
V. The Expansion Drill: This drill is used when a long line dialog is giving students
trouble. The teacher breaks down the line into several parts. The students repeat a part of
the sentence, usually the last phrase of the line. Then following the teacher’s cue, the
students expand what they are repeating part at the end of the sentence (and works
backward from there) to keep the intonation of the line as natural as possible. This also
directs more student attention to the end of the sentence, where new information typically
occurs.
Example:
Teacher: My mother is a doctor.
Students: My mother is a doctor
Teacher: She works in the hospital.
Students: She works in the hospital
Teacher: My mother is a doctor. She works in the hospital.
Students: My mother is a doctor. She works in the hospital.
VI. The Communicative Drills: This kind of drills is quite different from the so-called
meaningless and mechanical drills used in a traditional grammar oriented class by some
teachers, in which the primary focus is on the form of the language being used rather than
its communicative content Guessing game:
Examples:
Students: Is it in the class?
Teacher: Yes, it is.
Students: Is it blue?
Teacher: No, it is not.
Students: Is it black?
MERITS OF DRILL METHOD:
 While drills are associated with a regimented style of instruction, they do have a
place. Drills are used successfully when teaching students technique.
 For instance, when young people are learning their multiplication tables, they can do
drills on each number set to help them memorize; they can then proceed to more
difficult concepts that use the information obtained from drills.
 In physical education and music, coaches and teachers use drills as a method to hone
skills that need repetition for improvement. Additionally, students can use this
technique with one another for shared learning opportunities.
 Drilling help our learners memories language by the teacher’s control. And the
teacher can correct any mistakes that students make and encourage them to concrete
on difficulties at the sometime.
DEMIRITS OF DRILL METHOD:
 There are potential drawbacks to practice and drills. Teachers need to make sure that
when having students practice, there is a clear link between concept and action.
 Students must be able to relate what they are doing to what they are learning.
Similarly, drills are not effective when students are not prepared enough; they will not
be able to maintain a pace if they are still unclear about a concept.
 Furthermore, drills are typically for more basic knowledge or for a more physical
understanding. If teaching about more abstract concepts, a drill methodology would
not be appropriate.
 Drilling often make the students not vary creative. In all drills learners have no or
vary little choice over what is said so drills are form of very controlled practice.
 The teacher needs to handle the drills, so that the students are not over used and they
don’t go on far too long.
 One of the problems about drills is that they are fairly monotonous
ACTIVITY METHOD
Introduction:
Activity method is a technique adopted by a teacher to emphasize his or her method of
teaching through activity in which the students participate rigorously and bring about
efficient learning experiences. It is a child-centered approach. It is a method in which the
child is actively involved in participating mentally and physically. Learning by doing is the
main focus in this method. Learning by doing is imperative in successful learning since it is
well proved that more the senses are stimulated, more a person learns and longer he/she
retains. Activity method is techniques adopted by a teacher to teach through activity in which
the students participate thoroughly and bring about efficient learning experiences.
Definition:
“It is a constructivist learning approach. In which hands –on, creative, participative
method of learning is used. It is an interactive method in language learning”
Charteristics of Activity Method:
 Learning should be constructive and self-motivated. It should engage students
actively for children are naturally curious and likes to explore their environment.
 Teacher should create an environment that is conducive for gaining knowledge.
Students are not confined to their seats and classrooms. Free exchange of ideas among
students.
 Children are self- motivated to know and to learn. Teacher act as a facilitator or guide
and not an authoritarian. Most effective method for teaching language skills and
thinking skills. It enhances creative aspect of experience. It gives reality for
learning. Uses all available resources.
 Provides varied experiences to the students to facilitate the acquisition of knowledge,
experience, skills and values. Builds the student’s self-confidence and develops
understanding through work in his/her group.
 Gets experiences, develop interest, enriches vocabulary and provides stimulus for
reading. Subjects of all kind can be taught through activity. Social relation provides
opportunity to mix with other.
 Develops happy relationship between students and students, teachers and students. An
activity is said to be the language of the child. A child who lacks in verbal expression
can make up through use of ideas in the activity.
 Teachers should device activities to suit the age group and skills of the learners. There
should be variety in activities. Activities should not only help gather knowledge, but
apply and evaluate knowledge.
 Activities should be interesting, and thought provoking. There should be individual,
pair, group and whole class activities.
TYPES OF ACTIVITY METHOD:
I. Experiencing activities: Watching, observing, comparing, describing, questioning,
discussing, investigating, reporting, collecting, selecting, testing, trying, listening,
reading, drawing, calculating, imitating, modeling, playing, acting, taking on roles,
talking, writing about what one can see, hear, feel, taste, experimenting and
imagining.
II. Memorizing activities: Sequencing ordering, finding regularities and patterns,
connect with given knowledge, use different modes of perception, depict.
III. Understanding activities: Structuring, ordering, classifying, constructing, solving,
planning, predicting, transferring, and applying knowledge, formulating ones
individual understanding, interpreting, summarizing, evaluating, judging, explaining
and teaching.
