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The Thar Desert
Deserts:
Definition:
“Any area in which few forms of life can exist because of lack of water, permanent frost, or
Absence of soil.”
Dryness ratio:
Almost 20% of earths land is desert.
semiarid desert
Coastal fog deserts:
Atacama Desert Namib Desert
The Thar Desert
Location:
The Thar Desert is located in north India.
Map Locating Thar Desert:
Thar Desert:
 The Thar Desert known as the Great Indian Desert, it is a large arid region in the
northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent and forms a natural boundary running
along the border between India and Pakistan. With an area of more than 200,000 km2
(77,000 sq. mi), it is the world’s 9th biggest desert.
 It lies mostly in the Indian State of Rajasthan, and extends into the southern portion of
Haryana and Punjab states and into northern Gujarat state.
 In Pakistan, the desert covers eastern Sindh province and the southeastern portion of
Pakistan’s Punjab province. The Cholistan Desert adjoins the Thar Desert spreading
into Pakistani Punjab province.
Thar Parker:
 Thar parker which consists of two words Thar and Parker is a sea of cultural
heritage in our country that we ourselves have forgotten for some reason. Thar means
Desert while Parker means the other side.
 With the coming together of two of these areas Thar parker has ceased to be a
complete desert as Thar is the desert which is also the largest desert of Pakistan and
the only fertile desert in the world while Parker is the irrigated area and does not
qualify to called desert.
Location of Thar Parker:
 It is bounded in the north by Mirpur khass and Umer kot. On east by Barmer and
Ijsselmeer District of India. On west by district Badin and South by Ran of Kutch the
total area of the district is 10,638 square kilometer. The district comprising with 4
(four) Taluka’s ciz.
- Mithi
- Diplo
- Chachro
- Nangarparkar
 Though sand is all around in Thar. But, in the Nangarparkar, the egg-shaped hills of
Karon-Jhar and the charm of its valleys coupled with
some sacred places for enjoyment.
Origen:
The origin of the Thar Desert is a controversial subject. Some
consider it to be 4000 to 1,000,000 years old, whereas others
state that aridity started in this region much earlier. Another
theory states that area turned to desert relatively recently:
perhaps around 2000 - 1500 BC. Around this time the Ghaggar
ceased to be a major river. It now terminates in the desert but at
one time was a water source for the Indus Valley Civilization
center of Mohenjo-Daro.
Rain fall in Thar Parker:
 Rainfall in the area is very low, from 100-500mm per
year, all falling between July and September, and the
climate is harsh with temperatures ranging from near
freezing up to 50°C. The habitat is greatly influenced by
the extreme climate. The sparse vegetation consists of
xerophilious grasslands.
 The Thar Desert seems an ideal place for generation of
electricity from wind power.
Physiography and geology:
 There are three principal landforms in the desert region —
the predominantly sand covered Thar, the plains with hills
including the central dune free country and the semi-arid
area surrounding the Aravalli range.
 The Aravalli forms the main landmark to the south-east of
Thar Desert.
Biodiversity:
 Stretches of sand in the desert are interspersed by hillocks and sandy and gravel
plains. Due to the diversified habitat and ecosystem, the vegetation, human culture
and animal life in this arid region is very rich in contrast to the other deserts of the
world.
 About 23 species of lizard and 25 species of snakes are found here and several of
them are endemic to the region.
 Due to the lack of water in this region, transformation of the grassland into cropland
has been done.
 The region is a haven for 141 species of migratory and resident birds of the desert.
One can see eagles, harriers, falcons, buzzards, kestrel and vultures. Short-toed Eagles
(Circaetus gallicus), Tawny Eagles (Aquila rapax), Spotted Eagles (Aquila clanga),
Laggar Falcons (Falco jugger) and kestrels. There are also a number of reptiles.
Natural Vegetation:
 The natural vegetation of this dry area is classed as Northern Desert Thorn Forest
occurring in small clumps scattered more or less openly.
 Natural vegetation of Thar Desert is composed of following tree, shrub and herb
species.
Desert Economy:
Due to severe weather conditions, there are few highways in the Thar Desert. Shown here is
a road in Thar parkar District of Sindh, Pakistan.
Agriculture:
 The Thar is one of most heavily- populated desert areas in the world and the main
occupations of people living here are agriculture and animal husbandry. Agriculture is
not a dependable proposition in this area— after the rainy season, at least 33% of
crops fail. Animal husbandry, trees and grasses, intercropped with vegetables or fruit
trees.
 These crops are harvested in the months of September and October and include bajra
(Pennisetum typhoideum), pulses, jowar (Sorghum vulgare), and maize (zea).
People of Thar:
 The Thar Desert is mainly inhabited by Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs. The portion in
Pakistan is inhabited by primarily by Sindhis and Kolhis. A colorful culture rich in
tradition prevails in the desert. The people have a great passion for folk music and
folk poetry.
 The main occupation of the people in desert is agriculture and animal husbandry. In
past years there has been a tremendous increase in human population as well as
animal population.
 The increase of human and livestock population in the desert has led to deterioration
in the ecosystem resulting in degradation of soil fertility.
 The living standard of the people in the desert is low. The Thar Desert is the most
densely populated desert in the world, with a population density of 83 people per
km2. Vs 7 in other deserts.
