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Subject: Basic Civil Engineering
Class: I Year II Semester
On
Environmental Pollution
By
Mr. Denis Jangeed
DEFINITION OF POLLUTION
◻ When Harmful Substances Contaminate the
Environment it is Called Pollution.
◻ Pollution refers to the very bad condition of
environment in terms of quantity and quality .
Denis Jangeed
Environmental pollution:
It is defined as “the contamination of the physical and
biological components of the earth/atmosphere system to
such an extent that normal environmental processes are
adversely affected.
When there is an undesirable change in the surrounding that has
harmful effects on plants and animals, it leads to environmental
pollution.
Pollutants:
Toxic or harmful substances that have adverse effect on
the environment and living beings are known as
pollutants
Ex.: Carbon monoxide, Hydrocarbons, The nitrogen oxides,
the sulfur oxides, and particulates - airborne solid
particles and liquid droplets.
Denis Jangeed
A
C
B
D
Water Pollution
Land Pollution
Air Pollution
Noise Pollution
Types of Pollution
Denis Jangeed
● The National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) in India were notified in
2009 by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB).
● The standards are based on the Environment Act, 1986, and aim to protect
public health, vegetation, and property. The NAAQS for 12 parameters are:
Sulphur dioxide
Nitrogen dioxide
Particulate Matter (size less than 10)
Particulate Matter (size less than 2.5)
Carbon monoxide
Ozone
micrograms (one-millionth of a gram) per cubic meter air or µg/m3
Denis Jangeed
The National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) in India were notified in 2009 by the Central
Pollution Control Board (CPCB). The standards are based on the Environment Act, 1986, and aim to
protect public health, vegetation, and property. The NAAQS for 12 parameters are:
Table 4 : National Ambient Air
Quality Standards and
monitoring methods in India
Denis Jangeed
Figure:
Air
Quality
Index
(AQI)
Level
Denis Jangeed
Denis Jangeed
Define “Air Pollution”:
▪ Air pollution refers to any physical, chemical or biological change
in the air.
▪ It is the contamination of air by harmful gases, dust and smoke
which affects plants, animals and humans drastically.
▪ Air pollution can be defined as an alteration of air quality that can be
characterized by measurements of chemical, biological or physical pollutants in
the air.
▪ Air pollution means the undesirable presence of impurities or the abnormal rise
in the proportion of some constituents of the atmosphere.
Types of Air Pollutants: There are two types of air pollutants:
(1) Primary Pollutants:
Pollutants that are formed and emitted directly from particular
sources.
▪ These include harmful gases such as sulphur dioxide coming from the factories.
Examples: Carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, and sulfur oxide.
Denis Jangeed
(2) Secondary Pollutants:
Pollutants that are formed in the lower atmosphere by
chemical reactions.
▪ The secondary pollutants are formed by the process of intermixing
of primary pollutants. Smog, which is a combination of fog and
smoke, is a secondary pollutant.
Example: ozone and secondary organic aerosol (haze).
Causes of Air Pollution:
Following are the important causes of air pollution:
⮚Burning of Fossil Fuels
• The combustion of fossil fuels emits a large amount of
sulphur dioxide.
• Carbon monoxide released by incomplete combustion of
fossil fuels also results in air pollution.
Denis Jangeed
Denis Jangeed
⮚Fossil Fuels
• Fossil fuels are a general term for non-renewable energy
sources that come from plants and animals that lived
millions of years ago.
• A natural fuel such as coal or oil, that was formed millions
of years ago from dead animals or plants in the ground.
Denis Jangeed
⮚Automobiles
• The gases emitted from vehicles such as jeeps,
trucks, cars, buses, etc. pollute the environment.
These are the major sources of greenhouse gases
and also result in diseases among individuals.
⮚Agricultural Activities
• Ammonia is one of the most hazardous gases
emitted during agricultural activities. The
insecticides, pesticides and fertilisers emit
harmful chemicals in the atmosphere and
contaminate it.
⮚Factories and Industries
• Factories and industries are the main source of
carbon monoxide, organic compounds,
hydrocarbons and chemicals. These are released
into the air, degrading its quality.
