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This document discusses fluid dynamics concepts related to pipe flow, including laminar and turbulent flow. It covers fundamental concepts such as Reynolds number, laminar flow equations for frictional head loss and wall shear stress. Turbulent flow equations are presented for head loss, Darcy-Weisbach, and Colebrook-White transition formula. Local head losses are discussed for sudden pipe enlargement and contraction.

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Cu06997 lecture 2_hydrostatics_17-2-2013

Here are the steps to solve this problem using Pascal's law:
1) Wall AB and CD are both vertical surfaces with an area of 2.44 m x 5 m = 12.2 m^2
Pressure at the bottom is due to a water column of 5 m
Pressure = Density x Gravity x Height = 1000 x 10 x 5 = 50,000 N/m^2
Force on wall AB/CD = Pressure x Area = 50,000 x 12.2 = 610,000 N
2) Bottom BC is a horizontal surface with an area of 2.44 x 5 = 12.2 m^2
Pressure due to water above it is the pressure at the bottom = 50,

Cu06997 lecture 5_reynolds_and_r

The document discusses hydraulic radius, viscosity, laminar and turbulent flow, Reynolds number, and boundary layers in fluid dynamics. It defines hydraulic radius as the ratio of a pipe or channel's cross-sectional area to its wetted perimeter. It also explores laminar versus turbulent flow and uses the Reynolds number to characterize the transition between these flow regimes based on fluid properties and flow velocities. Finally, it introduces the boundary layer concept to explain the region of fluid that is influenced by solid boundaries.

Cu06997 lecture 3_principles_of_flow-17-2-2013

This document provides an overview of fluid dynamics principles including:
1. It classifies flows as steady or unsteady, uniform or non-uniform based on changes over time and distance.
2. It describes fundamental equations like conservation of mass, energy, and momentum. Bernoulli's equation relates pressure, velocity, and elevation.
3. It gives examples of applying these principles like calculating pressure differences in pipes using Bernoulli's equation and assuming no energy losses.

Cu06997 lecture 9_open channel

This document summarizes key concepts in fluid dynamics related to open channel flow:
1) It describes different types of open channel flow including steady uniform/non-uniform flow and unsteady uniform/non-uniform flow.
2) Common equations for mean flow velocity are presented, including the Chezy and Manning's formulas which relate velocity to hydraulic radius and slope.
3) The concepts of hydraulic radius, roughness coefficients, shear stress, specific energy, and equilibrium/normal depth are defined and their representative equations shown.

Cu06997 lecture 4_answer

1. The flow between points P1 and P2 is steady, non-uniform flow since the water depth changes along the length of the ditch but the discharge is constant.
2. Comparing the total head at P1 and P2 using Bernoulli's equation with an energy loss term shows that there is a 0.3 m energy loss between the two points over a 1500 m length of ditch.
3. The flow is classified as one-dimensional flow since the width and depth of flow are much smaller than the length between P1 and P2.

Cu06997 lecture 7_culvert_2013

This document discusses fluid dynamics concepts related to flow in pipes and closed conduits including turbulent flow, local head losses, and partially full pipes. It then provides equations and explanations for calculating head losses and discharge in culverts under various conditions: with and without upstream/downstream velocities, for submerged culverts, and examples of calculating discharge given water level changes and culvert dimensions. Formulas are given for inlet, friction, and outlet losses as well as calculating total head loss, discharge coefficients, and drawing head and water level lines.

Cu06997 exercise5

The document defines the hydraulic radius and Reynolds number, which are important concepts in fluid mechanics. The hydraulic radius is the ratio of the wetted area to the wetted perimeter of a flow channel. The Reynolds number is a dimensionless number that quantifies the ratio of inertial to viscous forces and can be used to characterize different flow regimes, with turbulent flow occurring at a Reynolds number greater than 4000 and laminar flow at less than 2000. It is calculated based on variables like fluid velocity, hydraulic diameter or radius, fluid properties, and temperature.

Cu06997 lecture 8_sewers

Here are the key steps to solve this problem:
1. Calculate the total flow rate at each manhole:
- P4: Q = Rain + Waste = 66 + 10 = 76 l/s
- P3: Q = Rain + Waste = 225 + 10 = 235 l/s
2. Use continuity equation to calculate flow rates in pipes:
- P4-P3 pipe: Q1 = 76 l/s
- P3-P2 pipe: Q2 = 235 l/s
3. Calculate head losses in each pipe and check if above or below allowable head.
- Use Darcy-Weisbach or Chezy equation based on pipe material and roughness

Cu06997 lecture 2_hydrostatics_17-2-2013

Here are the steps to solve this problem using Pascal's law:
1) Wall AB and CD are both vertical surfaces with an area of 2.44 m x 5 m = 12.2 m^2
Pressure at the bottom is due to a water column of 5 m
Pressure = Density x Gravity x Height = 1000 x 10 x 5 = 50,000 N/m^2
Force on wall AB/CD = Pressure x Area = 50,000 x 12.2 = 610,000 N
2) Bottom BC is a horizontal surface with an area of 2.44 x 5 = 12.2 m^2
Pressure due to water above it is the pressure at the bottom = 50,

Cu06997 lecture 5_reynolds_and_r

The document discusses hydraulic radius, viscosity, laminar and turbulent flow, Reynolds number, and boundary layers in fluid dynamics. It defines hydraulic radius as the ratio of a pipe or channel's cross-sectional area to its wetted perimeter. It also explores laminar versus turbulent flow and uses the Reynolds number to characterize the transition between these flow regimes based on fluid properties and flow velocities. Finally, it introduces the boundary layer concept to explain the region of fluid that is influenced by solid boundaries.

Cu06997 lecture 3_principles_of_flow-17-2-2013

This document provides an overview of fluid dynamics principles including:
1. It classifies flows as steady or unsteady, uniform or non-uniform based on changes over time and distance.
2. It describes fundamental equations like conservation of mass, energy, and momentum. Bernoulli's equation relates pressure, velocity, and elevation.
3. It gives examples of applying these principles like calculating pressure differences in pipes using Bernoulli's equation and assuming no energy losses.

