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INFECTION CONTROL IN ICU
SETTING
Prepared by:
Dr. Muhammad Asim Fazal
Introduction
• Approximately 4.1 million patients are
estimated to acquire a healthcare-associated
infection (nosocomial infection) in the EU
every year.
• The number of deaths occurring as a direct
consequence of these infections is estimated
to be at least 37 000.
• Approximately 20–30% of healthcare-
associated infections are considered to be
preventable by intensive hygiene and infection
control programs.
• The implementation of evidence-based
infection control practices is essential, yet
challenging for healthcare institutions
worldwide.
Hospital-acquired infection
• A hospital-acquired infection, also known as a
HAI or in medical literature as a nosocomial
infection, is an infection whose development
is favored by a hospital environment, such as
one acquired by a patient during a hospital
visit or one developing among hospital staff.
Cause
• Nosocomial infections are commonly
transmitted when hospital officials become
non compliant with infection control
procedures and personnel do not practice
correct hygiene regularly.
• In hospitals all over the world, healthcare
professionals are fighting the risks of cross-
infection to help and heal patients.
• In today’s healthcare systems, cross-infection
also poses financial risks that can jeopardize
efficient medical care.
Infection Control
• Infection control is an application of scientific
and epidemiological principles for infection
prevention and reduction.
• Hand washing, aseptic techniques and
environment cleaning are perhaps the most
important infection control measures.
• Infection control programs have become a
requirement for hospital accreditation by the
Joint Commission on Accreditation of
Healthcare Organizations
Modes of Transmission
• Hospital-acquired infections can be
transmitted by direct contact, inhalations of
aerosolized droplets or air-borne pathogens,
and/or vehicle (vector)-based inoculation.
• The commonest mode of transmission
remains the contact-based acquisition.
ICU Setting
• Although the general principles of Infection
Control are no different in the ICU than in
other areas of the hospital, patients with
respiratory infection requiring ICU admission
provide a number of specific challenges.
• Such patients are at the severest end of the
clinical spectrum.
• For many respiratory infections, patients may
be more infectious at the time of their ICU
admission than at any other time during their
illness.
• ICU patients frequently require potentially
aerosol-generating procedures, such as
endotracheal intubation, tracheal suction,
nebulized medications and bronchoscopy.
Transmission of the virus can be
prevented through
• Strict adherence to infection control practices,
especially hand hygiene, containment of
respiratory secretions and the use of PPE
• Adherence to standard infection control
principles and droplet precautions
• Administrative controls such as separation or
cohorting of patients with infection.
• Instructing staff members with respiratory
symptoms to stay at home and not come in to
work
• Restriction of symptomatic visitors
• Environmental cleaning
• Education of staff, patients and visitors.
Core principles of containment and
infection control
Healthcare workers can be exposed to people with
influenza both in their normal daily lives (outside work)
and in healthcare settings. Limiting the transmission of
infection in the healthcare setting requires:
• Timely recognition of infective cases
• Instructing staff members with respiratory symptoms
to stay at home and not come in to work
• Segregating staff into those who are dealing with
suspected infective patients and those who are not
• Consistently and correctly implementing
appropriate infection control precautions to
limit transmission (standard infection control
principles and droplet precautions)
• Using PPE appropriately, according to risk of
exposure to the virus
• Maintaining separation in space and/or time
between influenza and non-influenza patients
• Restricting access of ill visitors to the facility
and posting pertinent signage in clear and
unambiguous language (including in languages
other than English)
• Environmental cleaning and disinfection
• Educating staff, patients and visitors about the
transmission and prevention of influenza
• Treating patients and staff with antiviral drugs
that can reduce infectivity and the duration of
illness
• Vaccinating patients and staff.
Infection control precautions
• Standard infection control principles and droplet
precautions must be used where patients have or
are suspected of having respiratory infection
• Good hand hygiene among staff and patients is
vital for the protection of both parties.
• Good respiratory hygiene is essential.
