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CME364 ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES
• COURSE OBJECTIVES
• To study the various types of energy storage devices and technologies and their comparison.
• To learn the techniques of various energy storage devices and their performances.
• To learn the basics of batteries and hybrid systems for EVs and other mobile applications.
• To learn about renewable energy storage systems and management systems.
• To have an insight into other energy storage devices, hydrogen, and fuel cells.
UNIT – I INTRODUCTION TO ENERGY STORAGE
Need for Energy Storage – Types of Energy Storage – Various forms of Energy Storage – Mechanical–Thermal - Chemical–
Electrochemical – Electrical - Other alternative energy storage technologies –Efficiency and Comparison.
UNIT – II ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS
Pumped Air Energy Storage – Compressed Air Energy Storage – Flywheel – Sensible and Latent Heat Storage – Storage
Materials – Performance Evaluation - Thermochemical systems – Batteries – Types-Charging and Discharging – Battery testing
and performance.
UNIT – III MOBILE AND HYBRID ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS
Batteries for electric vehicles - Battery specifications for cars, heart pacemakers, computer standby supplies – V2G and G2V
technologies – HESS.
UNIT – IV RENEWABLE ENERGY STORAGE AND ENERGY MANAGEMENT
Storage of Renewable Energy Systems –Solar Energy – Wind Energy – Energy Storage in Microgrid– Smart Grid – Energy
Conversion Efficiency - Battery Management Systems – EVBMS – Energy Audit and Management.
UNIT – V OTHER ENE+RGY DEVICES
Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES), Supercapacitors – MHD Power generation –Hydrogen Storage - Fuel
Cells – Basic principle and classifications – PEMFC, AMFC, DMFC, SOFC, MCFC and Biofuel Cells – Biogas Storage.
Need for Energy Storage
• Renewables integration with Grid: Helps to integrate more solar, wind, and distributed
energy resources.
• Higher Grid Efficiency: This can improve the efficiency of the grid by increasing the
capacity factor of existing resources and offset the need to depend on pollution-
emitting peak power plants.
• Improved and reliable electric supply: Storage can also support the efficient delivery of
electricity for base load plants like coal that have slow ramp-up times when responding
to the grid.
• Electrical grid infrastructure: Energy storage options can hugely alleviate the
operational costs of the entire grid infrastructure.
• Overall Savings in Money –Overall incorporation of storage is beneficial to all end-
users as it saves costs to society by enabling storage of low-cost energy and retrieving
it later when electricity prices are low.
Various forms of Energy Storage
• In Electricity Grid- For example, the energy retrieved from batteries can be
used in times of peak demand. This prevents the grid from becoming
overloaded and proceeding towards any possible outages.
• Remote/ off the Grid locations- For example for people living in remote off-
grid locations, battery energy storage is quite helpful as storage can be
easily connected to solar panels to provide a reliable and grid-free
electricity supply.
• Rooftop Solar Panels- For example, homeowners installing their own energy
storage can store more power generated by their rooftop panels, and save more
money on their electricity bills.
• Electric Vehicles (EVs) –EVs operate with energy stored in batteries. Also, the
regenerative braking method absorbs energy, converts it back to electrical
energy, and returns the energy to the batteries.
Technologies In Energy Storage
• There are different methods for storing energy that have been
developed so that the grid can meet everyday energy needs. These are
Electrical, Mechanical, Electrochemical, thermal, and chemical. The
tabulated data in Fig.1 below focuses on technologies that can
currently provide large storage capacities (of at least 20 MW).
Mechanical Energy Storage
• Mechanical energy storage works in complex systems that use
heat, water, or air with compressors, turbines, and other machinery,
providing robust alternatives to electrochemical battery storage.
Electrical energy storage
Definition of electrical energy storage
• Electrical Energy Storage (EES) refers to a process of converting
electrical energy from a power network into a form that can be stored
for converting back to electrical energy when Needed.
Fundamental idea of the energy storage
Benefits of ESS along the electricity value chain
Pumped hydro storage (PHS)
• In pumping hydro storage, a body of water at a relatively high
elevation represents a potential or stored energy. During peak hours
the water in the upper reservoir is lead through a pipe downhill into a
hydroelectric generator and stored in the lower reservoir.
• Along off-peak periods the water is pumped back up to recharge the
upper reservoir and the power plant acts like a load in the power
system.
Batteries energy storage
• Batteries store energy in electrochemical form creating electrically
charged ions.
• When the battery charges, a direct current is converted into chemical
energy, when discharged, the chemical energy is converted back into
a flow of electrons in direct current form.