Cu06997 lecture 9_open channel

This document summarizes key concepts in fluid dynamics related to open channel flow:
1) It describes different types of open channel flow including steady uniform/non-uniform flow and unsteady uniform/non-uniform flow.
2) Common equations for mean flow velocity are presented, including the Chezy and Manning's formulas which relate velocity to hydraulic radius and slope.
3) The concepts of hydraulic radius, roughness coefficients, shear stress, specific energy, and equilibrium/normal depth are defined and their representative equations shown.

Cu06997 lecture 4_answer

1. The flow between points P1 and P2 is steady, non-uniform flow since the water depth changes along the length of the ditch but the discharge is constant.
2. Comparing the total head at P1 and P2 using Bernoulli's equation with an energy loss term shows that there is a 0.3 m energy loss between the two points over a 1500 m length of ditch.
3. The flow is classified as one-dimensional flow since the width and depth of flow are much smaller than the length between P1 and P2.

Cu06997 lecture 7_culvert_2013

This document discusses fluid dynamics concepts related to flow in pipes and closed conduits including turbulent flow, local head losses, and partially full pipes. It then provides equations and explanations for calculating head losses and discharge in culverts under various conditions: with and without upstream/downstream velocities, for submerged culverts, and examples of calculating discharge given water level changes and culvert dimensions. Formulas are given for inlet, friction, and outlet losses as well as calculating total head loss, discharge coefficients, and drawing head and water level lines.

Cu06997 exercise5

The document defines the hydraulic radius and Reynolds number, which are important concepts in fluid mechanics. The hydraulic radius is the ratio of the wetted area to the wetted perimeter of a flow channel. The Reynolds number is a dimensionless number that quantifies the ratio of inertial to viscous forces and can be used to characterize different flow regimes, with turbulent flow occurring at a Reynolds number greater than 4000 and laminar flow at less than 2000. It is calculated based on variables like fluid velocity, hydraulic diameter or radius, fluid properties, and temperature.

Cu06997 lecture 8_sewers

Here are the key steps to solve this problem:
1. Calculate the total flow rate at each manhole:
- P4: Q = Rain + Waste = 66 + 10 = 76 l/s
- P3: Q = Rain + Waste = 225 + 10 = 235 l/s
2. Use continuity equation to calculate flow rates in pipes:
- P4-P3 pipe: Q1 = 76 l/s
- P3-P2 pipe: Q2 = 235 l/s
3. Calculate head losses in each pipe and check if above or below allowable head.
- Use Darcy-Weisbach or Chezy equation based on pipe material and roughness

Cu06997 lecture 4_bernoulli-17-2-2013

The document discusses principles of fluid dynamics including the application of conservation laws and the energy equation to fluid flows. It covers topics such as Bernoulli's equation, velocity and pressure measurement techniques like Pitot tubes, flow through orifices, open channels, and pipes with head losses. Formulas are presented for flow rate calculation using concepts like velocity head, pressure head, and total head.

Cu06997 assignment 6 2014_answer

The dimensions of the culvert are calculated to be 3 m x 2 m based on trying different cross-sectional areas. The total head loss is calculated using the given discharge of 3 m3/s, upstream velocity of 1 m/s, and downstream velocity of 0.5 m/s. A cross-section of 3 m x 2 m results in a head loss of 0.45 m, which is less than the maximum allowed head rise of 0.5 m. Sketches are provided showing the elevation of the total head and pressure lines.

Cu06997 lecture 12_sediment transport and back water

This document discusses sediment transport in open channels. It describes the different types of sediment transport including rolling, sliding, saltation, suspension, and dissolution. It outlines the three main steps of sediment transport: 1) particles start to move through erosion or scour, 2) particles move horizontally through transport, and 3) deposition or sedimentation where particles settle out of the flow. Key parameters that influence erosion include density, grain size, shape, cohesion, turbulence, and bed slope. Sediment transport occurs when the shear stress of the flowing water exceeds the critical shear stress of the sediment material.

Cu06997 lecture 2_answer

This document discusses concepts related to forces, densities, and fluid pressures. It defines key terms like force, weight, gravity, density of water and soil. It also discusses concepts like buoyancy, Pascal's law, and calculating fluid pressure. It provides an example problem about calculating forces on walls and bottom of a water tank based on the pressure, density and depth of the water.

Cu06997 lecture 10_froude

This document discusses concepts in fluid dynamics including specific energy, critical depth, the Froude number, subcritical and supercritical flow, critical velocity, and hydraulic jumps. It provides equations for calculating critical depth, Froude number, critical velocity, and critical bed slope in open channels. Diagrams show the relationship between total head, water depth, and Froude number below and above critical depth.

(Part ii)- open channels

This document discusses open channel hydraulics and specific energy. It defines key terms like head, energy, hydraulic grade line, energy line, critical depth, Froude number, specific energy, and gradually varied flow. It explains the concepts of critical depth, alternate depths, and how specific energy relates to critical depth for rectangular and non-rectangular channels. It also discusses surface profiles, backwater curves, types of bed slopes, occurrence of critical depth with changes in bed slope, and the energy equation for gradually varied flow. An example problem is included to demonstrate calculating distance between depths for gradually varied flow.

A Seminar Topic On Boundary Layer

It includes details about boundary layer and boundary layer separations like history,causes,results,applications,types,equations, etc.It also includes some real life example of boundary layer.

Calculation of Flowrate and Pressure Drop Relationship for Laminar Flow using...

This document discusses the relationships between flow rate, pressure drop, and shear stress for laminar flow in pipes. It provides equations to calculate flow rate from shear stress and pressure drop data. The key relationships are:
1) Pressure drop is directly proportional to flow rate for laminar flow.
2) Shear stress at the wall is related to pressure drop by an equation involving pipe diameter and length.
3) Shear stress decreases linearly from the wall to the center of the pipe in laminar flow.
4) The flow rate can be calculated from experimentally measured shear stress and pressure drop data using integration methods like Simpson's rule.