IV. Organizing activities: The process of organizing activities must be based on
curricular aims bringing together the needs, ideas, interests and characteristics of the
children with the knowledge, skill, experience, and personality of the teacher within a
given environment. The extent to which the teacher works with students individually
or in groups affect the relation the teacher has with each child.
MERITS OF ACTIVITY METHOD:
 Application of knowledge is more important than acquiring knowledge
 Knowledge is applied through various activities in this method of learning
 Activities bring variety to the process of learning. Contrast this with traditional
passive listening.
 It's easier to catch and sustain the attention and interest of the learners when they are
actively involved.
 The retention of knowledge thus gained is permanent. Bringing subjects down to the
level of student’s experience makes understanding easier
 Inviting active participation helps students open up. They can freely try out the
concepts they have learned.
 Students have freedom to move around. No student likes to be tied down to his bench.
 Class rooms become a lively, interesting place. Through pair-work, group-work,
whole class discussions students are exposed to a variety of viewpoints and
perspectives.
 The guided discovery approach leads students to a clearer understanding of the forms
and underlying concepts.
 The teacher’s role is to set tasks that help students arrive at an understanding of the
concepts, make learning challenging and motivating by selecting appropriate material,
decide teaching tools, design activities, prompt and ask questions that make learning
challenging and motivating.
 Interactive teaching provides ample practice in speaking and listening skills.
 Interacting with a group with similar skill helps remove inhibition and develops
confidence and fluency in the use of language.
 Collaboration and exchange of ideas enriches the learner’s mind. Role plays, skits
create natural situations to think and gain new perspectives.
DEMERITS OF ACTIVITY METHOD:
 Time factor: Students can get carried away by activities. Teachers with the pressure
of completing syllabus on time may find lecture method more convenient.
 Large classes: Teachers cannot freely move and monitor all groups and cannot
provide individual attention.
 Passivity: Just as in traditional class rooms a few always actively participate when
others remain passive listeners.
 Digression: Students tend to move away from the topic under discussion.
 Low Ability: Students who have Low ability can’t take active participation. Learners
would lose interest and become dormant in the discussions.
 Hampering of students: It will have Lengthy procedure and requires flawless
planning. Focusing on activity to make learning fun can actually hamper those
students who would make good progress without it.
QUESTION AND ANSWER METHOD
Introduction:
Questioning occurs in all aspects of life and in all fields. Borich (1992) found that 80% of
classroom talk is questions. Some teachers ask more than 100/hour! Therefore the process of
asking questions is a popular mode of teaching! Involving a class in questions and answers is
the first step away from monological teaching. It is the initial recognition that learning takes
place when students are verbally as well as intellectually involved in the educational
situation. Here we are attempting to secure verbal interaction. Actually interaction may be of
several types and is essential to all learning. Most educators agree that mental interaction is
not sufficient but should be accompanied by some form of student expression or reaction.
The student must comprehend truth in his own mind, and then express it in his own words.
Definition:
i. “A pedagogical technique in which a teacher does not give information directly but in
stead asks a series of questions, with the result that the student comes either to the
Desired knowledge by answering the questions or to a deeper awareness of the limits
Of knowledge”
ii. “To question well is to teach well. In the skillful use of questions, more than anything
else lies the fine art of teaching.” Earnest Sachs
Charteristics of Question and Answer Method:
 It is an assessment that allows teachers to check for comprehension at various levels.
Through questions, we can help students to expand their knowledge and think
creatively outside the box.
 They will allow the educator to check for comprehension at various levels. It is
possible to transfer factual knowledge & conceptual understanding through this
process.
 Reasons Why Teachers Ask Questions. Helps keep students actively involved in the
lessons. Students have the opportunity to openly express their ideas or thoughts while
answering questions
 Enables other students to hear different explanations of the material by their peers.
Helps teachers to pace their lessons and moderate student behavior. Helps teachers
evaluate student learning and revise lessons as necessary.
 To interest, engage and challenge pupils; to check on prior knowledge and
understanding; to stimulate recall, mobilizing existing knowledge.
 To focus pupils’ thinking on key concepts and issues; to help pupils to extend
their thinking from the concrete and factual to the analytical and evaluative.
 To lead pupils through a planned sequence which progressively establishes key
understandings; to promote reasoning, problem solving, evaluation and the
formulation of hypotheses?
 To promote pupils’ thinking about the way they have learned.
Types of Questions:
I. Convergent/ direct/ closed: Used when answers are limited to a single
or small # of correct responses. Used for assessing lower levels of
cognition. Most time is spent on these types. Factual information that
can be memorized. Not necessarily helpful in developing a deep
understanding of subject area. Relied on to keep the lesson paced &
keep attention of students, maintain control. Receive single word or
short factual answer: “Are you hungry?” Or “Where do you live?”
Good for: Testing for understanding OR Making a decision. A
misplaced closed question can kill the conversation and lead to awkward
silences.
