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History of Libraries
Western World
Sumerian Information
Technology – 3500 BC
Clay Tablets
Written language was Cuneiform
Write Like a Babylonian
 http://www.upennmuseum.com/cuneiform.
Ancient Egypt – 3000 BC
• Papyrus
• Made from the papyrus plant
• Written language was Hieroglyphs
154 B.C. Feb. 22
97 B.C. July 19
Ancient Egypt
 3200 B.C. – Earliest known libraries
 Connected to Palaces & Temples
 Were called “House of Writings” or
“Place of the Records of the Palace of
the King”
 Mostly official records and documents
Ancient Egypt
 First “Librarians” were called Scribes
 Literacy was so rare that even Pharos
were not commonly able to read
 Their ability to read and write was
considered mystical and spiritual
Ancient Egypt - Scribes
 Trained in temples to read and write as
young boys
 Apprenticed for many years (8-20)
before becoming full scribes
 Had to learn as many as 2000
hieroglyphic characters
Ancient Egypt
 2000 B.C. – Literacy grows
 Wealthy began to develop private
libraries
 Temples become places of formal
education with communities developing
around them
Ancient Egypt
 Temple Collections
 Religious Writings
 Technical Writing
 Histories
 Literature
 Practical knowledge specific to fields of
study and work
Ancient Egypt
 332 B.C.
 Egypt has been conquered three times, the
last by Greece (Alexander the Great)
 The Greeks seek to replace Egyptian
culture, writing, & history with Greek
culture
Ancient Greece
 Literacy was widespread
 Developed an Alphabet
Greek Alphabet
Greek Alphabet
Alpha
Beta
Ancient Greece
 6th
Century (500’s) B.C. – First libraries
in Athens and Samos
 4th
Century (300’s) B.C. – Libraries in
Athens develop around philosophical
schools (Aristotle, Plato, Others)
Alexandrian Library
 331 B.C. – The city of Alexandria is
founded in Egypt by Alexander the
Great and named after himself
 Alexander leaves before construction
begins and dies before it is completed
Alexander the
Alexandrian Library
 Egypt ruled by Ptolemy family during
Greek occupation
 284 B.C. – Ptolemy I founds the
Alexandrian Museum & Library
 Ptolemy II finishes building and
develops the library collection using
Aristotle’s private library
Alexandrian Library
 World’s first great library
 Center of scholarship in Greco-Roman
world
 Was considered a university
 Collection was built by force
Alexandrian Library
 Royal Library
 Also called Main or
Inner library
 In the Greek area of
Alexandria
 By 250 B.C. had
approx. 490,000 rolls
 Daughter Library
 Also called Outer
library
 In the Egyptian area
of Alexandria
 By 250 B.C. had
approx. 42,800 rolls
Demetrius of Phaleron
First Librarian of Alexandria
Alexandrian Library
 By 260 B.C. – Had a library catalog
which was divided into ten main subject
areas:
Poetry The Drama Laws
Philosophy History Oratory
Medicine
Mathematical
Science
Natural
Science
Miscellanea
Poetry The Drama Laws
Philosophy History Oratory
Medicine
Mathematical
Science
Natural
Science
Miscellanea
* A -- GENERAL WORKS
* B -- PHILOSOPHY. PSYCHOLOGY.
RELIGION
* C -- AUXILIARY SCIENCES OF
HISTORY
* D -- HISTORY (GENERAL) AND
HISTORY OF EUROPE
* E -- HISTORY: AMERICA
* F -- HISTORY: AMERICA
* G -- GEOGRAPHY.