• The use of PPE should be proportionate to the
risk of contact with respiratory secretions and
other body fluids and should depend on the type
of work or procedure being undertaken.
Standard infection control principles
• Standard infection control principles are a set of
broad statements of good practice to minimize
exposure to and transmission of a wide variety of
micro-organisms.
• These principles should be applied by all
healthcare practitioners to the care of all patients
all of the time.
• Standard infection control principles, include
hospital environmental hygiene, hand hygiene,
the use of PPE and the safe use and disposal of
sharps
Hand hygiene
• Hand hygiene is the single most important
practice needed to reduce the transmission of
infection in healthcare settings and is an
essential element of standard infection control
principles.
• In any outbreak of influenza, strict adherence
to hand hygiene recommendations should be
enforced.
• Patients' hands will be heavily contaminated, because
of frequent contact with their nose, mouth and the
tissues they have used in respiratory hygiene.
• Their hands will also make frequent contact with their
immediate environment.
• Therefore good hand hygiene among staff before and
after contact with patients or their close environment
is vital to protect both themselves and other patients.
• Good hand hygiene among patients should also be
encouraged.
• Hand hygiene includes hand washing with soap and
water and thorough drying, and the use of alcohol-
based products containing an emollient that do not
require the use of water.
• If hands are visibly soiled or contaminated (eg with
respiratory secretions), they should be washed with
soap and water and dried.
• When an alcohol handrub is used to decontaminate
hands, the hands should be free of visible dirt and
organic material.
• The handrub must come into contact with every part of
the hand's surface.
• Hands must be decontaminated immediately
before each and every episode of direct care of or
contact with patients and after any activity or
contact that potentially results in hands
becoming contaminated, including the removal of
protective clothing and cleaning of equipment.
• Hands should be decontaminated between caring
for different patients and between different care
activities for the same patient, even if gloves have
been worn.
• After hand washing, paper towels should be
used to dry the hands thoroughly and should
then be discarded in the nearest waste bin.
• Lined waste bins with foot-operated lids
should be used whenever possible.
Applying droplet precautions
• In addition to the standard infection control
principles, droplet precautions should be used
if a patient is known or suspected to be
infected and is at risk of transmitting droplets
while coughing, sneezing or talking and during
some procedures.
Managing coughing and sneezing
• Patients, staff and visitors should be encouraged to
minimise potential influenza transmission through the
following good hygiene measures.
• Cover nose and mouth with disposable single-use
tissues when sneezing, coughing or wiping and blowing
noses.
• Dispose of used tissues promptly in the nearest waste
bin.
• Wash hands after coughing, sneezing, using tissues or
contact with respiratory secretions and contaminated
objects.
• Keep hands away from the eyes, mouth and nose.
• Where possible, in common waiting areas or
during transport (eg from the community to
an acute hospital or from one area of the
hospital to another), coughing or sneezing
patients should wear surgical masks to assist
in the containment of respiratory secretions
and to reduce environmental contamination.
Personal protective equipment
• PPE is worn to protect staff from
contamination with body fluids and to reduce
the risk of transmission of influenza between
patients and staff and from one patient to
another.
• Care must be taken to ensure that PPE is worn
and removed correctly in order to avoid
inadvertent contamination
Eye protection
• Eye protection should be considered when
there is a risk of contamination of the eyes by
splashes and droplets, eg by blood, body
fluids, secretions or excretions.
• Eye protection should always be worn during
aerosol-generating procedures.
Other considerations relevant
to critical care
• Critical care units should maintain infection
control precautions in line with current
guidance.
• Standard precautions should be followed at all
times as these are the cornerstone of
prevention of communicable diseases and are
vitally important.