Laminar Flow in pipes and Anuli Newtonian Fluids

This slide will explain you the chemical engineering terms .Al about the basics of this slide are explain in it. The basics of fluid mechanics, heat transfer, chemical engineering thermodynamics, fluid motions, newtonian fluids, are explain in this process.

Fluid dynamic

This document discusses fluid dynamics and Bernoulli's equation. It begins by defining different forms of energy in a flowing liquid, including kinetic energy, potential energy, pressure energy, and internal energy. It then derives Bernoulli's equation, which states that the total head of a fluid particle remains constant during steady, incompressible flow. The derivation considers forces acting on a fluid particle and uses conservation of energy. Finally, the document presents the general energy equation for steady fluid flow and the specific equation for incompressible fluids using the concepts of total head, head loss, and hydraulic grade line.

Compressible Fluid

1) Compressible flow is when the density of a fluid changes during flow, such as gases. Incompressible flow assumes constant density, such as liquids.
2) Examples of compressible flow include gases through nozzles, compressors, high-speed projectiles and planes, and water hammer.
3) Bernoulli's equation relates pressure, temperature, and specific volume and only applies to steady, incompressible flow without friction losses along a single streamline.

Laminar turbulent

The document discusses laminar and turbulent flows in pipes and how they influence energy losses. Laminar flow occurs at low velocities, with fluid moving in separate layers without mixing. Turbulent flow occurs at high velocities with considerable mixing. The Reynolds number characterizes the transition between laminar and turbulent flow, and is used to determine head losses, which vary based on flow type. Head losses are also influenced by pipe roughness and can be calculated using methods like Darcy-Weisbach or Hazen-Williams equations. Pumps add head while motors remove it, and the efficiency of these devices relates their power to the hydraulic power of the system.

CE-6451-Fluid_Mechanics.GVK

This document contains a question bank with answers for a fluid mechanics and machineries course. It includes 13 questions and answers about fluid properties, density, viscosity, surface tension, momentum equations, laminar flow, head losses, pumps, and cavitation. The questions are divided into 4 units covering fluid properties, flow through pipes, dimensional analysis, and pumps.

Viscosity & flow

This document discusses flow measurement techniques. It begins by introducing different types of flow meters including mechanical, inferential, electrical, and other varieties. Key concepts are then explained such as units of flow, measurement principles, Reynolds number, discharge coefficient, and flow coefficient. Specific mechanical flow meters are covered in depth, including the theory and equations for fixed restriction variable head meters and orifice flow meters. Compressible gas flow is also analyzed using concepts such as rational expansion factor and moisture factor.

Hydraulic analysis of complex piping systems (updated)

1. Given: Pipe characteristics (D, L, e), fluid properties (ν), flow conditions (Q or V)
2. Calculate Reynold's number (Re) using the given flow parameters
3. Determine friction factor (f) from Moody diagram or equations based on Re and relative roughness (e/D)
4. Use Darcy-Weisbach equation to calculate head loss (hf) or solve for unknown parameter (Q or V)

Drag force & Lift

When a body moves through a fluid, it experiences two forces: drag and lift. Drag acts parallel to the flow and slows the body down, while lift acts perpendicular to the flow. These forces depend on factors like the fluid's velocity and density, the body's size and shape, and its angle of attack relative to the flow. Streamlined shapes with small frontal areas experience less pressure drag than blunt bodies, which experience boundary layer separation and higher pressures on one side. The forces can be calculated using drag and lift coefficients, which vary based on the Reynolds number and other flow properties.

Continuity Equation

1. The document discusses the continuity equation, which states that the flow rate of an incompressible fluid is constant at any point in a fluid system with no accumulation.
2. The formula for continuity equation is given as: ρ1A1v1 = ρ2A2v2, where ρ is density, A is cross-sectional area, and v is velocity.
3. Examples of applications include calculating water velocity changes in pipes or rivers of varying diameters, and a sample problem is worked out calculating velocities at different pipe positions.

Viscosity of water

This document describes an experiment to determine the viscosity of water using Poiseuille's Law. Students measure the flow rate and pressure difference across a glass tube for varying pump speeds. They then plot the results and calculate the viscosity. The Reynolds number is also considered to analyze if the flow is laminar or turbulent. Estimates of the critical velocity for transition between the two flow types are made based on the experimental setup.

A STUDY ON VISCOUS FLOW (With A Special Focus On Boundary Layer And Its Effects)

This document summarizes a study on viscous flow with a focus on boundary layers and their effects. It defines viscosity and describes the boundary layer that forms along a solid surface moving through a fluid. Laminar and turbulent boundary layers are differentiated. The boundary layer equations are presented and used to derive the Navier-Stokes equations that govern viscous fluid flow. Key properties of boundary layers like thickness and velocity profiles are discussed. The interaction of boundary layers and shockwaves is also summarized.

Continuity Equation

This document discusses key concepts related to fluid flow including:
1) Rate of flow (discharge) is defined as the volume or weight of fluid flowing through a cross section per second.
2) For incompressible fluids, the continuity equation states that the rate of flow is constant at all points in a fluid system.
3) By applying the continuity equation and knowing the velocities and cross sectional areas at two points, the velocity at one point can be calculated if the other is known.

Cu07821 ppt9 recapitulation

This document discusses water management goals and models for two agricultural areas covering 1000 hectares each. It aims for optimal water levels for farming and nature while preventing water issues. The Sobek model simulates a rainstorm over 96 hours, calculating water levels every 5 minutes for 1 month. Questions address water storage capacities in soil and surface water. Calibration requires precipitation data and variances in water levels. Simulations examine summer and winter conditions under different drainage scenarios and capacities. Maintaining infrastructure is important to ensure proper water discharge and storage.

Cu06997 lecture 4_bernoulli-17-2-2013

The document discusses principles of fluid dynamics including the application of conservation laws and the energy equation to fluid flows. It covers topics such as Bernoulli's equation, velocity and pressure measurement techniques like Pitot tubes, flow through orifices, open channels, and pipes with head losses. Formulas are presented for flow rate calculation using concepts like velocity head, pressure head, and total head.

