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G.H. PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGG. AND
TECHNOLOGY
 SUB. NAME:-
Mass Transfer Operation – I
 SUB. CODE:-
2150501
 TOPIC NAME:-
Concept of leaching, technique, single and multistage processes
 PREPARED BY:-
VATSAL PATEL(150110105032)
VYOM PATODIYA(150110105033)
KRISHNA PESHIVADIYA(150110105034)
HARDIK PIPALIYA(150110105035)
BHAVIN POSHIYA(150110105036)
OVERVIEW
 CONCEPT OF LEACHING
 TECHNIQUE OF LEACHING
STEADY STATE
UNSTEDY STATE
In-Place (in Situ) Leaching
Heap Leaching
Shanks System (semi-batch system)
 SINGLE STAGE LEACHING
 MULTI STAGE LEACHING
 REFERENCES
Concept Of Leaching
 Leaching is the preferential solution of one or more
constituents of a solid mixture by contact with a liquid
solvent.
 Leaching originally referred to percolation of the liquid
through a fixed bed of the solid.
 The metallurgical industries are perhaps the largest users
of the leaching operation.
For example,
Copper minerals are dissolved from certain of
their ores by leaching with sulfuric acid and gold is separated
from its ores with the aid of sodium cyanide solution.
 Many naturally occurring products are separated from their
original structure by leaching.
For example,
Sugar is leached from sugar beets with hot water,
Vegetable oil are recovered from seeds such as soybeans and
cottonseed by leaching with organic solvents, and Many
Pharmaceutical products are similarly recovered from plant
roots and leaves.
Concept Of Leaching
Technique of leaching
 There are two types of method of leaching,
Steady State - Continuous mode
Unsteady State – (A) Batch
(B) Semi- batch
 Leaching operations are carried out under batch and
semi-batch as well as under completely continuous
condition.
 Two major handling techniques are used: spraying or
trickling the liquid over the solid, and immersing the
solid completely in the liquid.
 Unsteady-State Operation
 The Unsteady-state operations include those where
the solids and liquids are contacted in purely batch
wise fashion and also those where batch of solid is
contacted with continually slowing stream of liquid
(semi-batch method).
1. In-Place (in Situ) Leaching
2. Heap Leaching
3. Shanks System (semi-batch system)
1. In-Place (in Situ) Leaching
 In-situ leaching or solution mining, is
a mining process used to recover minerals such
as copper and uranium through boreholes drilled into
a deposit. In situ leach works by artificially dissolving
minerals occurring naturally in a solid state.
 The process initially involves the drilling of holes into
the ore deposit. Leaching solution is pumped into the
deposit where it makes contact with the ore. The
solution bearing the dissolved ore content is then
pumped to the surface and processed.
Process:-
 Solvent is injected through a set of pipes drilled down
in the ore. Resulting liquor is removed through
different set of pipe shape drills.
 Through these pipe shaped drills, solvent flows down
and is penetrated in to ore body for leaching.
 Solvent moves through the pipe shaped drills and ore
body and solute is leached.
2. Heap Leaching
 Heap leaching is an industrial mining process to
extract precious metals, copper, uranium, and other
compounds from ore via a series of chemical reactions
that absorb specific minerals and then re-separates
them after their division from other earth materials.
 Similar to in situ mining, heap leach mining differs in
that it places ore on a liner, then adds the chemicals via
drip systems to the ore, whereas in situ mining lacks
these liners and pulls pregnant solution up to obtain
the minerals.
Process:-
 In heap leaching, Ore is digged and prepared in the
form of very large size heap.
 A pond is prepared at the top of the heap for placing
solvent in it.
 Solvent is pumped over the ore through these pipe
shaped drills and is flow down and is penetrated in
the ore body for leaching.
 Solvent moves through the pipe shaped drills and ore
body and solute is leached.
 Whole solution is collected as it drains from the heap
3. Shanks System (semi-batch system)
 Leaching and washing of the leached solute from
percolation tank by crosscurrent methods results in weak
solutions of the solute. The strongest solution will result if
counter current scheme is used, wherein the final
withdrawn solution is taken from contact with the freshest
solid and the fresh solvent is added to solid from which
most of the solute has been already leached or washed.