II. Divergent/ Indirect/Open: Used for higher levels of cognition or
reasoning skills. Enables them not just to remember facts but to use
their knowledge to problem solve, analyze & evaluate. They need a
deep understanding to answer this type of question. Elicit longer
answers. Asks for knowledge, opinions or feelings. “What?”, “Why?”,
“How?”, “Tell me”, “Describe”
Examples:
“What happened yesterday in class?”
“Why did she do that?”
“How was the presentation?”
“Tell me what happened next.”
“Describe the situation in more detail.”
Good for
1. Developing more open conversation
2. Finding more detail
3. Finding others opinions or issues
MERITS OF QUESTION AND ANSWER METHOD:
 Asking a good question will develop & foster interaction between teacher and student.
This in turn promotes student learning, achievement & understanding.
 Our technique is important so that our listeners will comprehend our question
 Sanders (1966) stated, “Good questions recognize the wide possibilities of thought
and are built around various forms of thinking. Good questions are directed toward
learning and evaluative thinking rather than determining what has been learned in a
narrow sense.”
 Higher order questions require significant mental processes – wait time is needed!!
There are fewer “no answers”
 Benefits teachers as well, questioning strategies tend to be more varied and flexible
and the number of questions decrease in quantity and increase in quality.
DEMERITS OF QUESTION ANSWER METHOD:
 The use of questions and answers in class is a perfectly legitimate approach to
teaching, but it is often confused with discussion. As indicated in the last chapter,
perhaps the best way to make a distinction is to emphasize the kind of question
involved.
 Question and answer teaching almost always deals with factual data and objective
responses. Very often it is a review of material previously studied by the students, or
just covered in a lecture or story.
 Although thought questions can certainly be used in this approach to teaching, there is
a tendency in a thought question to pose a defined problem and thereby lapse over to
the discussion technique.
 Both of these techniques are perfectly valid, but the teacher should be able to identify
when he is using discussion and when he is using question and answer. A common
weakness in question and answer teaching is the framing of superfluous or shallow
questions which offer no challenge to the class.
 The use of a rhetorical question, for example, is a worthy device for communication
but is not a proper approach to question and answer teaching. Sufficient “mystery”
about the answer helps motivate a genuinely intellectual response on the part of the
student.
 Furthermore, the use of questions should not be viewed as a substitute for knowledge
of the material or communication of important content. Questions cannot impart
objective data and are not well used to accomplish such teaching goals.
 Sometimes teachers spend too much of the class time asking questions and too little
listening to questions. But how can you get your class to talk? The problem of silence
generally lies in one of three areas: their past educational pattern has conditioned
them to sit and listen but not to participate verbally in the class time.
 Their lack of interest in the subject creates a “ho-hum” atmosphere so that no
questions are motivated; their ignorance of answers to your questions forces them to
bide behind a shield of silence lest their lack of study or inability to produce be
unmasked.
GROUP DIFFERENTIATED METHOD
Introduction:
A teaching skill essential to all educators is group competence. Lack of it can never have
been more damaging; now teachers have to promote active learning, for which group method
is optimal. The only kind of students now needed is an activated one, equipped for
independent lifelong learning and teamwork; current educational innovation, such as problem
based learning depends on group teaching.
Group work is a method for generating free communication between the group leader and the
members, and among all the participants themselves. The group can make positive use of the
differences in knowledge and attitude among participants, made evident as they interact with
each other. Group work enables participants to a great deal from their fellows, in a type of
communication which cannot take place in a lecture hall.
Definition:
“A group is a number of people interacting in a face to face situation”
Charteristics of Group Differentiated method:
 Difficult subject matters, complex facts, a specialized vocabulary, or involved
techniques produced can be grasped more easily if participants can raise their own
informally-stated question.
 Factual knowledge can be subjected to reasoning, and placed into context, if
opportunity is given for discussion.
 Reasoning, problem-solving or decision making are not simply cognitive matters,
relating narrowly to the intellectually processes. Examination of attitude and their
modifications occurs most easily and is reinforced effectively under small conditions.
 Interactions with fellow deepens a participant’s intellectual grasp and increase
motivation.
 Group methods enable participants to deal with the present rapid changes in all
branches of medicine and the impossibility of learning all there is known, replacing
outmoded knowledge and assimilating new knowledge.
 Group methods counteract the authority-dependence polarity present in much
academic and management activities.
 Group method allows the participants to examine their own behavior and understand
better how they relate to others.
 Group session increase active participation, participants are given the opportunity to
learn from each other.
MERITS OF GROUP DIFFERENTIATED METHOD:
 They obtain increased understanding of the subject.
 They develop greater ability to assemble and present information.
 They welcome opportunities to think critically.
 They are able to ask questions and to clear up their difficulties.
 They consider that they are aided by the personal relationship with the group
leader.
 They say that they become more articulate and speak and speak better in
public, with increased confidence.
 They are stimulated to follow the subject further in private, independent study.