Suggested checklist for cohorted area
trolley
• Face shield/visor/goggles (if not integral to
surgical masks)
• Single-use gloves for clinical use (small, medium
and large)
• FFP3 respirators
• Fluid repellent surgical masks
• Single-use long-sleeved fluid repellent gowns
• Single-use plastic aprons
• Alcohol handrub
• Liquid soap
• Single-use paper towels
• Sharps container
• Neutral detergent for environmental cleaning
• Appropriate clinical waste bags
• Linen bags
• Collection container for used equipment
Aerosol-generating procedures
• Several medical procedures have been
reported to generate aerosols, and it has been
suggested that some of these are associated
with an increased risk of pathogen
transmission.
• In a recent revised World Health Organization (WHO)
document, Infection prevention and control of epidemic-
and pandemic-prone acute respiratory diseases in health
care, based on epidemiological studies on tuberculosis (TB)
and/or SARS, the following aerosol-generating procedures
were considered to be associated with a documented
increase in risk of pathogen transmission in patients with
acute respiratory disease:
• intubation and related procedures, eg manual ventilation
and suctioning
• cardiopulmonary resuscitation
• bronchoscopy
Infection control and personal protective
equipment in aerosol generating procedures
• Only essential aerosol-generating procedures
should be carried out and only those
healthcare workers who are needed to
perform the procedure should be present in
the immediate vicinity.
Respiratory care issues
• Critical care settings can present some situations that
may pose an increased risk of potential exposure to
respiratory secretions.
• In patients receiving mechanical ventilatory support,
pressures within the breathing circuits of ventilated
patients are higher than those used for spontaneously
breathing patients; high oxygen flow rates may also be
required for spontaneously breathing patients who are
in a precarious condition, and there exists the
possibility that such severely ill patients will have
higher viral loads and hence a greater risk of disease
transmission.
• A number of practical measures can be taken to
reduce exposure, such as anticipating those who
are likely to require respiratory support, careful
preparation for procedures and modifying
techniques, such as using deep sedation with or
without neuromuscular paralysis for intubation.
• Procedures such as intubation should be carried
out by experienced members of staff so as to
reduce as much as possible the time required and
the need for multiple attempts.
Respiratory procedures
• Prepare a kit in advance for procedures such
as intubation, including all necessary medical
equipment.
• Only essential staff should be in a patient's
room or bedside area when airway
management or cough-inducing activities are
being carried out.
• Appropriate PPE must be worn during
procedures involving airway management
Respiratory equipment
• Disposable patient respiratory equipment must
be used wherever possible.
• Reusable equipment must be decontaminated in
accordance with local policy and the
manufacturer's guidelines.
• Closed systems should be used wherever possible
(eg suction).
• Breathing filters should be changed in accordance
with the manufacturer's guidelines.
• The ventilatory circuit should not be broken
unless absolutely necessary.
• Staff should be alert to the potential for
unplanned breathing circuit disruption:
• - breathing circuits should be checked regularly
for tightness of fit of component parts
• - caution should be exercised when moving or
performing other care on patients who are
ventilated, so as to minimise the risk of accidental
disconnection.
Non-invasive ventilation
• The use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and
the risks it may pose to healthcare workers via
aerosol generation were debatable.
• Staff should be trained in infection control.
• A gown, gloves and eye protection should be
worn for all aerosol-generating procedures;
use of an FFP3 respirator instead of a surgical
mask may be prudent.
• Ideally, patients should be managed in
negative pressure single rooms with
anterooms, where these are available.
• If such facilities are not available, they should
be cared for in standard single rooms or, if
there is no other option, in cohorted groups.
• A non-vented patient mask or helmet should
be used.
• Water humidification should be avoided.
• A high-efficiency bacterial/viral breathing system
filter (BS EN 13328-1) should be used between
the non-vented mask and the expiratory port and
at the outlet of the ventilator.
• Expiratory port options include a whisper swivel
valve or controlled leak (each with a proximal
filter as above).
• Ideally, expiratory flow should be directed in a
single jet away from patients and staff.
• NIV masks should be applied to the patient's face
and secured before the ventilator is turned on.
• Ventilators that function with double-hose tubing
(an inspiratory and an expiratory limb) may be
advantageous.