Shank System
Figure 1 : Shank System
 Process:-
1. Assume at the time of inspecting the system at fig(a) that
it has been in operation for some time. Tank 6 is empty,
tanks 1 to 5 are filed with solid and with leached liquid
and tank 5 is n contact with freshest solid. Fresh solvent
is added to tank 1.
2. Withdraw the concentrated solution from tank 5, transfer
the liquid from tank 4 to tank 5, 3 to 4, 2 to 3, 1 to 2. Add
fresh solid to tank 6.
3. Refer fig(b) . Discard the spent sold from tank 1. Transfer
the liquid from tank 5 to 6, 4 to 5, 3 to 4, 2 to 3,. Add
fresh solvent to tank 2.
4. Continue the operation in the same manner as before.
Single Stage Leaching
M1
Solid to be leached
B mass insoluble
F mass (A+C)
Nf mass B/mass (A+C)
Yf mass C/mass (A+C)
Leached Solid
B mass insoluble
E1 mass (A+C)
N1 mass B/mass
(A+C)
Y1 mass C/mass
(A+C)
Leaching Solvents
R0 mass solution
(A+C)
X0 mass C/mass
(A+C)
Leaching Solvents
R1 mass solution
(A+C)
X1 mass C/mass
(A+C)Where C= Solute
A= Solvent
B= Solid
Figure 2: Single stage Leaching
 Consider a single stage leaching operation. The
circle represents the entire operation including
mixing of solid and leaching solvent and mechanical
separation of the resulting insoluble phase.
 For continuous operation, weight is given in
mass/time or mass/area*time.
 Solid B is insoluble in solvent and a clear liquid
leach solution is obtained.
 B discharged in leached solid is same as that in
solids to be leached.
Single Stage Leaching
 Solute & Solvent are indicated by C & A respectively.
B = Nf * F = E1 * N1
 Solute C balance gives,
F * Yf + R0 * X0 = E1 * Y1 + R1 * X1
 Solvent A balance gives,
F * (1 - Yf) + R0 * (1 - X0) = E1 * (1 - Y1) + R1 * (1 -X1)
and solution ( Solute + Solvent),
 Balance gives…….(overall material balance)
F + R0 = E1 + R1 = M1
Single Stage Leaching
 Mixing solids to be leached and
leaching solvent produces a
mixture of B-free mass M1
NM1 =
𝐵
𝐹+𝑅˳
YM1 =
F Yf + R0X0
𝐹+𝑅˳
 This relation can be shown on
the coordinate system of Fig.
 Point F represents the solids to
be leached and R0 the leaching
solvent.
 Point M1 representing the
overall mixture, must fall on
straight line joining R0 and F.
 Point E1 and R1, representing
the effluent streams, are
located at opposite ends of the
tie line through M1.
Single Stage Leaching
Figure 3 : Coordinate System of
Single stage leaching
Multi stage Leaching
V Mass of overflow solution xA Composition of A at overflow solution
L Mass of liquid in slurry solution yA Composition of A at slurry solution
B Mass of dry, solute – free solid.
Figure 4 : Multistage counter current Leaching
 Assumption: The solid B is insoluble and is not lost in the liquid V phase.
The flow rate of solid is constant throughout the process
 The ideal stages are numbered in the direction of the solids or underflow stream.
 The solvent (C) – solute (A) phase or V phase is the liquid phase that overflows
continuously from stage to stage counter-currently to the solid phase, and it
dissolves solute as it moves along.
 The slurry phase L composed of inert solid (B) and liquid phase of A and C is the
continuous underflow from each stage.
 Composition of V – denoted by x
 Composition of L – denoted by y
Multi stage Leaching
 
 
 balanceSolid
balanceAComp.
balancesolutionTotal
MNLNLNB
MxxVyLxVyL
MVLVL
MNN
AMAANNANNA
NN





00
111100
110
Multi stage Leaching
Figure 5 : Number of stage required
REFERENCES
 Mass transfer operation" by R E Treybal, Mc-Graw
Hill international, 3rd edition.
 UnitOperationsofChemicalEngg.ByW.L.McCabe,J.C.
Smith&Harriott,Mc-GrawHillinternational, 6 th
edition .