 They are able to influence the content and methods of their work.
 They obtain instant feedback with each other of the efforts they make to solve
the problem in hand.
DEMARITS OF GROUP DEFFERENTIATED METHOD:
 Weak participants can be discourage by more articulate fellows, deterred from
expressing themselves, and have their progress slow.
 In this method only students flourish which are technical not every student works.
COMRARISON OF TEACHING METHODS
Sr.
No.
METHOD DEFINITION EXAMPLE ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
1. Project
“A project is a whole
hearted purposeful
activity proceeding
in a social
environment”
To work in
groups.
It helps to socialize
the student.
It takes a lot of time.
2. Drill
“A drill is a
classroom technique
used to practice new
language”
Students
repeat after
teachers.
Drilling help our
learners memories
language by the
teacher’s control.
Drilling often make the
students not vary creative.
3. Activity
“It is a constructivist
learning approach”
Students
perform
different
activities.
Class rooms become
a lively, interesting
place.
Teachers cannot freely
move and monitor all
groups and cannot
provide individual
attention.
4.
Question and
Answer
“To question well is
to teach well. In the
skillful use of
questions, more than
anything else lies the
fine art of teaching”
Interaction
between
teacher and
student.
Students remain in
active situation and
perform well in class.
Question and answer
teaching almost always
deals with factual data
and objective responses.
5.
Group
Differentiated
“A group is a
number of people
interacting in a face
to face situation”
To work
together in
different
groups.
They welcome
opportunities to think
critically.
In this method only
students flourish which
are technical not every
student works.

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Methods of teaching

  • 1. METHODS OF TEACHING PROJECT METHOD Introduction: Project method is one of the modern method of teaching in which, the student point of view is given importance in designing the curricula and content of studies. This method is based on philosophy of pragmatism and principles of learning by doing. In this strategy pupils perform constructive activities in natural condition. A project is a list of real life that has been imparted into the school. It demands the work from pupil. Definition: According to W.H Kilpatric “A project is a whole hearted purposeful activity proceeding in a social environment” According to Ballord “A project is a bit of real life that has been imparted into the school” According to Thomas and Long “It is voluntary undertaking which involves constructive efforts or through and eventuates into objective result” Charteristics of Project Method:  It takes the students beyond the walls of class room. It is carried out in a natural setting, thus making learning realistic and experiential.  It encourages investigative learning and solutions of practical problems. It is focused on the student to enlist his/her active involvement in the task set.  It encourages the spirit of scientific enquiry as it involves validation of hypothesis based on evidence gathered from the field through investigation.  It promotes a better knowledge of the practical aspects of knowledge gained from books.  It enhances the student’s social skills, as it requires interaction with the social environment.  Teacher plays a facilitative role rather than the role of an expert. It encourages the spirit of research in students.  It allows the students a great degree of freedom to choose from among the options given to them; hence it provides a psychological boost. TYPES OF PROJECTS: I. Individual and Social project: In this project students are assigned a problem related to their interest, capacity, attitude and needs.
  • 2. II. Group project: The problem is solved by the group of pupils in the class. Here the social citizenship qualities and synergism are develops. III. Simple project: In the simple projects the student are completing only one work at a time. It gives the deep information about the project in the one angle; the students get deeper and broader knowledge about the problem. IV. Complex project: The students are carried out more than one work at a time. They are focuses on the work in various subject and angles. Here the students get the knowledge about the work in various activities and dimensions. V. Constructive project: Practical or physical task such as construction of article, making a model, digging the well and playing drama are done in this type of project. VI. Aesthetic project: Appreciation powers of the students are develop in this type of project through the musical programmers, beautification of something, appreciation of poems and so on. VII. Problematic project: In this type of project develops the problem solving capacity of the students through their experiences. It is based on the cognitive domain. VIII. Drill project: It is for the mastery of the skill and knowledge of the student. It increases the work efficacy and capacity of the students. MARITS OF PROJECT METHOD:  As students get proper freedom to execute the project in accordance with their interest and abilities, because of which they get their psychological needs satisfied to considerable extent.  This method is not subject centered but due importance is being provided to the students also.  Through this method, students are provided with various opportunities by which they can satisfy their interest and desire.  Habit of critical thinking gets developed among the students through this method. Through this method, student gets an ample chance in which they can develop coordination among their body and minds.  Through this method, science teaching can be done with considerable success, as science is a practical subject and this method is also scientific and practical in nature.  With this method, teacher can lead a well-balanced development of the students.  This method helps in promoting social interactions and co-operations among the students, as they have to work in a group and have to interact with various persons of gathering information.  As student gain knowledge directly through their own effort, thus, they acquire permanent kind of information, which is retained by them since a long period of time.  Mostly the projects are undertaken in classroom as classroom assignments, because of which load of home work from students get reduced to considerable extent.  It helps to widen the mental horizon of pupil. It sets up a challenge to solve a problem and this stimulates constructive and creative thinking.