• The ventilator should be turned off before
removal of the close-fitting mask or when lifting
the mask away from the face, eg for mouth care
or sips of fluid.
THANKYOU

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Infection control in icu setting

  • 1.
  • 2. INFECTION CONTROL IN ICU SETTING Prepared by: Dr. Muhammad Asim Fazal
  • 3. Introduction • Approximately 4.1 million patients are estimated to acquire a healthcare-associated infection (nosocomial infection) in the EU every year. • The number of deaths occurring as a direct consequence of these infections is estimated to be at least 37 000.
  • 4. • Approximately 20–30% of healthcare- associated infections are considered to be preventable by intensive hygiene and infection control programs. • The implementation of evidence-based infection control practices is essential, yet challenging for healthcare institutions worldwide.
  • 5. Hospital-acquired infection • A hospital-acquired infection, also known as a HAI or in medical literature as a nosocomial infection, is an infection whose development is favored by a hospital environment, such as one acquired by a patient during a hospital visit or one developing among hospital staff.
  • 6. Cause • Nosocomial infections are commonly transmitted when hospital officials become non compliant with infection control procedures and personnel do not practice correct hygiene regularly.
  • 7. • In hospitals all over the world, healthcare professionals are fighting the risks of cross- infection to help and heal patients. • In today’s healthcare systems, cross-infection also poses financial risks that can jeopardize efficient medical care.
  • 8. Infection Control • Infection control is an application of scientific and epidemiological principles for infection prevention and reduction. • Hand washing, aseptic techniques and environment cleaning are perhaps the most important infection control measures.
  • 9. • Infection control programs have become a requirement for hospital accreditation by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations
  • 10. Modes of Transmission • Hospital-acquired infections can be transmitted by direct contact, inhalations of aerosolized droplets or air-borne pathogens, and/or vehicle (vector)-based inoculation. • The commonest mode of transmission remains the contact-based acquisition.
  • 11. ICU Setting • Although the general principles of Infection Control are no different in the ICU than in other areas of the hospital, patients with respiratory infection requiring ICU admission provide a number of specific challenges. • Such patients are at the severest end of the clinical spectrum.
  • 12. • For many respiratory infections, patients may be more infectious at the time of their ICU admission than at any other time during their illness. • ICU patients frequently require potentially aerosol-generating procedures, such as endotracheal intubation, tracheal suction, nebulized medications and bronchoscopy.
  • 13.
  • 14. Transmission of the virus can be prevented through • Strict adherence to infection control practices, especially hand hygiene, containment of respiratory secretions and the use of PPE • Adherence to standard infection control principles and droplet precautions • Administrative controls such as separation or cohorting of patients with infection.
  • 15. • Instructing staff members with respiratory symptoms to stay at home and not come in to work • Restriction of symptomatic visitors • Environmental cleaning • Education of staff, patients and visitors.
  • 16. Core principles of containment and infection control Healthcare workers can be exposed to people with influenza both in their normal daily lives (outside work) and in healthcare settings. Limiting the transmission of infection in the healthcare setting requires: • Timely recognition of infective cases • Instructing staff members with respiratory symptoms to stay at home and not come in to work • Segregating staff into those who are dealing with suspected infective patients and those who are not
  • 17. • Consistently and correctly implementing appropriate infection control precautions to limit transmission (standard infection control principles and droplet precautions) • Using PPE appropriately, according to risk of exposure to the virus • Maintaining separation in space and/or time between influenza and non-influenza patients
  • 18. • Restricting access of ill visitors to the facility and posting pertinent signage in clear and unambiguous language (including in languages other than English) • Environmental cleaning and disinfection • Educating staff, patients and visitors about the transmission and prevention of influenza
  • 19. • Treating patients and staff with antiviral drugs that can reduce infectivity and the duration of illness • Vaccinating patients and staff.