 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leaching
 https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?search=MUL
TISTAGE+LEACHING&title=Special:Search&profile
=default&fulltext=1&searchToken=1jtbqjp3jxybhzch
sxcltl6lo
Thank You

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LEACHING CONCEPT, TECHNIQUE AND SINGLE AND MULTISTAGE LEACHING

  • 1. G.H. PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGG. AND TECHNOLOGY  SUB. NAME:- Mass Transfer Operation – I  SUB. CODE:- 2150501  TOPIC NAME:- Concept of leaching, technique, single and multistage processes  PREPARED BY:- VATSAL PATEL(150110105032) VYOM PATODIYA(150110105033) KRISHNA PESHIVADIYA(150110105034) HARDIK PIPALIYA(150110105035) BHAVIN POSHIYA(150110105036)
  • 2. OVERVIEW  CONCEPT OF LEACHING  TECHNIQUE OF LEACHING STEADY STATE UNSTEDY STATE In-Place (in Situ) Leaching Heap Leaching Shanks System (semi-batch system)  SINGLE STAGE LEACHING  MULTI STAGE LEACHING  REFERENCES
  • 3. Concept Of Leaching  Leaching is the preferential solution of one or more constituents of a solid mixture by contact with a liquid solvent.  Leaching originally referred to percolation of the liquid through a fixed bed of the solid.  The metallurgical industries are perhaps the largest users of the leaching operation.
  • 4. For example, Copper minerals are dissolved from certain of their ores by leaching with sulfuric acid and gold is separated from its ores with the aid of sodium cyanide solution.  Many naturally occurring products are separated from their original structure by leaching. For example, Sugar is leached from sugar beets with hot water, Vegetable oil are recovered from seeds such as soybeans and cottonseed by leaching with organic solvents, and Many Pharmaceutical products are similarly recovered from plant roots and leaves. Concept Of Leaching
  • 5. Technique of leaching  There are two types of method of leaching, Steady State - Continuous mode Unsteady State – (A) Batch (B) Semi- batch  Leaching operations are carried out under batch and semi-batch as well as under completely continuous condition.  Two major handling techniques are used: spraying or trickling the liquid over the solid, and immersing the solid completely in the liquid.
  • 6.  Unsteady-State Operation  The Unsteady-state operations include those where the solids and liquids are contacted in purely batch wise fashion and also those where batch of solid is contacted with continually slowing stream of liquid (semi-batch method). 1. In-Place (in Situ) Leaching 2. Heap Leaching 3. Shanks System (semi-batch system)
  • 7. 1. In-Place (in Situ) Leaching  In-situ leaching or solution mining, is a mining process used to recover minerals such as copper and uranium through boreholes drilled into a deposit. In situ leach works by artificially dissolving minerals occurring naturally in a solid state.  The process initially involves the drilling of holes into the ore deposit. Leaching solution is pumped into the deposit where it makes contact with the ore. The solution bearing the dissolved ore content is then pumped to the surface and processed.
  • 8. Process:-  Solvent is injected through a set of pipes drilled down in the ore. Resulting liquor is removed through different set of pipe shape drills.  Through these pipe shaped drills, solvent flows down and is penetrated in to ore body for leaching.  Solvent moves through the pipe shaped drills and ore body and solute is leached.
  • 9. 2. Heap Leaching  Heap leaching is an industrial mining process to extract precious metals, copper, uranium, and other compounds from ore via a series of chemical reactions that absorb specific minerals and then re-separates them after their division from other earth materials.  Similar to in situ mining, heap leach mining differs in that it places ore on a liner, then adds the chemicals via drip systems to the ore, whereas in situ mining lacks these liners and pulls pregnant solution up to obtain the minerals.
  • 10. Process:-  In heap leaching, Ore is digged and prepared in the form of very large size heap.  A pond is prepared at the top of the heap for placing solvent in it.  Solvent is pumped over the ore through these pipe shaped drills and is flow down and is penetrated in the ore body for leaching.  Solvent moves through the pipe shaped drills and ore body and solute is leached.  Whole solution is collected as it drains from the heap
  • 11. 3. Shanks System (semi-batch system)  Leaching and washing of the leached solute from percolation tank by crosscurrent methods results in weak solutions of the solute. The strongest solution will result if counter current scheme is used, wherein the final withdrawn solution is taken from contact with the freshest solid and the fresh solvent is added to solid from which most of the solute has been already leached or washed.