Denis Jangeed
⮚Mining Activities
• In the mining process, the minerals below the earth
are extracted using large pieces of equipment. The
dust and chemicals released during the process not
only pollute the air, but also deteriorate the health of
the workers and people living in the nearby areas.
⮚Domestic Sources
• The household cleaning products and paints contain
toxic chemicals that are released in the air. The smell
from the newly painted walls is the smell of the
chemicals present in the paints. It not only pollutes
the air but also affects breathing.
Denis Jangeed
Effects of Air Pollution:
The air pollution information shows that increasing air pollution
can have an adverse effect on plants, animals, and humans.
1. Global warming
▪ Air Pollution can increase the amount of global warming as the
temperature of the earth will keep rising with the emission of
harmful gases.
▪ With rising global temperatures, rising sea levels, melting ice from
colder places and icebergs, relocation, and habitat loss, an
imminent crisis has already been signalled if preservation and
normalization measures are not done soon.
2. Acid rain
▪ When water droplets combine with harmful chemicals and
pollutants, it will lead to acid rain.
▪ When fossil fuels are burned, harmful chemicals such as nitrogen
oxides and sulphur oxides are emitted into the environment.
Denis Jangeed
▪ When it rains, the water droplets interact with the
contaminants in the air, becoming acidic and falling to
the earth as acid rain. Acid rain has the potential to harm
humans, animals, and agriculture.
3. Ozone layer Depletion
▪ All this will eventually lead to depletion of the ozone layer
that protects us from harmful UV sun rays. The presence of
chlorofluorocarbons and hydro chlorofluorocarbons in the
atmosphere is degrading the ozone layer on Earth.
▪ As the ozone layer thins, damaging rays are emitted back to
Earth, potentially causing skin and eye problems. UV rays
have the power to harm crops as well.
Denis Jangeed
4. Effects on Animals
▪ Increasing air pollution affects animals and aquatic life,
leading them to stray and wander for food. Many of the
animals are on the verge of extinction because of this.
Animals, sometimes known as wildlife, are particularly
vulnerable to the effects of air pollution. Acid rain, heavy
metals, persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and other
harmful compounds are all pollution concerns.
▪ Insects, worms, clams, fish, birds, and mammals all have
diverse ways of interacting with their surroundings. As a
result, each animal's exposure to and vulnerability to the
effects of air pollution is unique.
▪ It has an impact on the area or habitat in which they
reside, as well as the food supply's availability and
quality.
Denis Jangeed
Air Pollution Control
1. Avoid Using Vehicles
▪ Prefer using public transport as it will reduce the emission of
CO into the air.
▪ The availability of car pools can help in the reduction of
vehicles which in turn reduces pollution.
▪ Prefer walking or cycling to nearby places and many such.
2. Energy Conservation
▪ Use energy-efficient electrical devices at the workplace and
home place.
▪ You can keep your lights switched off when not in use. The
electrical appliances should be checked on a regular notice
period so that it won’t affect the conservation.
Denis Jangeed
3. Use of Clean Energy Resources
▪ It will help to reduce the pollution level. Instead of using
fossil fuels, we can use natural resources to produce
energy like Solar Energy, Wind Energy, etc.
▪ Because industrial emissions are one of the leading causes
of air pollution, the pollutants can be reduced by
controlling or treating them at the source. If a given raw
materials reactions produce a pollutant, for example, the
raw materials can be replaced with less harmful materials.
▪ Another method of reducing pollution is to use different
fuels. CNG – Compressed Natural Gas–powered vehicles
are replacing petrol and diesel vehicles in many parts of
India. Vehicles that aren't fully equipped with optimal
emission engines are the most likely to use these.
Denis Jangeed
Definition of Water Pollution
● The Contamination of water with undesirable
substances which make it unfit for usage is termed
water Pollution.
● Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies
(e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans and groundwater).
Denis Jangeed
Causes of Water Pollution
◻ About 40% of Deaths worldwide are caused by
Water Pollution.
◻ Water Pollution is Caused by organic and inorganic
industrial wastes and effluents discharged into
rivers.
◻ Water pollution occurs when pollutants are
discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies
without adequate treatment to remove harmful
compounds.