ANTHROPOLOGY. RECREATION
* H -- SOCIAL SCIENCES
* J -- POLITICAL SCIENCE
* K -- LAW
* L -- EDUCATION
* M -- MUSIC AND BOOKS ON MUSIC
* N -- FINE ARTS
* P -- LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE
* Q -- SCIENCE
* R -- MEDICINE
* S -- AGRICULTURE
* T -- TECHNOLOGY
* U -- MILITARY SCIENCE
* V -- NAVAL SCIENCE
* Z -- BIBLIOGRAPHY. LIBRARY
SCIENCE. INFORMATION RESOURCES
(GENERAL)
Library of Congress Classification Outline
Alexandrian Library
 Also had an alphabetical author index
which covered:
 Name
 Place of Birth
 Name of Father
 Name of Teachers
 Nicknames
 Bibliography
Destruction of the Alexandrian
Library
 Between 1st
Century B.C. – 4th
Century
A.D. the library is destroyed
 47 B.C. – Julius Caesar (Roman)
 Arrives in Alexandria to handle a dispute
between Cleopatra VII and her
brother/husband Ptolemy XIII over the
throne of Egypt
Julius Caesar
Cleopatra
Destruction of the Alexandrian
Library
 47 B.C. – Julius Caesar (Roman)
 Caesar (53) becomes the lover of
Cleopatra VII (16)
 Ptolemy XIII attacks Caesar with an army
of 20,000 men
Destruction of the Alexandrian
Library
 47 B.C. – Julius Caesar (Roman)
 Caesar burns the Egyptian fleet to make
way for Roman reinforcements
 Approximately 40,000 rolls sitting on the
docks are burned with part of the Royal
Library
 Cleopatra VII has Ptolemy XIII murdered
marries another younger brother
Destruction of the Alexandrian
Library
 Rome conquers Egypt and Alexandria
looses its importance in the scholarly
world
 A.D. 391 – Rise of Christianity
 A.D. 641 – Invasion of Islam
Bibliotheca Alexandrina
 http://www.bibalex.org/English/index.aspx
Monasteries
 By end of 5th
Century Roman culture no
longer dominates
 Dark Ages (500 – 1000)
 Monasteries begin collecting books
 Collected secular as well as Christian
works against wishes of church
leadership
 Monks were often those seeking
education not available elsewhere
Monasteries
 529 – St. Benedict started the
Benedictine Order in Italy
 Established the Rule of St. Benedict
Monasteries
 Rule of St. Benedict
 Poverty & Communal Living
 Physical Labor
 Reading & Copying of Books

Books were copied by hand
 Copiers were called Scribes
 The order & the Rule spread throughout
Italy, Gaul (France) and other parts of
Europe
Renaissance
 1300’s – 1500’s
 Development of interest in ancient
cultures, literature, and art
 Universities spread
Universities
 In the beginning, students gathered
around good teachers and attended
their lectures
 There was no curriculum and no
degrees
 Eventually students and teachers
began to form guilds
Universities
 Teachers formed faculties and obtained
university charters from the king or the
Pope
 The word ‘university’ comes from the
Latin word ‘universitas’ which meant
organized guild or corporation
Universities
 Universities did not initially have
libraries
 Teachers would have their own book
collection that some students could
borrow and/or copy
University Libraries
 Earliest known university library in
Europe was at the University of Paris in
1250
 The library was created by an
endowment from Robert de Sorbon who
gave his own personal library
University Libraries – Univ. of
Paris
 Over 1,000 titles by 1289 arranged into
10 major subject categories
 Eventually there was a reference
collection chained to the shelves and a
collection of copies for circulation
Paper
 Invented between 100 BC – 105 AD
 Credited to Ts'ai Lun of China (105 AD)
 A eunuch of the emperor Ho Ti during the
Han Dynasty
Paper
 Before paper, books in China were
made from bamboo (heavy) or silk
(expensive)
 Made from mulberry bark, linen, hemp,
and plant fibers that is beaten, soaked
and laid out on a bamboo frame to dry
Paper
 1150 – First paper mill built in Spain
 1411 – Papermaking spreads through
Italy, France and Germany
 Germans become finest papermakers
in Europe
 Book production in Europe is primarily
done in monasteries by hand or through
use of wood engravings
Johannes Gutenberg
Gutenberg Bible
 Printed around 1454
 Also called the 42-line bible
 The first mass-produced book in
Europe
 Approximately 180 copies made
 48 copies still exist. Most in libraries
and museums.
 British National Library has two
complete books
Gutenberg Press
 Early printers have difficulty making
money and printed mainly religious
materials as the church was a reliable
source of income
 Gutenberg lost his press and other
equipment to foreclosure
Printing
 1475 – Printing has spread to most of
Europe
 Large cities such as Paris and London
became the centers of printing as there
were more customers
 1539 - First printing press in the “New
World” in Mexico City, Mexico by Juan
Pablos
Public Libraries – Europe
 16th
Century – Public Reference
Libraries began to appear
 Most were religious or private libraries
that were taken over by the government
and turned public
 France – Over 8 million books were
confiscated after the revolution (1792)
 Usually not well managed
Public Libraries - Europe
 1725 – First rental library in U.K.