Cu06997 assignment 6 2014_answer

The dimensions of the culvert are calculated to be 3 m x 2 m based on trying different cross-sectional areas. The total head loss is calculated using the given discharge of 3 m3/s, upstream velocity of 1 m/s, and downstream velocity of 0.5 m/s. A cross-section of 3 m x 2 m results in a head loss of 0.45 m, which is less than the maximum allowed head rise of 0.5 m. Sketches are provided showing the elevation of the total head and pressure lines.

Cu06997 lecture 12_sediment transport and back water

This document discusses sediment transport in open channels. It describes the different types of sediment transport including rolling, sliding, saltation, suspension, and dissolution. It outlines the three main steps of sediment transport: 1) particles start to move through erosion or scour, 2) particles move horizontally through transport, and 3) deposition or sedimentation where particles settle out of the flow. Key parameters that influence erosion include density, grain size, shape, cohesion, turbulence, and bed slope. Sediment transport occurs when the shear stress of the flowing water exceeds the critical shear stress of the sediment material.

Cu06997 lecture 2_answer

This document discusses concepts related to forces, densities, and fluid pressures. It defines key terms like force, weight, gravity, density of water and soil. It also discusses concepts like buoyancy, Pascal's law, and calculating fluid pressure. It provides an example problem about calculating forces on walls and bottom of a water tank based on the pressure, density and depth of the water.

Cu06997 lecture 10_froude

This document discusses concepts in fluid dynamics including specific energy, critical depth, the Froude number, subcritical and supercritical flow, critical velocity, and hydraulic jumps. It provides equations for calculating critical depth, Froude number, critical velocity, and critical bed slope in open channels. Diagrams show the relationship between total head, water depth, and Froude number below and above critical depth.

(Part ii)- open channels

This document discusses open channel hydraulics and specific energy. It defines key terms like head, energy, hydraulic grade line, energy line, critical depth, Froude number, specific energy, and gradually varied flow. It explains the concepts of critical depth, alternate depths, and how specific energy relates to critical depth for rectangular and non-rectangular channels. It also discusses surface profiles, backwater curves, types of bed slopes, occurrence of critical depth with changes in bed slope, and the energy equation for gradually varied flow. An example problem is included to demonstrate calculating distance between depths for gradually varied flow.

A Seminar Topic On Boundary Layer

It includes details about boundary layer and boundary layer separations like history,causes,results,applications,types,equations, etc.It also includes some real life example of boundary layer.

Calculation of Flowrate and Pressure Drop Relationship for Laminar Flow using...

This document discusses the relationships between flow rate, pressure drop, and shear stress for laminar flow in pipes. It provides equations to calculate flow rate from shear stress and pressure drop data. The key relationships are:
1) Pressure drop is directly proportional to flow rate for laminar flow.
2) Shear stress at the wall is related to pressure drop by an equation involving pipe diameter and length.
3) Shear stress decreases linearly from the wall to the center of the pipe in laminar flow.
4) The flow rate can be calculated from experimentally measured shear stress and pressure drop data using integration methods like Simpson's rule.

Laminar Flow in pipes and Anuli Newtonian Fluids

This slide will explain you the chemical engineering terms .Al about the basics of this slide are explain in it. The basics of fluid mechanics, heat transfer, chemical engineering thermodynamics, fluid motions, newtonian fluids, are explain in this process.

Fluid dynamic

This document discusses fluid dynamics and Bernoulli's equation. It begins by defining different forms of energy in a flowing liquid, including kinetic energy, potential energy, pressure energy, and internal energy. It then derives Bernoulli's equation, which states that the total head of a fluid particle remains constant during steady, incompressible flow. The derivation considers forces acting on a fluid particle and uses conservation of energy. Finally, the document presents the general energy equation for steady fluid flow and the specific equation for incompressible fluids using the concepts of total head, head loss, and hydraulic grade line.

Compressible Fluid

1) Compressible flow is when the density of a fluid changes during flow, such as gases. Incompressible flow assumes constant density, such as liquids.
2) Examples of compressible flow include gases through nozzles, compressors, high-speed projectiles and planes, and water hammer.
3) Bernoulli's equation relates pressure, temperature, and specific volume and only applies to steady, incompressible flow without friction losses along a single streamline.

Laminar turbulent

The document discusses laminar and turbulent flows in pipes and how they influence energy losses. Laminar flow occurs at low velocities, with fluid moving in separate layers without mixing. Turbulent flow occurs at high velocities with considerable mixing. The Reynolds number characterizes the transition between laminar and turbulent flow, and is used to determine head losses, which vary based on flow type. Head losses are also influenced by pipe roughness and can be calculated using methods like Darcy-Weisbach or Hazen-Williams equations. Pumps add head while motors remove it, and the efficiency of these devices relates their power to the hydraulic power of the system.

CE-6451-Fluid_Mechanics.GVK

This document contains a question bank with answers for a fluid mechanics and machineries course. It includes 13 questions and answers about fluid properties, density, viscosity, surface tension, momentum equations, laminar flow, head losses, pumps, and cavitation. The questions are divided into 4 units covering fluid properties, flow through pipes, dimensional analysis, and pumps.

Viscosity & flow

This document discusses flow measurement techniques. It begins by introducing different types of flow meters including mechanical, inferential, electrical, and other varieties. Key concepts are then explained such as units of flow, measurement principles, Reynolds number, discharge coefficient, and flow coefficient. Specific mechanical flow meters are covered in depth, including the theory and equations for fixed restriction variable head meters and orifice flow meters. Compressible gas flow is also analyzed using concepts such as rational expansion factor and moisture factor.