  • 12. Shank System Figure 1 : Shank System
  • 13.  Process:- 1. Assume at the time of inspecting the system at fig(a) that it has been in operation for some time. Tank 6 is empty, tanks 1 to 5 are filed with solid and with leached liquid and tank 5 is n contact with freshest solid. Fresh solvent is added to tank 1. 2. Withdraw the concentrated solution from tank 5, transfer the liquid from tank 4 to tank 5, 3 to 4, 2 to 3, 1 to 2. Add fresh solid to tank 6. 3. Refer fig(b) . Discard the spent sold from tank 1. Transfer the liquid from tank 5 to 6, 4 to 5, 3 to 4, 2 to 3,. Add fresh solvent to tank 2. 4. Continue the operation in the same manner as before.
  • 14. Single Stage Leaching M1 Solid to be leached B mass insoluble F mass (A+C) Nf mass B/mass (A+C) Yf mass C/mass (A+C) Leached Solid B mass insoluble E1 mass (A+C) N1 mass B/mass (A+C) Y1 mass C/mass (A+C) Leaching Solvents R0 mass solution (A+C) X0 mass C/mass (A+C) Leaching Solvents R1 mass solution (A+C) X1 mass C/mass (A+C)Where C= Solute A= Solvent B= Solid Figure 2: Single stage Leaching
  • 15.  Consider a single stage leaching operation. The circle represents the entire operation including mixing of solid and leaching solvent and mechanical separation of the resulting insoluble phase.  For continuous operation, weight is given in mass/time or mass/area*time.  Solid B is insoluble in solvent and a clear liquid leach solution is obtained.  B discharged in leached solid is same as that in solids to be leached. Single Stage Leaching
  • 16.  Solute & Solvent are indicated by C & A respectively. B = Nf * F = E1 * N1  Solute C balance gives, F * Yf + R0 * X0 = E1 * Y1 + R1 * X1  Solvent A balance gives, F * (1 - Yf) + R0 * (1 - X0) = E1 * (1 - Y1) + R1 * (1 -X1) and solution ( Solute + Solvent),  Balance gives…….(overall material balance) F + R0 = E1 + R1 = M1 Single Stage Leaching
  • 17.  Mixing solids to be leached and leaching solvent produces a mixture of B-free mass M1 NM1 = 𝐵 𝐹+𝑅˳ YM1 = F Yf + R0X0 𝐹+𝑅˳  This relation can be shown on the coordinate system of Fig.  Point F represents the solids to be leached and R0 the leaching solvent.  Point M1 representing the overall mixture, must fall on straight line joining R0 and F.  Point E1 and R1, representing the effluent streams, are located at opposite ends of the tie line through M1. Single Stage Leaching Figure 3 : Coordinate System of Single stage leaching
  • 18. Multi stage Leaching V Mass of overflow solution xA Composition of A at overflow solution L Mass of liquid in slurry solution yA Composition of A at slurry solution B Mass of dry, solute – free solid. Figure 4 : Multistage counter current Leaching
  • 19.  Assumption: The solid B is insoluble and is not lost in the liquid V phase. The flow rate of solid is constant throughout the process  The ideal stages are numbered in the direction of the solids or underflow stream.  The solvent (C) – solute (A) phase or V phase is the liquid phase that overflows continuously from stage to stage counter-currently to the solid phase, and it dissolves solute as it moves along.  The slurry phase L composed of inert solid (B) and liquid phase of A and C is the continuous underflow from each stage.  Composition of V – denoted by x  Composition of L – denoted by y Multi stage Leaching
  • 20.      balanceSolid balanceAComp. balancesolutionTotal MNLNLNB MxxVyLxVyL MVLVL MNN AMAANNANNA NN      00 111100 110 Multi stage Leaching
  • 21. Figure 5 : Number of stage required
  • 22. REFERENCES  Mass transfer operation" by R E Treybal, Mc-Graw Hill international, 3rd edition.  UnitOperationsofChemicalEngg.ByW.L.McCabe,J.C. Smith&Harriott,Mc-GrawHillinternational, 6 th edition .  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leaching  https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?search=MUL TISTAGE+LEACHING&title=Special:Search&profile =default&fulltext=1&searchToken=1jtbqjp3jxybhzch sxcltl6lo