(Edinburgh)
 Rental libraries charged a fee to borrow
books
 They were usually run by booksellers
Public Libraries - Europe
 Subscription libraries
 Began in late 1700’s
 Born out of book clubs
 Wealthy men would form Lyceums
(Reading Society)
 The Lyceum would rent a room or hall to
house books
 Members paid monthly fees
Public Libraries - Europe
 Subscription libraries
 Liverpool Lyceum (1758)
 Society Library of Dumfries (1745)
 The London Library (1841)
 http://www.londonlibrary.co.uk/
Modern Public Library
Definition: A general library owned by the
public and open to use by any citizen
Modern Public Library
 Began in England
 1847 – 1849: Committee on Public
Libraries
 1850 – Public Libraries Act
 All cities over 10,000 may levy taxes to
build and support a public library
 1877 – 75, 1900 – 300
 1919 – County Library Act
Subscription Libraries - US
 First American subscription library
started by Benjamin Franklin
 The Library Company of Philadelphia
 1731
 40 shillings to join
Public Libraries - US
 First public library – Peterborough, NH
 Town meeting were they agreed to use
public money to buy books and house
them in the post office.
 Not a lending library
Public Libraries - US
 1854 – Boston Public Library
Public Libraries - US
 1854 – Boston Public Library
 1870 – BPL becomes first public library
system when it opens a branch in East
Boston
 1895 – New York Public Library
 1889 – L.A. Public Library starts from
Los Angeles Library Association, a
subscription library
Andrew Carnegie
Andrew Carnegie
 1835 – 1919
 Born in Dunfermline, Scotland
 Steel Baron
 Sold his company to US Steel in
1901 for $250 Million
 Dedicated himself to philanthropy
Andrew Carnegie
 1886 – Gave money to build a public
library in Allegheny, PA
 If any city would agree to maintain a
free public library, he would build a
library building.
 1920 – 1,679 libraries had been built in
the U.S. from his money
 Carnegie Libraries of California

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History of Libraries

  • 2. Sumerian Information Technology – 3500 BC Clay Tablets Written language was Cuneiform
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • 5.
  • 6. Write Like a Babylonian  http://www.upennmuseum.com/cuneiform.
  • 7. Ancient Egypt – 3000 BC • Papyrus • Made from the papyrus plant • Written language was Hieroglyphs
  • 10.
  • 11. Ancient Egypt  3200 B.C. – Earliest known libraries  Connected to Palaces & Temples  Were called “House of Writings” or “Place of the Records of the Palace of the King”  Mostly official records and documents
  • 12. Ancient Egypt  First “Librarians” were called Scribes  Literacy was so rare that even Pharos were not commonly able to read  Their ability to read and write was considered mystical and spiritual
  • 13. Ancient Egypt - Scribes  Trained in temples to read and write as young boys  Apprenticed for many years (8-20) before becoming full scribes  Had to learn as many as 2000 hieroglyphic characters
  • 14. Ancient Egypt  2000 B.C. – Literacy grows  Wealthy began to develop private libraries  Temples become places of formal education with communities developing around them
  • 15. Ancient Egypt  Temple Collections  Religious Writings  Technical Writing  Histories  Literature  Practical knowledge specific to fields of study and work
  • 16. Ancient Egypt  332 B.C.  Egypt has been conquered three times, the last by Greece (Alexander the Great)  The Greeks seek to replace Egyptian culture, writing, & history with Greek culture
  • 17. Ancient Greece  Literacy was widespread  Developed an Alphabet
  • 20. Ancient Greece  6th Century (500’s) B.C. – First libraries in Athens and Samos  4th Century (300’s) B.C. – Libraries in Athens develop around philosophical schools (Aristotle, Plato, Others)
  • 21. Alexandrian Library  331 B.C. – The city of Alexandria is founded in Egypt by Alexander the Great and named after himself  Alexander leaves before construction begins and dies before it is completed
  • 22.