Hydraulic analysis of complex piping systems (updated)

1. Given: Pipe characteristics (D, L, e), fluid properties (ν), flow conditions (Q or V)
2. Calculate Reynold's number (Re) using the given flow parameters
3. Determine friction factor (f) from Moody diagram or equations based on Re and relative roughness (e/D)
4. Use Darcy-Weisbach equation to calculate head loss (hf) or solve for unknown parameter (Q or V)

Drag force & Lift

When a body moves through a fluid, it experiences two forces: drag and lift. Drag acts parallel to the flow and slows the body down, while lift acts perpendicular to the flow. These forces depend on factors like the fluid's velocity and density, the body's size and shape, and its angle of attack relative to the flow. Streamlined shapes with small frontal areas experience less pressure drag than blunt bodies, which experience boundary layer separation and higher pressures on one side. The forces can be calculated using drag and lift coefficients, which vary based on the Reynolds number and other flow properties.

Continuity Equation

1. The document discusses the continuity equation, which states that the flow rate of an incompressible fluid is constant at any point in a fluid system with no accumulation.
2. The formula for continuity equation is given as: ρ1A1v1 = ρ2A2v2, where ρ is density, A is cross-sectional area, and v is velocity.
3. Examples of applications include calculating water velocity changes in pipes or rivers of varying diameters, and a sample problem is worked out calculating velocities at different pipe positions.

Viscosity of water

This document describes an experiment to determine the viscosity of water using Poiseuille's Law. Students measure the flow rate and pressure difference across a glass tube for varying pump speeds. They then plot the results and calculate the viscosity. The Reynolds number is also considered to analyze if the flow is laminar or turbulent. Estimates of the critical velocity for transition between the two flow types are made based on the experimental setup.

A STUDY ON VISCOUS FLOW (With A Special Focus On Boundary Layer And Its Effects)

This document summarizes a study on viscous flow with a focus on boundary layers and their effects. It defines viscosity and describes the boundary layer that forms along a solid surface moving through a fluid. Laminar and turbulent boundary layers are differentiated. The boundary layer equations are presented and used to derive the Navier-Stokes equations that govern viscous fluid flow. Key properties of boundary layers like thickness and velocity profiles are discussed. The interaction of boundary layers and shockwaves is also summarized.

Continuity Equation

This document discusses key concepts related to fluid flow including:
1) Rate of flow (discharge) is defined as the volume or weight of fluid flowing through a cross section per second.
2) For incompressible fluids, the continuity equation states that the rate of flow is constant at all points in a fluid system.
3) By applying the continuity equation and knowing the velocities and cross sectional areas at two points, the velocity at one point can be calculated if the other is known.

Cu06997 lecture 4_bernoulli-17-2-2013

Cu06997 lecture 4_bernoulli-17-2-2013

Cu06997 assignment 6 2014_answer

Cu06997 assignment 6 2014_answer

Cu06997 lecture 12_sediment transport and back water

Cu06997 lecture 12_sediment transport and back water

Cu06997 lecture 2_answer

Cu06997 lecture 2_answer

Cu06997 lecture 10_froude

Cu06997 lecture 10_froude

(Part ii)- open channels

(Part ii)- open channels

A Seminar Topic On Boundary Layer

A Seminar Topic On Boundary Layer

Calculation of Flowrate and Pressure Drop Relationship for Laminar Flow using...

Calculation of Flowrate and Pressure Drop Relationship for Laminar Flow using...

Laminar Flow in pipes and Anuli Newtonian Fluids

Laminar Flow in pipes and Anuli Newtonian Fluids

Fluid dynamic

Fluid dynamic

Compressible Fluid

Compressible Fluid

Laminar turbulent

Laminar turbulent

CE-6451-Fluid_Mechanics.GVK

CE-6451-Fluid_Mechanics.GVK

Viscosity & flow

Viscosity & flow

Hydraulic analysis of complex piping systems (updated)

Hydraulic analysis of complex piping systems (updated)

Drag force & Lift

Drag force & Lift

Continuity Equation

Continuity Equation

Viscosity of water

Viscosity of water

A STUDY ON VISCOUS FLOW (With A Special Focus On Boundary Layer And Its Effects)

A STUDY ON VISCOUS FLOW (With A Special Focus On Boundary Layer And Its Effects)

Continuity Equation

Continuity Equation

Cu07821 ppt9 recapitulation

This document discusses water management goals and models for two agricultural areas covering 1000 hectares each. It aims for optimal water levels for farming and nature while preventing water issues. The Sobek model simulates a rainstorm over 96 hours, calculating water levels every 5 minutes for 1 month. Questions address water storage capacities in soil and surface water. Calibration requires precipitation data and variances in water levels. Simulations examine summer and winter conditions under different drainage scenarios and capacities. Maintaining infrastructure is important to ensure proper water discharge and storage.

Cu06997 lecture 11_hydraulic_structures

This document discusses various types of hydraulic structures used to regulate water flow, including weirs and culverts. It provides information on thin plate weirs and formulas used to calculate discharge for different weir types under conditions of free flow and submerged flow. Long based weirs are also covered, explaining how they can experience either free flow or submerged flow depending on the downstream water level. The document concludes with an explanation of how a partially filled culvert can act as a broad crested weir.

Cu06997 lecture 6_exercises

- The document contains examples of calculating head loss and pressure differences in pipes due to changes in diameter or flow rate.
- In example 1, the slope of a pipe needed to be calculated to maintain equilibrium based on a given flow rate, diameter, and friction coefficient.
- Example 2 involves calculating the head loss and pressure difference across a sudden enlargement in pipe diameter.
- Example 3 is similar but calculates values for a sudden contraction in pipe diameter.

Cu06997 1 basic_calculations_6_2_2012

This course covers 13 fluid dynamics calculations including: 1) discharge from culverts and pipes, 2) dimensions of culverts, channels, and pipes, and 3) forces and buoyancy of submerged structures. Students will learn to calculate flow rates, water levels, hydraulic gradients, dimensions, head losses, and pressures/forces on structures like culverts, weirs, and pipes.

KInematic of Machine(Mechanical Engineering)

This document discusses kinematics and mechanisms. It defines kinematics as the branch of mechanics that describes the motion of bodies without considering the causes of motion. Kinematics examines displacement, velocity, and acceleration over time through graphical representations. Common mechanisms discussed include four-bar linkages, single slider-crank chains, and double slider-crank chains. Kinematic pairs constrain the motion between links and can be lower pairs with surface contact or higher pairs with point/line contact. Kinematic inversions occur when different links in a chain are fixed, resulting in different mechanisms.