  • 20. Infection control precautions • Standard infection control principles and droplet precautions must be used where patients have or are suspected of having respiratory infection • Good hand hygiene among staff and patients is vital for the protection of both parties. • Good respiratory hygiene is essential. • The use of PPE should be proportionate to the risk of contact with respiratory secretions and other body fluids and should depend on the type of work or procedure being undertaken.
  • 21. Standard infection control principles • Standard infection control principles are a set of broad statements of good practice to minimize exposure to and transmission of a wide variety of micro-organisms. • These principles should be applied by all healthcare practitioners to the care of all patients all of the time. • Standard infection control principles, include hospital environmental hygiene, hand hygiene, the use of PPE and the safe use and disposal of sharps
  • 22. Hand hygiene • Hand hygiene is the single most important practice needed to reduce the transmission of infection in healthcare settings and is an essential element of standard infection control principles. • In any outbreak of influenza, strict adherence to hand hygiene recommendations should be enforced.
  • 23. • Patients' hands will be heavily contaminated, because of frequent contact with their nose, mouth and the tissues they have used in respiratory hygiene. • Their hands will also make frequent contact with their immediate environment. • Therefore good hand hygiene among staff before and after contact with patients or their close environment is vital to protect both themselves and other patients. • Good hand hygiene among patients should also be encouraged.
  • 24. • Hand hygiene includes hand washing with soap and water and thorough drying, and the use of alcohol- based products containing an emollient that do not require the use of water. • If hands are visibly soiled or contaminated (eg with respiratory secretions), they should be washed with soap and water and dried. • When an alcohol handrub is used to decontaminate hands, the hands should be free of visible dirt and organic material. • The handrub must come into contact with every part of the hand's surface.
  • 25. • Hands must be decontaminated immediately before each and every episode of direct care of or contact with patients and after any activity or contact that potentially results in hands becoming contaminated, including the removal of protective clothing and cleaning of equipment. • Hands should be decontaminated between caring for different patients and between different care activities for the same patient, even if gloves have been worn.
  • 26. • After hand washing, paper towels should be used to dry the hands thoroughly and should then be discarded in the nearest waste bin. • Lined waste bins with foot-operated lids should be used whenever possible.
  • 27. Applying droplet precautions • In addition to the standard infection control principles, droplet precautions should be used if a patient is known or suspected to be infected and is at risk of transmitting droplets while coughing, sneezing or talking and during some procedures.
  • 28. Managing coughing and sneezing • Patients, staff and visitors should be encouraged to minimise potential influenza transmission through the following good hygiene measures. • Cover nose and mouth with disposable single-use tissues when sneezing, coughing or wiping and blowing noses. • Dispose of used tissues promptly in the nearest waste bin. • Wash hands after coughing, sneezing, using tissues or contact with respiratory secretions and contaminated objects. • Keep hands away from the eyes, mouth and nose.
  • 29. • Where possible, in common waiting areas or during transport (eg from the community to an acute hospital or from one area of the hospital to another), coughing or sneezing patients should wear surgical masks to assist in the containment of respiratory secretions and to reduce environmental contamination.
  • 30. Personal protective equipment • PPE is worn to protect staff from contamination with body fluids and to reduce the risk of transmission of influenza between patients and staff and from one patient to another. • Care must be taken to ensure that PPE is worn and removed correctly in order to avoid inadvertent contamination
  • 31. Eye protection • Eye protection should be considered when there is a risk of contamination of the eyes by splashes and droplets, eg by blood, body fluids, secretions or excretions. • Eye protection should always be worn during aerosol-generating procedures.
  • 32. Other considerations relevant to critical care • Critical care units should maintain infection control precautions in line with current guidance. • Standard precautions should be followed at all times as these are the cornerstone of prevention of communicable diseases and are vitally important.