Denis Jangeed
As per IS Code-10500, Standard Parameters for drinking water
Nephelometric Turbidity unit
Denis Jangeed
Denis Jangeed
Effects of Water Pollution
◻ Diseases like Cholera, Typhoid fever (TF)
Cholera and typhoid fever are both potentially life-threatening infectious
diseases that are mainly transmitted through contaminated food, drink, or
water.
◻ Malaria
◻ Typhoid (spread during the rainy season )
◻ Aquatic life gets destroyed
Denis Jangeed
How to Avoid Water Pollution
◻ Rivers should not be used for washing clothes or
bathing animals.
◻ Harvesting of Rainwater to meet water
requirements.
◻ Dams must be created.
◻ The rivers must not be contaminated.
◻ In sacred river like Ganga the dead bodies shouldn’t
thrown.
◻ Don’t throw paints and oils in water channels.
◻ Take great care not to overuse pesticides and
Denis Jangeed
Noise pollution
◻ Noise can be simply defined as unwanted
sound.
◻ The sound is pleasant or not depends upon its
loudness,duration,rhythm and the mood of the
person.
◻ Noise pollution not only results in irritation and
anger.
Denis Jangeed
Causes of Noise Pollution
◻ Traffic Noise
◻ Aircraft Noise
◻ Noise from construction and civil engineering
works.
◻ Noise from the Industries.
◻ Noise from other sources.
Denis Jangeed
Effects of Noise Pollution
◻ Hearing Loss
◻ High Blood Pressure
◻ Stress
◻ Sleep Disturbance
◻ Color Blindness
Denis Jangeed
Prevention of Noise Pollution
◻ The Government should ensure the new machines
that Should be noise proof.
◻ Airports must be away from residential area.
◻ The Sound horn symbol is to be in School Roads.
◻ Pleasant Home
◻ Bhagwan Baba, also known as Osho, was a spiritual
teacher and leader who founded the Osho
movement says “Silent is God”.
◻ We need to talk sweetly to others.
◻ Talk Less Work More.
◻ Sound affects our ears so loud noise should be
Denis Jangeed
Definition of Land Pollution
◻ Land, or dry land, is the solid part of Earth's surface
that is not covered by water. It makes up 29.2% of
the Earth's surface, including all continents and
islands. The remaining 71% of the Earth's surface is
covered by water, which includes air, rivers, lakes,
ice caps, glaciers, and soil moisture.
Denis Jangeed
Causes of Land Pollution
We can classify major sources that lead to land
following Categories
◻ Mining and quarrying
◻ Sewage waste
◻ Household Garbage
◻ Industrial Waste
Denis Jangeed
Prevention of Land Pollution
◻ More and more land should be brought under
farming
◻ Trees should be planted everywhere.
◻ Waste matter should be disposed immediately
◻ Avoid drilling the Land for more underground
water.
◻ Avoid using more fertilizers and Pesticides.
Denis Jangeed
Rainwater Harvesting
● Introduction
● Why is Rainwater Harvesting
● Objectives of Rainwater Harvesting
● Methods of Rainwater Harvesting
Denis Jangeed
● Harvesting Rainwater for saving drinking water has gained enormously
in significance as modern water saving sanitary technique.
● This can be used for private and public buildings as well as for many
industrial areas.
● Due to the storage (retention) and the usage of rainwater the water
flowing off housing estates in both reduced and delayed.
● Normally water is collected from the roofs of buildings and stored in
rainwater tanks. This is very common in rural Australia.
Introduction
Denis Jangeed
● To meet the increasing demand of water.
● To reduce the runoff which chokes the drains?
● To avoid the flooding of roads.
● To raise the underground water table.
● To reduce groundwater pollution.
● To reduce soils erosion.
● Supplement domestic water needs.
Why?
& Objectives of Rainwater Harvesting
Denis Jangeed
Broadly there are two ways of harvesting rainwater.
● Surface runoff harvesting
In urban area rainwater flows away as surface runoff. This runoff could
be caught and used for recharging aquifers by adopting appropriate
methods.
● Roof top rainwater harvesting
It is a system of catching rainwater where it falls. In rooftop harvesting,
the roof becomes the catchments, and the rainwater is collected from
the roof of the house/building. It can either be stored in a tank or
diverted to artificial recharge system.