Introduction to Mechanisms

Unit 1-introduction to Mechanisms, Kinematics of machines of VTU Syllabus prepared by Hareesha N Gowda, Asst. Prof, Dayananda Sagar College of Engg, Blore. Please write to hareeshang@gmail.com for suggestions and criticisms.

Kinematic chain mechanism inversion_grashoff

This document discusses kinematic chains, mechanisms, inversion, and Grashoff's law. It defines a kinematic chain as a combination of kinematic pairs that connect links, with each link forming part of two pairs. A mechanism is a kinematic chain where one link is fixed. Inversion is obtaining different mechanisms by fixing different links, which changes the absolute motion but keeps relative motion the same. Grashoff's law states the sum of the shortest and longest links must be less than or equal to the sum of the remaining links for continuous relative motion in a 4-bar linkage. Examples of inversions include double crank, crank-rocker, and double rocker mechanisms.

Cu06997 table pipe_block 5

Cu06997 table pipe_block 5

Cu07821 ppt9 recapitulation

Cu07821 ppt9 recapitulation

Cu06997 lecture 11_hydraulic_structures

Cu06997 lecture 11_hydraulic_structures

Cu06997 lecture 6_exercises

Cu06997 lecture 6_exercises

Cu06997 1 basic_calculations_6_2_2012

Cu06997 1 basic_calculations_6_2_2012

KInematic of Machine(Mechanical Engineering)

KInematic of Machine(Mechanical Engineering)

Introduction to Mechanisms

Introduction to Mechanisms

Kinematic chain mechanism inversion_grashoff

Kinematic chain mechanism inversion_grashoff

010a (PPT) Flow through pipes.pdf .

This document discusses flow through pipes. It provides information on:
(1) Major losses in pipe flow are due to friction. These losses can be calculated using the Darcy-Weisbach equation or Moody's chart, which relates friction factor to Reynolds number and relative roughness.
(2) For laminar flow (Re < 2000), the friction factor can be determined from an equation. For turbulent flow (Re > 4000), the friction factor must be obtained from Moody's chart based on Reynolds number and relative roughness.
(3) Common pipe flow problems involve calculating pressure drop, flow rate, or pipe diameter given other parameters like length, diameter, flow rate, or pressure drop.

Fluid mechanics for chermical engineering students

This document outlines the goals and topics covered in a fluid mechanics course. The course covers fluid statics, fluid flow concepts, flow of incompressible and compressible fluids, pumping systems, fluid mixing, and fluidization. Key concepts discussed include fluid properties like density, viscosity, compressibility, and pressure. Laminar and turbulent flow regimes are defined. The continuity, Bernoulli, and Reynolds equations are introduced. Example problems are provided to help understand concepts like pressure, viscosity, flow rate calculations, and fluid flow analysis.

Hydraulic losses in pipe

This document discusses hydraulic losses that occur in pipes due to fluid viscosity. It introduces the Darcy-Weisbach equation and Moody chart for calculating friction factor based on Reynolds number and relative roughness. Minor losses from fittings are also addressed using loss coefficients. Examples are provided to demonstrate calculating head loss, pressure drop, flow rate, and pipe sizing for given system parameters. Key aspects covered include laminar and turbulent flow regimes, friction factor dependence on Reynolds number and roughness, and accounting for losses across full pipe systems.

8. fm 9 flow in pipes major loses co 3 copy

This document provides an overview of fluid mechanics concepts related to flow in pipes over 3 weeks. It discusses laminar and turbulent flow, identifies the types of flow using the Reynolds number, and explains major and minor losses for flow in pipes. The key points are:
- There are two types of flow - internal (in pipes) and external (over bodies). Internal flow examples include water pipes, blood flow, and HVAC systems.
- Flow can be laminar, turbulent, or in transition as determined by the Reynolds number. The continuity, Bernoulli, and momentum equations govern pipe flow.
- Major losses are pressure/head losses due solely to pipe friction. They can be calculated using the Darcy-

CE6451-MLM-Fluid Mechanics

This document provides information about the course ME 2204 - Fluid Mechanics and Machinery including units and dimensions of fluids, properties of fluids, concepts of system and control volume, and equations of continuity, energy, and momentum. It also includes sample questions related to fluids with definitions of terms like density, viscosity, surface tension, and hydraulic and energy gradients. Expressions are given for head loss due to friction in pipes, sudden expansion/contraction, and flow through pipes in series and parallel. Characteristics of laminar flow and the Hagen-Poiseuille formula are described.

final friction in pipes

This document discusses pipe friction and flow experiments. It defines key terms like friction factor, Reynolds number, laminar and turbulent flow. The objective is to use a Moody diagram to determine these variables and the relative roughness of a pipe. Sample calculations are shown for one data point. The methodology involves using the Darcy-Weisbach equation and Moody diagram. Potential errors include human errors in measurement and recording. The conclusion is that all flows studied were turbulent based on their high Reynolds numbers, and that friction factors decrease while head losses increase with higher densities and velocities.

Fluid Mechanics (2).pdf

The document discusses key concepts in fluid mechanics including:
1. Pressure is defined as force per unit area and its units are Pascal (SI) or dynes/cm2 (CGS). Atmospheric pressure at sea level is 101,325 Pa.
2. Density is defined as mass per unit volume and has units of kg/m3 (SI) or g/cc (CGS). Specific weight is weight per unit volume and specific gravity is the ratio of a fluid's density to that of water.
3. Viscosity describes a fluid's resistance to flow and is measured by dynamic viscosity in N·s/m2 or kinematic viscosity in m2/s.

Fluid Mechanics (2)civil engineers sksks

The document defines key concepts in fluid mechanics including pressure, density, viscosity, surface tension, continuity equation, and Bernoulli's equation. It provides the definitions and formulas for these terms, as well as explanations of related concepts like manometers, hydrostatic forces, stability of floating bodies, and equations of motion. The summary focuses on introducing the broad topics covered rather than specific details or values.