  • 3. DEMARITS OF PROJECT METHOD  This method takes a lot of time to plan and execute a single project. For proper execution of a project, a large no of financial resources are required.  It is not possible to design different projects for different topics and it is not also possible to cover all the topics or content in a single project.  Such method can only be proving successful if the teacher is highly knowledgeable, alert and exceptionally gifted.  Systematic and adequate learning is not provided by this method, as it is a method of incidental learning. Through this method, students learn only what is required by them in relation to the completion of the project.  Generally, it is found that teachers do not possess much information regarding the manner in which this method should be used as a result of which they hesitate from using this method, as a result of which, its utility remains more or less limited or negligible.  Sometimes the projects may be too ambitious and beyond students capacity to accomplish. DRILL METHOD: Introduction: Drilling is a technique that has been used in foreign language classrooms for many years. It was a key feature of audio-lingual method approaches to language teaching, which placed emphasis on repeating structural patterns through oral practice. At its simplest, drilling means listening to a model, provided by the teacher, or a tape or another student, and repeating what is heard. This is a repetition drill, a technique that is still used by many teachers when introducing new language items to their students. Definition: “A drill is a classroom technique used to practice new language. It involves the teacher modeling a word or a sentence and the learners repeating it. There are different kinds of drilling, such as choral drill, which involves the whole class, and substitution drill, where the teacher changes the cue words after each repetition” Characteristics of Drill Method:  For the learners, drills can: 1. Provide for a focus on accuracy. Increased accuracy is one of the ways in which a learner’s language improves so there is a need to focus on accuracy at certain stages of the lesson or during certain task type.
  • 4. 2. Provide learners with intensive practice in hearing and saying particular word or phrases. They can help learners get their tongues around difficult sounds or help them imitate intonation that may be rather different from that of their first language. 3. Provide a safe environment for learners to experiment with producing the language. This may help build confidence particularly among learners who are not risk takers. 4. Help students notice the correct form or pronunciation of a word phrase. Noticing or consciousness rising of language is an important stage in developing language competence. 5. Provide an opportunity for learners to get immediate feedback on their accuracy in terms of teacher or peer correction. Many learners want to be corrected. 6. Help memorization and atomization of common language patterns and language chunks. This may be particularly true for aural learners. 7. Meet students expectation, i.e. they may think drilling is an essential feature of language classrooms.  For The Teacher: 1. Help in term of classroom management, enabling us to vary the pace of the lesson or to get all learners involved. 2. Help the teacher recognize if new language is causing problems in terms of form or pronunciation. TYPES OF DRILL METHOD: I. The Repetition Drill: The teacher says models (the word or phrases) and the students repeat it. Example: Teacher : It didn’t rain, so I needn’t have taken my umbrella Students : It didn’t rain, so I needn’t have taken my umbrella I. The Substitution Drill: Substitution drill can used to practice different structures or vocabulary items (i. e one word or more word change during the drill) Example: Teacher: I go to school. He? Students: He goes to school. Teacher: They? Students: They go to school. II. The Question and Answer Drill: The teacher gives students practice with answering questions. The students should answer the teacher’s questions very quickly. It is also possible for the teacher to let the students practice to ask question as well. This gives students practice with the question pattern. Example: Teacher: Does he go to school? Yes?
  • 5. Students: Yes, he does. III. The Transformation Drill: The teacher gives students a certain kind of sentence pattern, an affirmation sentence for example. Students are asked to transform this sentence into a negative sentence. Other examples of transformations to ask of students are changing a statement into a question, an active sentence into a passive one, or direct speech into a reported speech. Example: (positive into negative) Teacher: I clean the house. Students: I don’t clean the house. Teacher: She sings a song. Students: She doesn’t sing a song. IV. The Chain Drill: The teacher begins the chain by greeting a particular student, or asking him a question. That student respond, then turns to the students sitting next to him. The first student greets or asks a question of the second student and the chain continues. A chain drill allows some controlled communication, even though it is limited. A chain drill also gives the teacher an opportunity to check each student’s speech. Example: Teacher: What is the color of sky? The color of sky is blue what the color of banana? Student A: The color of banana is yellow what is the color of leaf? Student B: The color of leaf is green what is the color of our eyes? Student C: The color of our eyes is black and white. V. The Expansion Drill: This drill is used when a long line dialog is giving students trouble. The teacher breaks down the line into several parts. The students repeat a part of the sentence, usually the last phrase of the line. Then following the teacher’s cue, the students expand what they are repeating part at the end of the sentence (and works backward from there) to keep the intonation of the line as natural as possible. This also directs more student attention to the end of the sentence, where new information typically occurs. Example: Teacher: My mother is a doctor. Students: My mother is a doctor Teacher: She works in the hospital. Students: She works in the hospital Teacher: My mother is a doctor. She works in the hospital. Students: My mother is a doctor. She works in the hospital. VI. The Communicative Drills: This kind of drills is quite different from the so-called meaningless and mechanical drills used in a traditional grammar oriented class by some teachers, in which the primary focus is on the form of the language being used rather than