This method is less expensive and very effective and if implemented
properly helps in augmenting the ground water level of the area.
Methods of Rainwater Harvesting
Denis Jangeed
Roof top rainwater harvesting
Denis Jangeed

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Basic Civil Engg Notes_Chapter-6_Environment Pollution & Engineering

  • 1. Subject: Basic Civil Engineering Class: I Year II Semester On Environmental Pollution By Mr. Denis Jangeed
  • 2. DEFINITION OF POLLUTION ◻ When Harmful Substances Contaminate the Environment it is Called Pollution. ◻ Pollution refers to the very bad condition of environment in terms of quantity and quality . Denis Jangeed
  • 3. Environmental pollution: It is defined as “the contamination of the physical and biological components of the earth/atmosphere system to such an extent that normal environmental processes are adversely affected. When there is an undesirable change in the surrounding that has harmful effects on plants and animals, it leads to environmental pollution. Pollutants: Toxic or harmful substances that have adverse effect on the environment and living beings are known as pollutants Ex.: Carbon monoxide, Hydrocarbons, The nitrogen oxides, the sulfur oxides, and particulates - airborne solid particles and liquid droplets. Denis Jangeed
  • 4. A C B D Water Pollution Land Pollution Air Pollution Noise Pollution Types of Pollution Denis Jangeed
  • 5. ● The National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) in India were notified in 2009 by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). ● The standards are based on the Environment Act, 1986, and aim to protect public health, vegetation, and property. The NAAQS for 12 parameters are: Sulphur dioxide Nitrogen dioxide Particulate Matter (size less than 10) Particulate Matter (size less than 2.5) Carbon monoxide Ozone micrograms (one-millionth of a gram) per cubic meter air or µg/m3 Denis Jangeed
  • 6. The National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) in India were notified in 2009 by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). The standards are based on the Environment Act, 1986, and aim to protect public health, vegetation, and property. The NAAQS for 12 parameters are: Table 4 : National Ambient Air Quality Standards and monitoring methods in India Denis Jangeed
  • 9. Define “Air Pollution”: ▪ Air pollution refers to any physical, chemical or biological change in the air. ▪ It is the contamination of air by harmful gases, dust and smoke which affects plants, animals and humans drastically. ▪ Air pollution can be defined as an alteration of air quality that can be characterized by measurements of chemical, biological or physical pollutants in the air. ▪ Air pollution means the undesirable presence of impurities or the abnormal rise in the proportion of some constituents of the atmosphere. Types of Air Pollutants: There are two types of air pollutants: (1) Primary Pollutants: Pollutants that are formed and emitted directly from particular sources. ▪ These include harmful gases such as sulphur dioxide coming from the factories. Examples: Carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, and sulfur oxide. Denis Jangeed
  • 10. (2) Secondary Pollutants: Pollutants that are formed in the lower atmosphere by chemical reactions. ▪ The secondary pollutants are formed by the process of intermixing of primary pollutants. Smog, which is a combination of fog and smoke, is a secondary pollutant. Example: ozone and secondary organic aerosol (haze). Causes of Air Pollution: Following are the important causes of air pollution: ⮚Burning of Fossil Fuels • The combustion of fossil fuels emits a large amount of sulphur dioxide. • Carbon monoxide released by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels also results in air pollution. Denis Jangeed
  • 12. ⮚Fossil Fuels • Fossil fuels are a general term for non-renewable energy sources that come from plants and animals that lived millions of years ago. • A natural fuel such as coal or oil, that was formed millions of years ago from dead animals or plants in the ground. Denis Jangeed
  • 13. ⮚Automobiles • The gases emitted from vehicles such as jeeps, trucks, cars, buses, etc. pollute the environment. These are the major sources of greenhouse gases and also result in diseases among individuals. ⮚Agricultural Activities • Ammonia is one of the most hazardous gases emitted during agricultural activities. The insecticides, pesticides and fertilisers emit harmful chemicals in the atmosphere and contaminate it. ⮚Factories and Industries • Factories and industries are the main source of carbon monoxide, organic compounds, hydrocarbons and chemicals. These are released into the air, degrading its quality. Denis Jangeed