Arvind ipawm

** Cyclone separators remove particulate matter from air streams through centrifugal force. They consist of a cylindrical barrel and conical cone section. Air enters tangentially and forms an outer vortex that separates particles from the air stream.
** Common cyclone designs for particulate control in agriculture are the 1D3D and 2D2D designs, which differ in their barrel and cone length dimensions relative to the barrel diameter.
** Cyclones effectively remove particles larger than 10 microns, with efficiency over 95% for particles over 25 microns. Performance depends on factors like cyclone diameter and inlet velocity.

Fluid MechanicsLosses in pipes dynamics of viscous flows

This document discusses fluid flow in pipes. It defines the Reynolds number and explains laminar and turbulent flow regimes. It also covers the Darcy-Weisbach equation for calculating head losses due to pipe friction. The friction factor is determined using Moody diagrams based on Reynolds number and relative pipe roughness. Examples are provided to calculate friction factor, head loss, and flow rate for different pipe flow conditions.

Me 2204 fluid mechanics and machinery

The document defines key terms related to fluid mechanics, including density, specific weight, viscosity, compressibility, surface tension, and vapor pressure. It also defines different types of fluid flow such as steady/unsteady, laminar/turbulent, compressible/incompressible, and rotational/irrotational flow. Various equations are presented, including the continuity equation, Bernoulli's equation, and the impulse-momentum equation. Boundary layer concepts are introduced, such as boundary layer thickness, displacement thickness, and momentum thickness. Energy losses in pipes are also discussed, distinguishing between major losses due to friction and minor losses due to pipe fittings.

Qb103354

This document contains 31 questions regarding boundary layer concepts and fluid mechanics. It covers topics such as the range of Reynolds numbers for laminar and turbulent flow, Hagen-Poiseuille formula, velocity distribution formulas, boundary layer thickness definitions, and equations for major and minor head losses in pipes. The document also provides definitions for terms like boundary layer, laminar sublayer, displacement thickness, and momentum thickness.

Fluid dynamics 1

The document provides an introduction to fluid dynamics and fluid mechanics. It defines key fluid properties like density, viscosity, pressure and discusses the continuum hypothesis. It also introduces important concepts like the Navier-Stokes equations, Bernoulli's equation, Reynolds number, and divergence. Applications of fluid mechanics in various engineering fields are also highlighted.

Fluid dynamics 1

The document provides an introduction to fluid dynamics and fluid mechanics. It defines key fluid properties like density, viscosity, pressure and discusses the continuum hypothesis. It also introduces important concepts like the Bernoulli equation, Reynolds number, discharge coefficients and the divergence theorem. Common fluid systems and applications of fluid mechanics are discussed through examples.

Lecture Notes in Fluid Mechanics

Fluid mechanics is a science in study the fluid of liquids and gases in the cases of silence and movement and the forces acting on them can be divided materials found in nature into two branches.

Presentation 3 ce801 by Rabindra Ranjan Saha, PEng, Assoc. Prof. WUB

The document discusses flow properties in open channels including:
- The Reynolds number and Froude number, which characterize flow regimes as turbulent or laminar and subcritical/supercritical.
- Hydraulic properties such as depth, area, wetted perimeter, hydraulic radius, and section factor which describe channel geometry.
- Critical flow occurs when the Froude number equals 1. Subcritical flow has a Froude number less than 1 while supercritical flow has a Froude number greater than 1.
- Examples are provided to demonstrate calculating hydraulic properties for given channel cross sections.

Gradvariedflow

This document discusses gradually varied flow (GVF) in open channels. It defines key terms related to GVF including normal depth, critical depth, flow zones, and profile classifications. It also covers topics like energy balance, mixed flow profiles, rapidly varied flow, hydraulic jumps, and applying GVF concepts to storm sewer analysis and hydraulic modeling with examples.

Qb103353

This document provides information about fluid flow through pipes, including definitions and equations. It defines types of fluid flow such as steady/unsteady, uniform/non-uniform, laminar/turbulent. It also defines compressible/incompressible flow and rotational/irrotational flow. Bernoulli's equation and its assumptions are described. Darcy-Weisbach and Hagen-Poiseuille equations for head loss due to friction are given. Reynolds number range for laminar and turbulent flow is provided. Shear stress, velocity distribution, and average velocity equations are listed. Factors affecting frictional head loss are also mentioned.

materi mekanika fluida terakhir yagsyaaa

This document discusses fluid mechanics concepts applied to civil engineering problems. It introduces indicators for modeling field problems, identifying relevant fundamental sciences, and applying science to solve infrastructure issues. As an example, it discusses the importance of pipe sizing for fluid distribution systems. It also summarizes semi-empirical theories of pipe resistance, defines pipe resistance, and discusses friction in pipes. Bernoulli's theorem and the Darcy-Weisbach equation are explained. Two example problems are included, one calculating pressure head, velocity head, and elevation head at points in a pipeline system, and another solving for the elevation of an oil surface in an upper reservoir.

TDS Lec 2a-Dams.pdf

This document outlines the theory and design of structures, specifically analyzing dams and retaining walls. It provides equations for calculating water pressure, forces on dams, and stress distribution at the base. It also derives the middle third rule for dam bases to prevent tensile stresses. An example problem is worked through calculating forces, locating the center of gravity, checking for failure modes, and stability against sliding. A second example is presented to calculate the minimum dam width required to prevent tension in the concrete.

010a (PPT) Flow through pipes.pdf .

010a (PPT) Flow through pipes.pdf .