  • 6. its communicative content Guessing game: Examples: Students: Is it in the class? Teacher: Yes, it is. Students: Is it blue? Teacher: No, it is not. Students: Is it black? MERITS OF DRILL METHOD:  While drills are associated with a regimented style of instruction, they do have a place. Drills are used successfully when teaching students technique.  For instance, when young people are learning their multiplication tables, they can do drills on each number set to help them memorize; they can then proceed to more difficult concepts that use the information obtained from drills.  In physical education and music, coaches and teachers use drills as a method to hone skills that need repetition for improvement. Additionally, students can use this technique with one another for shared learning opportunities.  Drilling help our learners memories language by the teacher’s control. And the teacher can correct any mistakes that students make and encourage them to concrete on difficulties at the sometime. DEMIRITS OF DRILL METHOD:  There are potential drawbacks to practice and drills. Teachers need to make sure that when having students practice, there is a clear link between concept and action.  Students must be able to relate what they are doing to what they are learning. Similarly, drills are not effective when students are not prepared enough; they will not be able to maintain a pace if they are still unclear about a concept.  Furthermore, drills are typically for more basic knowledge or for a more physical understanding. If teaching about more abstract concepts, a drill methodology would not be appropriate.  Drilling often make the students not vary creative. In all drills learners have no or vary little choice over what is said so drills are form of very controlled practice.  The teacher needs to handle the drills, so that the students are not over used and they don’t go on far too long.  One of the problems about drills is that they are fairly monotonous ACTIVITY METHOD Introduction: Activity method is a technique adopted by a teacher to emphasize his or her method of teaching through activity in which the students participate rigorously and bring about efficient learning experiences. It is a child-centered approach. It is a method in which the
  • 7. child is actively involved in participating mentally and physically. Learning by doing is the main focus in this method. Learning by doing is imperative in successful learning since it is well proved that more the senses are stimulated, more a person learns and longer he/she retains. Activity method is techniques adopted by a teacher to teach through activity in which the students participate thoroughly and bring about efficient learning experiences. Definition: “It is a constructivist learning approach. In which hands –on, creative, participative method of learning is used. It is an interactive method in language learning” Charteristics of Activity Method:  Learning should be constructive and self-motivated. It should engage students actively for children are naturally curious and likes to explore their environment.  Teacher should create an environment that is conducive for gaining knowledge. Students are not confined to their seats and classrooms. Free exchange of ideas among students.  Children are self- motivated to know and to learn. Teacher act as a facilitator or guide and not an authoritarian. Most effective method for teaching language skills and thinking skills. It enhances creative aspect of experience. It gives reality for learning. Uses all available resources.  Provides varied experiences to the students to facilitate the acquisition of knowledge, experience, skills and values. Builds the student’s self-confidence and develops understanding through work in his/her group.  Gets experiences, develop interest, enriches vocabulary and provides stimulus for reading. Subjects of all kind can be taught through activity. Social relation provides opportunity to mix with other.  Develops happy relationship between students and students, teachers and students. An activity is said to be the language of the child. A child who lacks in verbal expression can make up through use of ideas in the activity.  Teachers should device activities to suit the age group and skills of the learners. There should be variety in activities. Activities should not only help gather knowledge, but apply and evaluate knowledge.  Activities should be interesting, and thought provoking. There should be individual, pair, group and whole class activities. TYPES OF ACTIVITY METHOD: I. Experiencing activities: Watching, observing, comparing, describing, questioning, discussing, investigating, reporting, collecting, selecting, testing, trying, listening, reading, drawing, calculating, imitating, modeling, playing, acting, taking on roles, talking, writing about what one can see, hear, feel, taste, experimenting and imagining.
  • 8. II. Memorizing activities: Sequencing ordering, finding regularities and patterns, connect with given knowledge, use different modes of perception, depict. III. Understanding activities: Structuring, ordering, classifying, constructing, solving, planning, predicting, transferring, and applying knowledge, formulating ones individual understanding, interpreting, summarizing, evaluating, judging, explaining and teaching. IV. Organizing activities: The process of organizing activities must be based on curricular aims bringing together the needs, ideas, interests and characteristics of the children with the knowledge, skill, experience, and personality of the teacher within a given environment. The extent to which the teacher works with students individually or in groups affect the relation the teacher has with each child. MERITS OF ACTIVITY METHOD:  Application of knowledge is more important than acquiring knowledge  Knowledge is applied through various activities in this method of learning  Activities bring variety to the process of learning. Contrast this with traditional passive listening.  It's easier to catch and sustain the attention and interest of the learners when they are actively involved.  The retention of knowledge thus gained is permanent. Bringing subjects down to the level of student’s experience makes understanding easier  Inviting active participation helps students open up. They can freely try out the concepts they have learned.  Students have freedom to move around. No student likes to be tied down to his bench.  Class rooms become a lively, interesting place. Through pair-work, group-work, whole class discussions students are exposed to a variety of viewpoints and perspectives.  The guided discovery approach leads students to a clearer understanding of the forms and underlying concepts.  The teacher’s role is to set tasks that help students arrive at an understanding of the concepts, make learning challenging and motivating by selecting appropriate material, decide teaching tools, design activities, prompt and ask questions that make learning challenging and motivating.  Interactive teaching provides ample practice in speaking and listening skills.  Interacting with a group with similar skill helps remove inhibition and develops confidence and fluency in the use of language.  Collaboration and exchange of ideas enriches the learner’s mind. Role plays, skits create natural situations to think and gain new perspectives. DEMERITS OF ACTIVITY METHOD:  Time factor: Students can get carried away by activities. Teachers with the pressure of completing syllabus on time may find lecture method more convenient.  Large classes: Teachers cannot freely move and monitor all groups and cannot provide individual attention.