• Electrochemical batteries use electrodes both as part of the electron
transfer process and to store the products or reactants via electrode
solid-state reactions.
• Batteries are the most popular energy storage devices.
Flow batteries energy storage (FBES)
• Flow batteries are a two-electrolyte system in which the chemical
compounds used for energy storage are in liquid state, in solution
with the electrolyte.
• They overcome the limitations of standard electrochemical
accumulators (lead-acid or nickel-cadmium for example) in which the
electrochemical reactions create solid compounds that are stored
directly on the electrodes on which they form.
Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES)
• This method consist of using off-peak power to pressurize air into an
underground reservoir (salt cavern, abandoned hard rock mine or
aquifer) which is then released during peak daytime hours to power a
turbine/generator for power production.
Illustration of compressed-air energy storage
Assessment and comparison of the energy
storage technologies
• Following, some figures are presented that compare different aspects
of storage technologies.
• These aspects cover topics such as technical maturity, range of
applications, efficiencies, lifetime, costs, mass and volume densities,
etc.
• Technical maturity
• Mature technologies: PHS and lead-acid batteries are mature and
have been used for over 100 years.
• Developed technologies: CAES, NiCd, NaS, ZEBRA Li-ion, Flow
Batteries, SMES, flywheel, capacitor, supercapacitor, Al-TES
(Aquiferous low- temperature – Thermal energy storage), and HT-TES
(Temperature – Thermal energy storage) are developed technologies.
All these EES systems are technically developed and commercially
available; however, the actual applications, especially for large-scale
utility, are still not widespread.
• Developing technologies: Fuel cell, Meta-Air battery, Solar Fuel and
CES (Cryogenic Energy Storage) are still under development. They are
not commercially mature although technically possible and have been
investigated by various institutions.
Technical maturity of EES systems
Power rating and discharge time
• Energy management: PHS, CAES, and CES are suitable for applications
in scales above 100 MW with hourly to daily output durations.
• They can be used for energy management for large-scale generations
such as load leveling, ramping/load following, and spinning reserve.
• Large-scale batteries, flow batteries, fuel cells, CES, and TES are
suitable for medium-scale energy management with a capacity of 10–
100 MW
Power quality: Flywheel, batteries, SMES, capacitor and supercapacitor
have a fast response (milliseconds) and therefore can be utilized for
power quality such as the instantaneous voltage drop, flicker
mitigation, and short duration UPS.
The typical power rating for this kind of application is lower than 1 MW.
Bridging power: Batteries, flow batteries, fuel cells, and Metal-Air cells
not only have a relatively fast response (<1s) but also have relatively
long discharge time (hours), therefore they are more suitable for
bridging power.
The typical power rating for these types of applications is about 100
kW–10 MW [55].
Capital cost
• Capital cost is one of the most important factors for the industrial
take-up of the EES.
• They are expressed in the forms shown in Table 2, cost per kWh, per
kW, and per kWh per cycle.
• All the costs per unit of energy shown in the table have been divided
by the storage efficiency to obtain the cost per output (useful) energy.
Cycle efficiency
• The cycle efficiency of EES systems during one charge-discharge cycle
is illustrated in Figure.
• The cycle efficiency is the ‘‘round-trip” efficiency defined as the ratio
between output and input energy. The self-discharge loss during the
storage is not considered.
• One can see that the EES systems can be broadly divided into three
groups:
1. Very high efficiency: SMES, flywheel, super capacity and Li-ion batteries have a very high Cycle efficiency
of > 90%.
2. High efficiency: PHS, CAES, batteries (except for Li-ion), flow batteries, and conventional capacitors have a
cycle efficiency of 60–90%. It can also be seen that storing electricity by compression and expansion of air
using the CAES is usually less efficient than pumping and discharging water with PHSs, since rapid
compression heats up a gas, increasing its pressure thus making further compression more energy-
consuming.
3. Low efficiency: Hydrogen, DMFC, Metal-Air, solar fuel, TESs and CES have an efficiency lower than 60%
mainly due to large losses during the conversion from the commercial AC side to the storage system side. For
example, hydrogen storage of electricity has relatively low round-trip energy efficiency (20–50%) due to the
combination of electrolyzer efficiency and the efficiency of re-conversion back to electricity.
Lifetime and cycle life
Also compared in Table 1 are the lifetime and/or cycle life for various EESs. It can be seen that the cycle
lives of EES systems whose principles are largely based on the electrical technologies are very long
normally greater than 20,000. Examples include SMES, capacitors, and supercapacitors. Mechanical and
thermal energy storage systems, including PHS, CAES, flywheel, AL-TES, CES, and HT-TES, also have long
cycle lives. These technologies are based.