 In Pakistan part of Thar also has a rich multifaceted culture, heritage, traditions, folk
tales, dances and music due to its inhabitants who belong to different religions, sects
and castes.

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The thar desert

  • 1. The Thar Desert Deserts: Definition: “Any area in which few forms of life can exist because of lack of water, permanent frost, or Absence of soil.” Dryness ratio: Almost 20% of earths land is desert. semiarid desert Coastal fog deserts: Atacama Desert Namib Desert The Thar Desert Location: The Thar Desert is located in north India.
  • 2. Map Locating Thar Desert: Thar Desert:  The Thar Desert known as the Great Indian Desert, it is a large arid region in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent and forms a natural boundary running along the border between India and Pakistan. With an area of more than 200,000 km2 (77,000 sq. mi), it is the world’s 9th biggest desert.  It lies mostly in the Indian State of Rajasthan, and extends into the southern portion of Haryana and Punjab states and into northern Gujarat state.  In Pakistan, the desert covers eastern Sindh province and the southeastern portion of Pakistan’s Punjab province. The Cholistan Desert adjoins the Thar Desert spreading into Pakistani Punjab province. Thar Parker:  Thar parker which consists of two words Thar and Parker is a sea of cultural heritage in our country that we ourselves have forgotten for some reason. Thar means Desert while Parker means the other side.  With the coming together of two of these areas Thar parker has ceased to be a complete desert as Thar is the desert which is also the largest desert of Pakistan and the only fertile desert in the world while Parker is the irrigated area and does not qualify to called desert. Location of Thar Parker:
  • 3.  It is bounded in the north by Mirpur khass and Umer kot. On east by Barmer and Ijsselmeer District of India. On west by district Badin and South by Ran of Kutch the total area of the district is 10,638 square kilometer. The district comprising with 4 (four) Taluka’s ciz. - Mithi - Diplo - Chachro - Nangarparkar  Though sand is all around in Thar. But, in the Nangarparkar, the egg-shaped hills of Karon-Jhar and the charm of its valleys coupled with some sacred places for enjoyment. Origen: The origin of the Thar Desert is a controversial subject. Some consider it to be 4000 to 1,000,000 years old, whereas others state that aridity started in this region much earlier. Another theory states that area turned to desert relatively recently: perhaps around 2000 - 1500 BC. Around this time the Ghaggar ceased to be a major river. It now terminates in the desert but at one time was a water source for the Indus Valley Civilization center of Mohenjo-Daro. Rain fall in Thar Parker:  Rainfall in the area is very low, from 100-500mm per year, all falling between July and September, and the climate is harsh with temperatures ranging from near freezing up to 50°C. The habitat is greatly influenced by the extreme climate. The sparse vegetation consists of xerophilious grasslands.  The Thar Desert seems an ideal place for generation of electricity from wind power. Physiography and geology:  There are three principal landforms in the desert region — the predominantly sand covered Thar, the plains with hills including the central dune free country and the semi-arid area surrounding the Aravalli range.  The Aravalli forms the main landmark to the south-east of Thar Desert. Biodiversity:  Stretches of sand in the desert are interspersed by hillocks and sandy and gravel plains. Due to the diversified habitat and ecosystem, the vegetation, human culture
  • 4. and animal life in this arid region is very rich in contrast to the other deserts of the world.  About 23 species of lizard and 25 species of snakes are found here and several of them are endemic to the region.  Due to the lack of water in this region, transformation of the grassland into cropland has been done.  The region is a haven for 141 species of migratory and resident birds of the desert. One can see eagles, harriers, falcons, buzzards, kestrel and vultures. Short-toed Eagles (Circaetus gallicus), Tawny Eagles (Aquila rapax), Spotted Eagles (Aquila clanga), Laggar Falcons (Falco jugger) and kestrels. There are also a number of reptiles. Natural Vegetation:  The natural vegetation of this dry area is classed as Northern Desert Thorn Forest occurring in small clumps scattered more or less openly.  Natural vegetation of Thar Desert is composed of following tree, shrub and herb species.
  • 5. Desert Economy: Due to severe weather conditions, there are few highways in the Thar Desert. Shown here is a road in Thar parkar District of Sindh, Pakistan. Agriculture:  The Thar is one of most heavily- populated desert areas in the world and the main occupations of people living here are agriculture and animal husbandry. Agriculture is not a dependable proposition in this area— after the rainy season, at least 33% of crops fail. Animal husbandry, trees and grasses, intercropped with vegetables or fruit trees.  These crops are harvested in the months of September and October and include bajra (Pennisetum typhoideum), pulses, jowar (Sorghum vulgare), and maize (zea). People of Thar:  The Thar Desert is mainly inhabited by Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs. The portion in Pakistan is inhabited by primarily by Sindhis and Kolhis. A colorful culture rich in tradition prevails in the desert. The people have a great passion for folk music and folk poetry.  The main occupation of the people in desert is agriculture and animal husbandry. In past years there has been a tremendous increase in human population as well as animal population.  The increase of human and livestock population in the desert has led to deterioration in the ecosystem resulting in degradation of soil fertility.
  • 6.  The living standard of the people in the desert is low. The Thar Desert is the most densely populated desert in the world, with a population density of 83 people per km2. Vs 7 in other deserts.  In Pakistan part of Thar also has a rich multifaceted culture, heritage, traditions, folk tales, dances and music due to its inhabitants who belong to different religions, sects and castes.