  • 9.  Passivity: Just as in traditional class rooms a few always actively participate when others remain passive listeners.  Digression: Students tend to move away from the topic under discussion.  Low Ability: Students who have Low ability can’t take active participation. Learners would lose interest and become dormant in the discussions.  Hampering of students: It will have Lengthy procedure and requires flawless planning. Focusing on activity to make learning fun can actually hamper those students who would make good progress without it. QUESTION AND ANSWER METHOD Introduction: Questioning occurs in all aspects of life and in all fields. Borich (1992) found that 80% of classroom talk is questions. Some teachers ask more than 100/hour! Therefore the process of asking questions is a popular mode of teaching! Involving a class in questions and answers is the first step away from monological teaching. It is the initial recognition that learning takes place when students are verbally as well as intellectually involved in the educational situation. Here we are attempting to secure verbal interaction. Actually interaction may be of several types and is essential to all learning. Most educators agree that mental interaction is not sufficient but should be accompanied by some form of student expression or reaction. The student must comprehend truth in his own mind, and then express it in his own words. Definition: i. “A pedagogical technique in which a teacher does not give information directly but in stead asks a series of questions, with the result that the student comes either to the Desired knowledge by answering the questions or to a deeper awareness of the limits Of knowledge” ii. “To question well is to teach well. In the skillful use of questions, more than anything else lies the fine art of teaching.” Earnest Sachs Charteristics of Question and Answer Method:  It is an assessment that allows teachers to check for comprehension at various levels. Through questions, we can help students to expand their knowledge and think creatively outside the box.  They will allow the educator to check for comprehension at various levels. It is possible to transfer factual knowledge & conceptual understanding through this process.  Reasons Why Teachers Ask Questions. Helps keep students actively involved in the lessons. Students have the opportunity to openly express their ideas or thoughts while answering questions
  • 10.  Enables other students to hear different explanations of the material by their peers. Helps teachers to pace their lessons and moderate student behavior. Helps teachers evaluate student learning and revise lessons as necessary.  To interest, engage and challenge pupils; to check on prior knowledge and understanding; to stimulate recall, mobilizing existing knowledge.  To focus pupils’ thinking on key concepts and issues; to help pupils to extend their thinking from the concrete and factual to the analytical and evaluative.  To lead pupils through a planned sequence which progressively establishes key understandings; to promote reasoning, problem solving, evaluation and the formulation of hypotheses?  To promote pupils’ thinking about the way they have learned. Types of Questions: I. Convergent/ direct/ closed: Used when answers are limited to a single or small # of correct responses. Used for assessing lower levels of cognition. Most time is spent on these types. Factual information that can be memorized. Not necessarily helpful in developing a deep understanding of subject area. Relied on to keep the lesson paced & keep attention of students, maintain control. Receive single word or short factual answer: “Are you hungry?” Or “Where do you live?” Good for: Testing for understanding OR Making a decision. A misplaced closed question can kill the conversation and lead to awkward silences. II. Divergent/ Indirect/Open: Used for higher levels of cognition or reasoning skills. Enables them not just to remember facts but to use their knowledge to problem solve, analyze & evaluate. They need a deep understanding to answer this type of question. Elicit longer answers. Asks for knowledge, opinions or feelings. “What?”, “Why?”, “How?”, “Tell me”, “Describe” Examples: “What happened yesterday in class?” “Why did she do that?” “How was the presentation?” “Tell me what happened next.” “Describe the situation in more detail.” Good for 1. Developing more open conversation 2. Finding more detail 3. Finding others opinions or issues
  • 11. MERITS OF QUESTION AND ANSWER METHOD:  Asking a good question will develop & foster interaction between teacher and student. This in turn promotes student learning, achievement & understanding.  Our technique is important so that our listeners will comprehend our question  Sanders (1966) stated, “Good questions recognize the wide possibilities of thought and are built around various forms of thinking. Good questions are directed toward learning and evaluative thinking rather than determining what has been learned in a narrow sense.”  Higher order questions require significant mental processes – wait time is needed!! There are fewer “no answers”  Benefits teachers as well, questioning strategies tend to be more varied and flexible and the number of questions decrease in quantity and increase in quality. DEMERITS OF QUESTION ANSWER METHOD:  The use of questions and answers in class is a perfectly legitimate approach to teaching, but it is often confused with discussion. As indicated in the last chapter, perhaps the best way to make a distinction is to emphasize the kind of question involved.  Question and answer teaching almost always deals with factual data and objective responses. Very often it is a review of material previously studied by the students, or just covered in a lecture or story.  Although thought questions can certainly be used in this approach to teaching, there is a tendency in a thought question to pose a defined problem and thereby lapse over to the discussion technique.  