  • 14. ⮚Mining Activities • In the mining process, the minerals below the earth are extracted using large pieces of equipment. The dust and chemicals released during the process not only pollute the air, but also deteriorate the health of the workers and people living in the nearby areas. ⮚Domestic Sources • The household cleaning products and paints contain toxic chemicals that are released in the air. The smell from the newly painted walls is the smell of the chemicals present in the paints. It not only pollutes the air but also affects breathing. Denis Jangeed
  • 15. Effects of Air Pollution: The air pollution information shows that increasing air pollution can have an adverse effect on plants, animals, and humans. 1. Global warming ▪ Air Pollution can increase the amount of global warming as the temperature of the earth will keep rising with the emission of harmful gases. ▪ With rising global temperatures, rising sea levels, melting ice from colder places and icebergs, relocation, and habitat loss, an imminent crisis has already been signalled if preservation and normalization measures are not done soon. 2. Acid rain ▪ When water droplets combine with harmful chemicals and pollutants, it will lead to acid rain. ▪ When fossil fuels are burned, harmful chemicals such as nitrogen oxides and sulphur oxides are emitted into the environment. Denis Jangeed
  • 16. ▪ When it rains, the water droplets interact with the contaminants in the air, becoming acidic and falling to the earth as acid rain. Acid rain has the potential to harm humans, animals, and agriculture. 3. Ozone layer Depletion ▪ All this will eventually lead to depletion of the ozone layer that protects us from harmful UV sun rays. The presence of chlorofluorocarbons and hydro chlorofluorocarbons in the atmosphere is degrading the ozone layer on Earth. ▪ As the ozone layer thins, damaging rays are emitted back to Earth, potentially causing skin and eye problems. UV rays have the power to harm crops as well. Denis Jangeed
  • 17. 4. Effects on Animals ▪ Increasing air pollution affects animals and aquatic life, leading them to stray and wander for food. Many of the animals are on the verge of extinction because of this. Animals, sometimes known as wildlife, are particularly vulnerable to the effects of air pollution. Acid rain, heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and other harmful compounds are all pollution concerns. ▪ Insects, worms, clams, fish, birds, and mammals all have diverse ways of interacting with their surroundings. As a result, each animal's exposure to and vulnerability to the effects of air pollution is unique. ▪ It has an impact on the area or habitat in which they reside, as well as the food supply's availability and quality. Denis Jangeed
  • 18. Air Pollution Control 1. Avoid Using Vehicles ▪ Prefer using public transport as it will reduce the emission of CO into the air. ▪ The availability of car pools can help in the reduction of vehicles which in turn reduces pollution. ▪ Prefer walking or cycling to nearby places and many such. 2. Energy Conservation ▪ Use energy-efficient electrical devices at the workplace and home place. ▪ You can keep your lights switched off when not in use. The electrical appliances should be checked on a regular notice period so that it won’t affect the conservation. Denis Jangeed
  • 19. 3. Use of Clean Energy Resources ▪ It will help to reduce the pollution level. Instead of using fossil fuels, we can use natural resources to produce energy like Solar Energy, Wind Energy, etc. ▪ Because industrial emissions are one of the leading causes of air pollution, the pollutants can be reduced by controlling or treating them at the source. If a given raw materials reactions produce a pollutant, for example, the raw materials can be replaced with less harmful materials. ▪ Another method of reducing pollution is to use different fuels. CNG – Compressed Natural Gas–powered vehicles are replacing petrol and diesel vehicles in many parts of India. Vehicles that aren't fully equipped with optimal emission engines are the most likely to use these. Denis Jangeed
  • 20. Definition of Water Pollution ● The Contamination of water with undesirable substances which make it unfit for usage is termed water Pollution. ● Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans and groundwater). Denis Jangeed