  • 24. Alexandrian Library  Egypt ruled by Ptolemy family during Greek occupation  284 B.C. – Ptolemy I founds the Alexandrian Museum & Library  Ptolemy II finishes building and develops the library collection using Aristotle’s private library
  • 25. Alexandrian Library  World’s first great library  Center of scholarship in Greco-Roman world  Was considered a university  Collection was built by force
  • 26. Alexandrian Library  Royal Library  Also called Main or Inner library  In the Greek area of Alexandria  By 250 B.C. had approx. 490,000 rolls  Daughter Library  Also called Outer library  In the Egyptian area of Alexandria  By 250 B.C. had approx. 42,800 rolls
  • 27. Demetrius of Phaleron First Librarian of Alexandria
  • 28. Alexandrian Library  By 260 B.C. – Had a library catalog which was divided into ten main subject areas: Poetry The Drama Laws Philosophy History Oratory Medicine Mathematical Science Natural Science Miscellanea
  • 29. Poetry The Drama Laws Philosophy History Oratory Medicine Mathematical Science Natural Science Miscellanea * A -- GENERAL WORKS * B -- PHILOSOPHY. PSYCHOLOGY. RELIGION * C -- AUXILIARY SCIENCES OF HISTORY * D -- HISTORY (GENERAL) AND HISTORY OF EUROPE * E -- HISTORY: AMERICA * F -- HISTORY: AMERICA * G -- GEOGRAPHY. ANTHROPOLOGY. RECREATION * H -- SOCIAL SCIENCES * J -- POLITICAL SCIENCE * K -- LAW * L -- EDUCATION * M -- MUSIC AND BOOKS ON MUSIC * N -- FINE ARTS * P -- LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE * Q -- SCIENCE * R -- MEDICINE * S -- AGRICULTURE * T -- TECHNOLOGY * U -- MILITARY SCIENCE * V -- NAVAL SCIENCE * Z -- BIBLIOGRAPHY. LIBRARY SCIENCE. INFORMATION RESOURCES (GENERAL) Library of Congress Classification Outline
  • 30. Alexandrian Library  Also had an alphabetical author index which covered:  Name  Place of Birth  Name of Father  Name of Teachers  Nicknames  Bibliography
  • 31. Destruction of the Alexandrian Library  Between 1st Century B.C. – 4th Century A.D. the library is destroyed  47 B.C. – Julius Caesar (Roman)  Arrives in Alexandria to handle a dispute between Cleopatra VII and her brother/husband Ptolemy XIII over the throne of Egypt
  • 34. Destruction of the Alexandrian Library  47 B.C. – Julius Caesar (Roman)  Caesar (53) becomes the lover of Cleopatra VII (16)  Ptolemy XIII attacks Caesar with an army of 20,000 men
  • 35. Destruction of the Alexandrian Library  47 B.C. – Julius Caesar (Roman)  Caesar burns the Egyptian fleet to make way for Roman reinforcements  Approximately 40,000 rolls sitting on the docks are burned with part of the Royal Library  Cleopatra VII has Ptolemy XIII murdered marries another younger brother
  • 36. Destruction of the Alexandrian Library  Rome conquers Egypt and Alexandria looses its importance in the scholarly world  A.D. 391 – Rise of Christianity  A.D. 641 – Invasion of Islam
  • 38. Monasteries  By end of 5th Century Roman culture no longer dominates  Dark Ages (500 – 1000)  Monasteries begin collecting books  Collected secular as well as Christian works against wishes of church leadership  Monks were often those seeking education not available elsewhere
  • 39. Monasteries  529 – St. Benedict started the Benedictine Order in Italy  Established the Rule of St. Benedict
  • 40. Monasteries  Rule of St. Benedict  Poverty & Communal Living  Physical Labor  Reading & Copying of Books  Books were copied by hand  Copiers were called Scribes  The order & the Rule spread throughout Italy, Gaul (France) and other parts of Europe
  • 41. Renaissance  1300’s – 1500’s  Development of interest in ancient cultures, literature, and art  Universities spread
  • 42. Universities  In the beginning, students gathered around good teachers and attended their lectures  There was no curriculum and no degrees  Eventually students and teachers began to form guilds
  • 43. Universities  Teachers formed faculties and obtained university charters from the king or the Pope  The word ‘university’ comes from the Latin word ‘universitas’ which meant organized guild or corporation
  • 44. Universities  Universities did not initially have libraries  Teachers would have their own book collection that some students could borrow and/or copy
  • 45. University Libraries  Earliest known university library in Europe was at the University of Paris in 1250  The library was created by an endowment from Robert de Sorbon who gave his own personal library
  • 46. University Libraries – Univ. of Paris  Over 1,000 titles by 1289 arranged into 10 major subject categories  Eventually there was a reference collection chained to the shelves and a collection of copies for circulation
  • 47.
  • 48. Paper  Invented between 100 BC – 105 AD  Credited to Ts'ai Lun of China (105 AD)  A eunuch of the emperor Ho Ti during the Han Dynasty
  • 49.