  • 33. Suggested checklist for cohorted area trolley • Face shield/visor/goggles (if not integral to surgical masks) • Single-use gloves for clinical use (small, medium and large) • FFP3 respirators • Fluid repellent surgical masks • Single-use long-sleeved fluid repellent gowns • Single-use plastic aprons • Alcohol handrub • Liquid soap
  • 34. • Single-use paper towels • Sharps container • Neutral detergent for environmental cleaning • Appropriate clinical waste bags • Linen bags • Collection container for used equipment
  • 35. Aerosol-generating procedures • Several medical procedures have been reported to generate aerosols, and it has been suggested that some of these are associated with an increased risk of pathogen transmission.
  • 36. • In a recent revised World Health Organization (WHO) document, Infection prevention and control of epidemic- and pandemic-prone acute respiratory diseases in health care, based on epidemiological studies on tuberculosis (TB) and/or SARS, the following aerosol-generating procedures were considered to be associated with a documented increase in risk of pathogen transmission in patients with acute respiratory disease: • intubation and related procedures, eg manual ventilation and suctioning • cardiopulmonary resuscitation • bronchoscopy
  • 37. Infection control and personal protective equipment in aerosol generating procedures • Only essential aerosol-generating procedures should be carried out and only those healthcare workers who are needed to perform the procedure should be present in the immediate vicinity.
  • 38. Respiratory care issues • Critical care settings can present some situations that may pose an increased risk of potential exposure to respiratory secretions. • In patients receiving mechanical ventilatory support, pressures within the breathing circuits of ventilated patients are higher than those used for spontaneously breathing patients; high oxygen flow rates may also be required for spontaneously breathing patients who are in a precarious condition, and there exists the possibility that such severely ill patients will have higher viral loads and hence a greater risk of disease transmission.
  • 39. • A number of practical measures can be taken to reduce exposure, such as anticipating those who are likely to require respiratory support, careful preparation for procedures and modifying techniques, such as using deep sedation with or without neuromuscular paralysis for intubation. • Procedures such as intubation should be carried out by experienced members of staff so as to reduce as much as possible the time required and the need for multiple attempts.
  • 40. Respiratory procedures • Prepare a kit in advance for procedures such as intubation, including all necessary medical equipment. • Only essential staff should be in a patient's room or bedside area when airway management or cough-inducing activities are being carried out. • Appropriate PPE must be worn during procedures involving airway management
  • 41. Respiratory equipment • Disposable patient respiratory equipment must be used wherever possible. • Reusable equipment must be decontaminated in accordance with local policy and the manufacturer's guidelines. • Closed systems should be used wherever possible (eg suction). • Breathing filters should be changed in accordance with the manufacturer's guidelines.
  • 42. • The ventilatory circuit should not be broken unless absolutely necessary. • Staff should be alert to the potential for unplanned breathing circuit disruption: • - breathing circuits should be checked regularly for tightness of fit of component parts • - caution should be exercised when moving or performing other care on patients who are ventilated, so as to minimise the risk of accidental disconnection.
  • 43. Non-invasive ventilation • The use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and the risks it may pose to healthcare workers via aerosol generation were debatable. • Staff should be trained in infection control. • A gown, gloves and eye protection should be worn for all aerosol-generating procedures; use of an FFP3 respirator instead of a surgical mask may be prudent.
  • 44. • Ideally, patients should be managed in negative pressure single rooms with anterooms, where these are available. • If such facilities are not available, they should be cared for in standard single rooms or, if there is no other option, in cohorted groups. • A non-vented patient mask or helmet should be used. • Water humidification should be avoided.
  • 45. • A high-efficiency bacterial/viral breathing system filter (BS EN 13328-1) should be used between the non-vented mask and the expiratory port and at the outlet of the ventilator. • Expiratory port options include a whisper swivel valve or controlled leak (each with a proximal filter as above). • Ideally, expiratory flow should be directed in a single jet away from patients and staff.
  • 46. • NIV masks should be applied to the patient's face and secured before the ventilator is turned on. • Ventilators that function with double-hose tubing (an inspiratory and an expiratory limb) may be advantageous. • The ventilator should be turned off before removal of the close-fitting mask or when lifting the mask away from the face, eg for mouth care or sips of fluid.