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ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES INTRODUCTION UNIT-I

  • 1. CME364 ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES • COURSE OBJECTIVES • To study the various types of energy storage devices and technologies and their comparison. • To learn the techniques of various energy storage devices and their performances. • To learn the basics of batteries and hybrid systems for EVs and other mobile applications. • To learn about renewable energy storage systems and management systems. • To have an insight into other energy storage devices, hydrogen, and fuel cells.
  • 2. UNIT – I INTRODUCTION TO ENERGY STORAGE Need for Energy Storage – Types of Energy Storage – Various forms of Energy Storage – Mechanical–Thermal - Chemical– Electrochemical – Electrical - Other alternative energy storage technologies –Efficiency and Comparison. UNIT – II ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS Pumped Air Energy Storage – Compressed Air Energy Storage – Flywheel – Sensible and Latent Heat Storage – Storage Materials – Performance Evaluation - Thermochemical systems – Batteries – Types-Charging and Discharging – Battery testing and performance. UNIT – III MOBILE AND HYBRID ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS Batteries for electric vehicles - Battery specifications for cars, heart pacemakers, computer standby supplies – V2G and G2V technologies – HESS. UNIT – IV RENEWABLE ENERGY STORAGE AND ENERGY MANAGEMENT Storage of Renewable Energy Systems –Solar Energy – Wind Energy – Energy Storage in Microgrid– Smart Grid – Energy Conversion Efficiency - Battery Management Systems – EVBMS – Energy Audit and Management. UNIT – V OTHER ENE+RGY DEVICES Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES), Supercapacitors – MHD Power generation –Hydrogen Storage - Fuel Cells – Basic principle and classifications – PEMFC, AMFC, DMFC, SOFC, MCFC and Biofuel Cells – Biogas Storage.
  • 3. Need for Energy Storage • Renewables integration with Grid: Helps to integrate more solar, wind, and distributed energy resources. • Higher Grid Efficiency: This can improve the efficiency of the grid by increasing the capacity factor of existing resources and offset the need to depend on pollution- emitting peak power plants. • Improved and reliable electric supply: Storage can also support the efficient delivery of electricity for base load plants like coal that have slow ramp-up times when responding to the grid. • Electrical grid infrastructure: Energy storage options can hugely alleviate the operational costs of the entire grid infrastructure. • Overall Savings in Money –Overall incorporation of storage is beneficial to all end- users as it saves costs to society by enabling storage of low-cost energy and retrieving it later when electricity prices are low.
  • 4. Various forms of Energy Storage • In Electricity Grid- For example, the energy retrieved from batteries can be used in times of peak demand. This prevents the grid from becoming overloaded and proceeding towards any possible outages. • Remote/ off the Grid locations- For example for people living in remote off- grid locations, battery energy storage is quite helpful as storage can be easily connected to solar panels to provide a reliable and grid-free electricity supply.
  • 5. • Rooftop Solar Panels- For example, homeowners installing their own energy storage can store more power generated by their rooftop panels, and save more money on their electricity bills. • Electric Vehicles (EVs) –EVs operate with energy stored in batteries. Also, the regenerative braking method absorbs energy, converts it back to electrical energy, and returns the energy to the batteries.
  • 6. Technologies In Energy Storage • There are different methods for storing energy that have been developed so that the grid can meet everyday energy needs. These are Electrical, Mechanical, Electrochemical, thermal, and chemical. The tabulated data in Fig.1 below focuses on technologies that can currently provide large storage capacities (of at least 20 MW).
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  • 11. Mechanical Energy Storage • Mechanical energy storage works in complex systems that use heat, water, or air with compressors, turbines, and other machinery, providing robust alternatives to electrochemical battery storage.
  • 12. Electrical energy storage Definition of electrical energy storage • Electrical Energy Storage (EES) refers to a process of converting electrical energy from a power network into a form that can be stored for converting back to electrical energy when Needed. Fundamental idea of the energy storage
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  • 14. Benefits of ESS along the electricity value chain
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  • 16. Pumped hydro storage (PHS) • In pumping hydro storage, a body of water at a relatively high elevation represents a potential or stored energy. During peak hours the water in the upper reservoir is lead through a pipe downhill into a hydroelectric generator and stored in the lower reservoir. • Along off-peak periods the water is pumped back up to recharge the upper reservoir and the power plant acts like a load in the power system.
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  • 18. Batteries energy storage • Batteries store energy in electrochemical form creating electrically charged ions. • When the battery charges, a direct current is converted into chemical energy, when discharged, the chemical energy is converted back into a flow of electrons in direct current form. • Electrochemical batteries use electrodes both as part of the electron transfer process and to store the products or reactants via electrode solid-state reactions. • Batteries are the most popular energy storage devices.
