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TITLE : EXTRACTION OF ALUMINIUM
PREPARED BY :-
 NAIMISH PARMAR 150110105023
 KRISHNA PESHIVADIYA 150110105034
 HARDIK PIPALIYA 150110105035
 BHAVIN POSHIYA 150110105036
G H PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND
TECHNOLOGY
VALLABHVIDYA NAGAR- 388120
SUBJECT : PHYSICAL AND INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Introduction about aluminium
 ALUMINIUM IS FOUND IN MANY ROCK MINERALS, USUALLY COMBINED WITH
SILICON AND OXYGEN IN COMPOUNDS CALLED ALUMINO SILICATES.
 UNDER CERTAIN TYPES OF TROPICAL SOIL WEATHERING THESE ALUMINO-
SILICATE COMPOUNDS ARE SEPARATED INTO LAYERS OF HYDRATED IRON
OXIDE, HYDRATED ALUMINA AND SILICA .
 WHEN SUCH DEPOSITS ARE RICH IN ALUMINA, THEY COMPRISE THE
MINERAL BAUXITE . THE WEIPA DEPOSITS ARE 45-55% ALUMINA AS
AL2O3.3H2O, WITH THE REMAINDER BEING WATER, IRON OXIDE, SILICA AND
TITANIUM DIOXIDE (TIO2).
 ALUMINIUM IS A LIGHTWEIGHT, DURABLE METAL. IT IS SILVERY IN
APPEARANCE WHEN FRESHLY CUT, IS A GOOD CONDUCTOR OF HEAT AND
ELECTRICITY AND IS EASILY SHAPED BY MOULDING AND EXTRUDING.
ALUMINIUM HAS TWO MAIN ADVANTAGES WHEN COMPARED WITH OTHER
METALS.
WHAT IS BAUXITE
 Bauxite is not a single composition, more a range of
hydrated aluminium oxides and hydroxides.
 It is found as a weathering product in soils in hot sub-
tropical and tropical climates.
 Main resources are in N. Africa,S. America, SE Asia and
N.Australia
THE BAUXITE PURIFICATION
PROCESS1} Chemical purification of raw materials to form a high purity alumina.
2} Reduction of alumina.
 STEP 1 : PURIFICATION TO FORM HIGH PURITY ALUMINA
 There it is purified to alumina using the Bayer process which is based on the fact that silica is an acidic
oxide, alumina is amphoteric and both iron oxide and titania are basic. The crushed ore is mixed with
caustic soda (NaOH) solution and heated. This dissolves the alumina and some reactive crystalline forms
of silica but has no effect on the iron oxide, the titania , or most of the silica which is already combined
with other elements.
 Al2O3 + 6NaOH + 3H2O → 2Na3Al(OH)6
 When the solution of alumina and silica is cooled, a complex alumino silicate "sand" is first precipitated
out before altering process conditions allows pure aluminium hydroxide to crystallise out. This is speeded
up by initially adding a small quantity of pure crystalline aluminium hydroxide to act as sites for crystal
growth.
 Na3Al(OH)6 + 2H2O → 3NaOH + Al(OH)3.3H2O
Step 2 - Reduction of alumina
 Aluminium metal is not produced directly by the electrochemical reduction of alumina:
2Al2O3 → 4Al + 3O2
 Rather, it is reduced by a combination of chemical and electrical energy according to the
following two reactions in parallel:
Al2O3 + 3C → 2Al + 3CO
2Al2O3 + 3C → 4Al + 2CO2
 This use of a consumable carbon anode lowers the required voltage by 1.0 V at the operating
temperature of 950 - 980 C.
THE ELECTROLYSIS PROCESS
FOR ALUMINIUM :-
Reactions in the cell :
 At the cathode
Al3+ + 3e-  Al
 At the anode
2O2-  O2 + 4e-
 The oxygen formed reacts with the carbon anodes to form carbon dioxide.
 They have to be replaced periodically.
 The negative cathode, around the edges of the cell, attracts the positively charged aluminium ions.
These gain electrons and aluminium which fall to the base of the tank as molten metal……
 Al3+
(l) + 3e- => Al(l)
USES OF ALUMINIUM :-
Lightness :-
 Use in aerospace and transport industries, as its lightness enables a greater volume of
metal to be used, thus giving greater rigidity.
 Also used in pistons, connecting rods, etc. to give better balance, reduced friction and
lower bearing loads, meaning that less energy is required to overcome inertia.
Electrical conductivity :-
 Used extensively for electrical conductors, especially in overhead cables. However this
requires a high purity grade (in excess of 99.93%).
Thermal conductivity :-
 Extensive usage in heat exchangers, cooking utensils, pistons, etc. Corrosion
resistance.
 This is made use of in chemical plant, food industry packaging, building and
marine applications.
 Aluminium paint is widely used. The oxide film can be thickened by anodising, and
the film can be dyed in a wide range of colours.
 This is done by making the article the anode of a direct current electrolysis cell
using an electrolyte solution of approximately 15% sulfuric acid.