  • 50. Paper  Before paper, books in China were made from bamboo (heavy) or silk (expensive)  Made from mulberry bark, linen, hemp, and plant fibers that is beaten, soaked and laid out on a bamboo frame to dry
  • 51. Paper  1150 – First paper mill built in Spain  1411 – Papermaking spreads through Italy, France and Germany  Germans become finest papermakers in Europe  Book production in Europe is primarily done in monasteries by hand or through use of wood engravings
  • 53. Gutenberg Bible  Printed around 1454  Also called the 42-line bible  The first mass-produced book in Europe  Approximately 180 copies made  48 copies still exist. Most in libraries and museums.  British National Library has two complete books
  • 54. Gutenberg Press  Early printers have difficulty making money and printed mainly religious materials as the church was a reliable source of income  Gutenberg lost his press and other equipment to foreclosure
  • 55. Printing  1475 – Printing has spread to most of Europe  Large cities such as Paris and London became the centers of printing as there were more customers  1539 - First printing press in the “New World” in Mexico City, Mexico by Juan Pablos
  • 56. Public Libraries – Europe  16th Century – Public Reference Libraries began to appear  Most were religious or private libraries that were taken over by the government and turned public  France – Over 8 million books were confiscated after the revolution (1792)  Usually not well managed
  • 57. Public Libraries - Europe  1725 – First rental library in U.K. (Edinburgh)  Rental libraries charged a fee to borrow books  They were usually run by booksellers
  • 58. Public Libraries - Europe  Subscription libraries  Began in late 1700’s  Born out of book clubs  Wealthy men would form Lyceums (Reading Society)  The Lyceum would rent a room or hall to house books  Members paid monthly fees
  • 59. Public Libraries - Europe  Subscription libraries  Liverpool Lyceum (1758)  Society Library of Dumfries (1745)  The London Library (1841)  http://www.londonlibrary.co.uk/
  • 60. Modern Public Library Definition: A general library owned by the public and open to use by any citizen
  • 61. Modern Public Library  Began in England  1847 – 1849: Committee on Public Libraries  1850 – Public Libraries Act  All cities over 10,000 may levy taxes to build and support a public library  1877 – 75, 1900 – 300  1919 – County Library Act
  • 62. Subscription Libraries - US  First American subscription library started by Benjamin Franklin  The Library Company of Philadelphia  1731  40 shillings to join
  • 63. Public Libraries - US  First public library – Peterborough, NH  Town meeting were they agreed to use public money to buy books and house them in the post office.  Not a lending library
  • 64. Public Libraries - US  1854 – Boston Public Library
  • 65.
  • 66. Public Libraries - US  1854 – Boston Public Library  1870 – BPL becomes first public library system when it opens a branch in East Boston  1895 – New York Public Library  1889 – L.A. Public Library starts from Los Angeles Library Association, a subscription library
  • 68. Andrew Carnegie  1835 – 1919  Born in Dunfermline, Scotland  Steel Baron  Sold his company to US Steel in 1901 for $250 Million  Dedicated himself to philanthropy
  • 69. Andrew Carnegie  1886 – Gave money to build a public library in Allegheny, PA  If any city would agree to maintain a free public library, he would build a library building.  1920 – 1,679 libraries had been built in the U.S. from his money  Carnegie Libraries of California

Editor's Notes

  1. http://i-cias.com/e.o/cuneiform.htm
  2. The Round School Tablet from the Babylonian city of Nippur during the Hammurabi Dynasty http://www.upenn.edu/museum/Games/cuneiform.html
  3. http://www.upenn.edu/museum/Games/cuneiform.html
  4. From Duke University Papyrus Archive (Lease) http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu/papyrus/texts/homepage.html
  5. From Duke University Papyrus Archive (Business Letter)
  6. From Duke University Papyrus Archive (Novel)
  7. Egypt Timeline http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/EGYPT/TIMELINE.HTM
  8. http://www.virginia.edu/uvanewsmakers/newsmakers/sacks.html
  9. 2= Harbor, 3=The Lighthouse, 4=The Library, 5=Christian Section, 6=Jewish Section, 7=Pagan Section http://persweb.wabash.edu/facstaff/royaltyr/AncientCities/web/rel%20372%20project/ALEXANDRIA.htm
  10. From Parsons, Edward Alexander The Alexandrian Library
  11. Student of Aristotle and former ruler of Athens
  12. 53 y.o.
  13. Image from the American Friends of the British Museum. Died at the age of 39. Only Ptolemic ruler who spoke Egyptian.
  14. She and Ceasar go off on a months long sailing trip along the Nile. She bears him a son called Caesarion. Rome is angered and kills Ceasar.
  15. Try to find images of Sorbonne library
  16. Oxford University Bodleian Library
  17. http://www.ipst.edu/amp/collection/museum_invention_paper.htm
  18. Became wealthy but ultimately committed suicide