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  • 20. Flow batteries energy storage (FBES) • Flow batteries are a two-electrolyte system in which the chemical compounds used for energy storage are in liquid state, in solution with the electrolyte. • They overcome the limitations of standard electrochemical accumulators (lead-acid or nickel-cadmium for example) in which the electrochemical reactions create solid compounds that are stored directly on the electrodes on which they form.
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  • 22. Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) • This method consist of using off-peak power to pressurize air into an underground reservoir (salt cavern, abandoned hard rock mine or aquifer) which is then released during peak daytime hours to power a turbine/generator for power production.
  • 24. Assessment and comparison of the energy storage technologies • Following, some figures are presented that compare different aspects of storage technologies. • These aspects cover topics such as technical maturity, range of applications, efficiencies, lifetime, costs, mass and volume densities, etc.
  • 25. • Technical maturity • Mature technologies: PHS and lead-acid batteries are mature and have been used for over 100 years. • Developed technologies: CAES, NiCd, NaS, ZEBRA Li-ion, Flow Batteries, SMES, flywheel, capacitor, supercapacitor, Al-TES (Aquiferous low- temperature – Thermal energy storage), and HT-TES (Temperature – Thermal energy storage) are developed technologies. All these EES systems are technically developed and commercially available; however, the actual applications, especially for large-scale utility, are still not widespread.
  • 26. • Developing technologies: Fuel cell, Meta-Air battery, Solar Fuel and CES (Cryogenic Energy Storage) are still under development. They are not commercially mature although technically possible and have been investigated by various institutions.
  • 27. Technical maturity of EES systems
  • 28. Power rating and discharge time • Energy management: PHS, CAES, and CES are suitable for applications in scales above 100 MW with hourly to daily output durations. • They can be used for energy management for large-scale generations such as load leveling, ramping/load following, and spinning reserve. • Large-scale batteries, flow batteries, fuel cells, CES, and TES are suitable for medium-scale energy management with a capacity of 10– 100 MW
  • 29. Power quality: Flywheel, batteries, SMES, capacitor and supercapacitor have a fast response (milliseconds) and therefore can be utilized for power quality such as the instantaneous voltage drop, flicker mitigation, and short duration UPS. The typical power rating for this kind of application is lower than 1 MW. Bridging power: Batteries, flow batteries, fuel cells, and Metal-Air cells not only have a relatively fast response (<1s) but also have relatively long discharge time (hours), therefore they are more suitable for bridging power. The typical power rating for these types of applications is about 100 kW–10 MW [55].
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  • 31. Capital cost • Capital cost is one of the most important factors for the industrial take-up of the EES. • They are expressed in the forms shown in Table 2, cost per kWh, per kW, and per kWh per cycle. • All the costs per unit of energy shown in the table have been divided by the storage efficiency to obtain the cost per output (useful) energy.
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  • 33. Cycle efficiency • The cycle efficiency of EES systems during one charge-discharge cycle is illustrated in Figure. • The cycle efficiency is the ‘‘round-trip” efficiency defined as the ratio between output and input energy. The self-discharge loss during the storage is not considered. • One can see that the EES systems can be broadly divided into three groups:
  • 34. 1. Very high efficiency: SMES, flywheel, super capacity and Li-ion batteries have a very high Cycle efficiency of > 90%. 2. High efficiency: PHS, CAES, batteries (except for Li-ion), flow batteries, and conventional capacitors have a cycle efficiency of 60–90%. It can also be seen that storing electricity by compression and expansion of air using the CAES is usually less efficient than pumping and discharging water with PHSs, since rapid compression heats up a gas, increasing its pressure thus making further compression more energy- consuming. 3. Low efficiency: Hydrogen, DMFC, Metal-Air, solar fuel, TESs and CES have an efficiency lower than 60% mainly due to large losses during the conversion from the commercial AC side to the storage system side. For example, hydrogen storage of electricity has relatively low round-trip energy efficiency (20–50%) due to the combination of electrolyzer efficiency and the efficiency of re-conversion back to electricity.
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  • 36. Lifetime and cycle life Also compared in Table 1 are the lifetime and/or cycle life for various EESs. It can be seen that the cycle lives of EES systems whose principles are largely based on the electrical technologies are very long normally greater than 20,000. Examples include SMES, capacitors, and supercapacitors. Mechanical and thermal energy storage systems, including PHS, CAES, flywheel, AL-TES, CES, and HT-TES, also have long cycle lives. These technologies are based.