Both of these techniques are perfectly valid, but the teacher should be able to identify when he is using discussion and when he is using question and answer. A common weakness in question and answer teaching is the framing of superfluous or shallow questions which offer no challenge to the class.  The use of a rhetorical question, for example, is a worthy device for communication but is not a proper approach to question and answer teaching. Sufficient “mystery” about the answer helps motivate a genuinely intellectual response on the part of the student.  Furthermore, the use of questions should not be viewed as a substitute for knowledge of the material or communication of important content. Questions cannot impart objective data and are not well used to accomplish such teaching goals.  Sometimes teachers spend too much of the class time asking questions and too little listening to questions. But how can you get your class to talk? The problem of silence generally lies in one of three areas: their past educational pattern has conditioned them to sit and listen but not to participate verbally in the class time.  Their lack of interest in the subject creates a “ho-hum” atmosphere so that no questions are motivated; their ignorance of answers to your questions forces them to bide behind a shield of silence lest their lack of study or inability to produce be unmasked.
  • 12. GROUP DIFFERENTIATED METHOD Introduction: A teaching skill essential to all educators is group competence. Lack of it can never have been more damaging; now teachers have to promote active learning, for which group method is optimal. The only kind of students now needed is an activated one, equipped for independent lifelong learning and teamwork; current educational innovation, such as problem based learning depends on group teaching. Group work is a method for generating free communication between the group leader and the members, and among all the participants themselves. The group can make positive use of the differences in knowledge and attitude among participants, made evident as they interact with each other. Group work enables participants to a great deal from their fellows, in a type of communication which cannot take place in a lecture hall. Definition: “A group is a number of people interacting in a face to face situation” Charteristics of Group Differentiated method:  Difficult subject matters, complex facts, a specialized vocabulary, or involved techniques produced can be grasped more easily if participants can raise their own informally-stated question.  Factual knowledge can be subjected to reasoning, and placed into context, if opportunity is given for discussion.  Reasoning, problem-solving or decision making are not simply cognitive matters, relating narrowly to the intellectually processes. Examination of attitude and their modifications occurs most easily and is reinforced effectively under small conditions.  Interactions with fellow deepens a participant’s intellectual grasp and increase motivation.  Group methods enable participants to deal with the present rapid changes in all branches of medicine and the impossibility of learning all there is known, replacing outmoded knowledge and assimilating new knowledge.  Group methods counteract the authority-dependence polarity present in much academic and management activities.  Group method allows the participants to examine their own behavior and understand better how they relate to others.  Group session increase active participation, participants are given the opportunity to learn from each other. MERITS OF GROUP DIFFERENTIATED METHOD:  They obtain increased understanding of the subject.  They develop greater ability to assemble and present information.  They welcome opportunities to think critically.  They are able to ask questions and to clear up their difficulties.  They consider that they are aided by the personal relationship with the group leader.
  • 13.  They say that they become more articulate and speak and speak better in public, with increased confidence.  They are stimulated to follow the subject further in private, independent study.  They are able to influence the content and methods of their work.  They obtain instant feedback with each other of the efforts they make to solve the problem in hand. DEMARITS OF GROUP DEFFERENTIATED METHOD:  Weak participants can be discourage by more articulate fellows, deterred from expressing themselves, and have their progress slow.  In this method only students flourish which are technical not every student works. COMRARISON OF TEACHING METHODS Sr. No. METHOD DEFINITION EXAMPLE ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES 1. Project “A project is a whole hearted purposeful activity proceeding in a social environment” To work in groups. It helps to socialize the student. It takes a lot of time. 2. Drill “A drill is a classroom technique used to practice new language” Students repeat after teachers. Drilling help our learners memories language by the teacher’s control. Drilling often make the students not vary creative. 3. Activity “It is a constructivist learning approach” Students perform different activities. Class rooms become a lively, interesting place. Teachers cannot freely move and monitor all groups and cannot provide individual attention. 4. Question and Answer “To question well is to teach well. In the skillful use of questions, more than anything else lies the fine art of teaching” Interaction between teacher and student. Students remain in active situation and perform well in class. Question and answer teaching almost always deals with factual data and objective responses. 5. Group Differentiated “A group is a number of people interacting in a face to face situation” To work together in different groups. They welcome opportunities to think critically. In this method only students flourish which are technical not every student works.