  • 21. Causes of Water Pollution ◻ About 40% of Deaths worldwide are caused by Water Pollution. ◻ Water Pollution is Caused by organic and inorganic industrial wastes and effluents discharged into rivers. ◻ Water pollution occurs when pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds. Denis Jangeed
  • 22. As per IS Code-10500, Standard Parameters for drinking water Nephelometric Turbidity unit Denis Jangeed
  • 24. Effects of Water Pollution ◻ Diseases like Cholera, Typhoid fever (TF) Cholera and typhoid fever are both potentially life-threatening infectious diseases that are mainly transmitted through contaminated food, drink, or water. ◻ Malaria ◻ Typhoid (spread during the rainy season ) ◻ Aquatic life gets destroyed Denis Jangeed
  • 25. How to Avoid Water Pollution ◻ Rivers should not be used for washing clothes or bathing animals. ◻ Harvesting of Rainwater to meet water requirements. ◻ Dams must be created. ◻ The rivers must not be contaminated. ◻ In sacred river like Ganga the dead bodies shouldn’t thrown. ◻ Don’t throw paints and oils in water channels. ◻ Take great care not to overuse pesticides and Denis Jangeed
  • 26. Noise pollution ◻ Noise can be simply defined as unwanted sound. ◻ The sound is pleasant or not depends upon its loudness,duration,rhythm and the mood of the person. ◻ Noise pollution not only results in irritation and anger. Denis Jangeed
  • 27. Causes of Noise Pollution ◻ Traffic Noise ◻ Aircraft Noise ◻ Noise from construction and civil engineering works. ◻ Noise from the Industries. ◻ Noise from other sources. Denis Jangeed
  • 28. Effects of Noise Pollution ◻ Hearing Loss ◻ High Blood Pressure ◻ Stress ◻ Sleep Disturbance ◻ Color Blindness Denis Jangeed
  • 29. Prevention of Noise Pollution ◻ The Government should ensure the new machines that Should be noise proof. ◻ Airports must be away from residential area. ◻ The Sound horn symbol is to be in School Roads. ◻ Pleasant Home ◻ Bhagwan Baba, also known as Osho, was a spiritual teacher and leader who founded the Osho movement says “Silent is God”. ◻ We need to talk sweetly to others. ◻ Talk Less Work More. ◻ Sound affects our ears so loud noise should be Denis Jangeed
  • 30. Definition of Land Pollution ◻ Land, or dry land, is the solid part of Earth's surface that is not covered by water. It makes up 29.2% of the Earth's surface, including all continents and islands. The remaining 71% of the Earth's surface is covered by water, which includes air, rivers, lakes, ice caps, glaciers, and soil moisture. Denis Jangeed
  • 31. Causes of Land Pollution We can classify major sources that lead to land following Categories ◻ Mining and quarrying ◻ Sewage waste ◻ Household Garbage ◻ Industrial Waste Denis Jangeed
  • 32. Prevention of Land Pollution ◻ More and more land should be brought under farming ◻ Trees should be planted everywhere. ◻ Waste matter should be disposed immediately ◻ Avoid drilling the Land for more underground water. ◻ Avoid using more fertilizers and Pesticides. Denis Jangeed
  • 33. Rainwater Harvesting ● Introduction ● Why is Rainwater Harvesting ● Objectives of Rainwater Harvesting ● Methods of Rainwater Harvesting Denis Jangeed
  • 34. ● Harvesting Rainwater for saving drinking water has gained enormously in significance as modern water saving sanitary technique. ● This can be used for private and public buildings as well as for many industrial areas. ● Due to the storage (retention) and the usage of rainwater the water flowing off housing estates in both reduced and delayed. ● Normally water is collected from the roofs of buildings and stored in rainwater tanks. This is very common in rural Australia. Introduction Denis Jangeed
  • 35. ● To meet the increasing demand of water. ● To reduce the runoff which chokes the drains? ● To avoid the flooding of roads. ● To raise the underground water table. ● To reduce groundwater pollution. ● To reduce soils erosion. ● Supplement domestic water needs. Why? & Objectives of Rainwater Harvesting Denis Jangeed
  • 36. Broadly there are two ways of harvesting rainwater. ● Surface runoff harvesting In urban area rainwater flows away as surface runoff. This runoff could be caught and used for recharging aquifers by adopting appropriate methods. ● Roof top rainwater harvesting It is a system of catching rainwater where it falls. In rooftop harvesting, the roof becomes the catchments, and the rainwater is collected from the roof of the house/building. It can either be stored in a tank or diverted to artificial recharge system. This method is less expensive and very effective and if implemented properly helps in augmenting the ground water level of the area. Methods of Rainwater Harvesting Denis Jangeed
  • 37. Roof top rainwater harvesting Denis Jangeed