 2Al + 3H2O → Al2O3 + 6H+ + 6e-
THANK YOU

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Extraction of Aluminium from Ore And Purification

  • 1. TITLE : EXTRACTION OF ALUMINIUM PREPARED BY :-  NAIMISH PARMAR 150110105023  KRISHNA PESHIVADIYA 150110105034  HARDIK PIPALIYA 150110105035  BHAVIN POSHIYA 150110105036 G H PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY VALLABHVIDYA NAGAR- 388120 SUBJECT : PHYSICAL AND INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
  • 2. Introduction about aluminium  ALUMINIUM IS FOUND IN MANY ROCK MINERALS, USUALLY COMBINED WITH SILICON AND OXYGEN IN COMPOUNDS CALLED ALUMINO SILICATES.  UNDER CERTAIN TYPES OF TROPICAL SOIL WEATHERING THESE ALUMINO- SILICATE COMPOUNDS ARE SEPARATED INTO LAYERS OF HYDRATED IRON OXIDE, HYDRATED ALUMINA AND SILICA .  WHEN SUCH DEPOSITS ARE RICH IN ALUMINA, THEY COMPRISE THE MINERAL BAUXITE . THE WEIPA DEPOSITS ARE 45-55% ALUMINA AS AL2O3.3H2O, WITH THE REMAINDER BEING WATER, IRON OXIDE, SILICA AND TITANIUM DIOXIDE (TIO2).  ALUMINIUM IS A LIGHTWEIGHT, DURABLE METAL. IT IS SILVERY IN APPEARANCE WHEN FRESHLY CUT, IS A GOOD CONDUCTOR OF HEAT AND ELECTRICITY AND IS EASILY SHAPED BY MOULDING AND EXTRUDING. ALUMINIUM HAS TWO MAIN ADVANTAGES WHEN COMPARED WITH OTHER METALS.
  • 3. WHAT IS BAUXITE  Bauxite is not a single composition, more a range of hydrated aluminium oxides and hydroxides.  It is found as a weathering product in soils in hot sub- tropical and tropical climates.  Main resources are in N. Africa,S. America, SE Asia and N.Australia
  • 4. THE BAUXITE PURIFICATION PROCESS1} Chemical purification of raw materials to form a high purity alumina. 2} Reduction of alumina.  STEP 1 : PURIFICATION TO FORM HIGH PURITY ALUMINA  There it is purified to alumina using the Bayer process which is based on the fact that silica is an acidic oxide, alumina is amphoteric and both iron oxide and titania are basic. The crushed ore is mixed with caustic soda (NaOH) solution and heated. This dissolves the alumina and some reactive crystalline forms of silica but has no effect on the iron oxide, the titania , or most of the silica which is already combined with other elements.  Al2O3 + 6NaOH + 3H2O → 2Na3Al(OH)6  When the solution of alumina and silica is cooled, a complex alumino silicate "sand" is first precipitated out before altering process conditions allows pure aluminium hydroxide to crystallise out. This is speeded up by initially adding a small quantity of pure crystalline aluminium hydroxide to act as sites for crystal growth.  Na3Al(OH)6 + 2H2O → 3NaOH + Al(OH)3.3H2O
  • 5. Step 2 - Reduction of alumina  Aluminium metal is not produced directly by the electrochemical reduction of alumina: 2Al2O3 → 4Al + 3O2  Rather, it is reduced by a combination of chemical and electrical energy according to the following two reactions in parallel: Al2O3 + 3C → 2Al + 3CO 2Al2O3 + 3C → 4Al + 2CO2  This use of a consumable carbon anode lowers the required voltage by 1.0 V at the operating temperature of 950 - 980 C.
  • 7. Reactions in the cell :  At the cathode Al3+ + 3e-  Al  At the anode 2O2-  O2 + 4e-  The oxygen formed reacts with the carbon anodes to form carbon dioxide.  They have to be replaced periodically.  The negative cathode, around the edges of the cell, attracts the positively charged aluminium ions. These gain electrons and aluminium which fall to the base of the tank as molten metal……  Al3+ (l) + 3e- => Al(l)
  • 8. USES OF ALUMINIUM :- Lightness :-  Use in aerospace and transport industries, as its lightness enables a greater volume of metal to be used, thus giving greater rigidity.  Also used in pistons, connecting rods, etc. to give better balance, reduced friction and lower bearing loads, meaning that less energy is required to overcome inertia. Electrical conductivity :-  Used extensively for electrical conductors, especially in overhead cables. However this requires a high purity grade (in excess of 99.93%).
  • 9. Thermal conductivity :-  Extensive usage in heat exchangers, cooking utensils, pistons, etc. Corrosion resistance.  This is made use of in chemical plant, food industry packaging, building and marine applications.  Aluminium paint is widely used. The oxide film can be thickened by anodising, and the film can be dyed in a wide range of colours.  This is done by making the article the anode of a direct current electrolysis cell using an electrolyte solution of approximately 15% sulfuric acid.  2Al + 3H2O → Al2O3 + 6H+ + 6e-