Fluid mechanics for chermical engineering students

Fluid mechanics for chermical engineering students

Hydraulic losses in pipe

Hydraulic losses in pipe

8. fm 9 flow in pipes major loses co 3 copy

8. fm 9 flow in pipes major loses co 3 copy

CE6451-MLM-Fluid Mechanics

CE6451-MLM-Fluid Mechanics

final friction in pipes

final friction in pipes

Fluid Mechanics (2).pdf

Fluid Mechanics (2).pdf

Fluid Mechanics (2)civil engineers sksks

Fluid Mechanics (2)civil engineers sksks

Arvind ipawm

Arvind ipawm

Fluid MechanicsLosses in pipes dynamics of viscous flows

Fluid MechanicsLosses in pipes dynamics of viscous flows

Me 2204 fluid mechanics and machinery

Me 2204 fluid mechanics and machinery

Qb103354

Qb103354

Fluid dynamics 1

Fluid dynamics 1

Fluid dynamics 1

Fluid dynamics 1

Lecture Notes in Fluid Mechanics

Lecture Notes in Fluid Mechanics

Presentation 3 ce801 by Rabindra Ranjan Saha, PEng, Assoc. Prof. WUB

Presentation 3 ce801 by Rabindra Ranjan Saha, PEng, Assoc. Prof. WUB

Gradvariedflow

Gradvariedflow

Qb103353

Qb103353

materi mekanika fluida terakhir yagsyaaa

materi mekanika fluida terakhir yagsyaaa

TDS Lec 2a-Dams.pdf

TDS Lec 2a-Dams.pdf

Gastcollege mli

ICT in het onderwijs 28-10-2015

Cu07821 10management and maintenance2015

Management and maintenance of water systems involves complying with various regulations at the European, national, provincial and local levels. It requires managing surface waters, beds, embankments, structures, water levels and other components. Key instruments used include the "Legger" which establishes the situation and dimensions, the "Peilbesluit" which sets water levels, and the "Keur" which establishes regulations. Maintenance activities include dredging, mowing, reconstructing side structures and embankments, and removing new growth. Maintenance of structures involves removing dredgings and repairing structures as needed.

Cu07821 9 zoning plan2015

The document discusses zoning plans, water assessments, and ledgers related to land development and water management. A zoning plan describes allowed land and building uses, and can regulate details like building heights and distances. Changing a zoning plan's designation requires stakeholder input and can take years. A water assessment analyzes how a zoning change, like converting farmland to urban use, will impact the water system. Ledgers document requirements for waterways regarding location, form, size, and construction, and define management boundaries and protection zones. The case involves stakeholders debating a developer's proposed zoning change, with topics including impacts to the water system and potential problems.

Cu07821 8 weirs

This document discusses different types of weirs used to measure water discharge, including broad crested weirs, thin plate weirs, and Rehbock, Romijn, Cipoletti, circular, and Thomson weirs. Broad crested weirs can be long or short, and influence discharge measurements differently depending on whether water downstream affects flow. Thin plate weirs have a sharp crest and allow measuring the upstream water level where it is streamlined with atmospheric pressure under the nappe. The document also provides a link to a video about a hydrosystem and field trip in Macedonia.

Cu07821 7 culverts new

Culverts are civil engineering structures used to allow water to pass under roads or embankments. There are several types of culverts including round concrete tubes, rectangular precast concrete elements, and metal culverts. Culverts require appropriate foundations depending on the material and site conditions, including shallow foundations, foundations on improved soil, or foundations on wooden or concrete poles. Culvert endings can have various shapes like long front walls, receding wings, or return walls to connect to surrounding terrain.

Cu07821 6 pumping stations_update

The document discusses various types of pumping stations including Archimedean screws, axial pumps, centrifugal pumps, and submerged pumps. It notes key components of centrifugal pumps like impellers, volutes, and casings. It also covers pump installation methods, switching levels, frequency drives, impeller types for different uses, and hydraulic concepts like duty point and head.

Cu07821 5 drainage

1) Darcy's law describes groundwater flow through porous media according to hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic gradient.
2) Factors that influence groundwater levels include precipitation, soil type, and land use. Heavy rainfall or irrigation can cause groundwater levels to rise.
3) The drainage of an agricultural parcel is calculated based on the hydraulic conductivity, horizontal distance from a stream, and vertical distances between the groundwater level and impenetrable layer and stream level.

Cu07821 4 soil

This document discusses the hydrological cycle and soil moisture in the unsaturated zone. It describes:
1) The process of rainfall infiltration and groundwater recharge. Water is stored in the pores of the unsaturated zone below the ground surface.
2) Forces that act on soil moisture in the unsaturated zone, including adsorption, osmotic, and capillary forces. Capillary action causes smaller pores to fill with water before larger pores.
3) The soil moisture curve and Staring series, which relate soil type to water pressure and volume of water stored. Finer textured soils like clay can store more water than coarser soils like sand.

Cu07821 3 precipitation and evapotranspiration

1. The hydrological cycle diagram shows the annual water balance for an area, with 800 mm of precipitation, 350 mm of evapotranspiration, 425 mm of surface runoff, and 475 mm of groundwater recharge.
2. Effective precipitation is defined as the volume of precipitation available for groundwater recharge, and is calculated as total precipitation minus actual evapotranspiration, which depends on crop type.
3. Extreme precipitation events like the 1998 "Westlandbui" storm that dropped 100 mm of rain in 24 hours can cause hundreds of millions of euros in flood damage.

Cu07821 2 help

This document discusses water management strategies in the Netherlands, specifically focusing on optimal water level agreements. It describes how water levels are managed through water level agreement areas, where the surface water level is fixed and uniform. The typical Dutch strategy involves examining the existing water situation and specifying adjustments to achieve an optimal groundwater and surface water regime. It also discusses how to relate crop selection and production to soil type and groundwater classification using HELP tables. Maintaining appropriate water levels is important for preventing flooding, drying out, and salination while supporting agriculture and nature.

Cu07821 1 intro_1415

This document provides information about several rural water management courses, including their course codes and names. It then discusses the organization of one course called "Rural Water Management" including that it has both theory and assignment classes each week. The document outlines the course assignment which is to prepare a water level agreement for a polder in Noord Beveland. It also lists the criteria for marks in the course. The rest of the document covers hydrological cycle concepts and diagrams, reasons for managing water systems, how water systems can be adjusted, key topics covered in the course, and an exercise on simple water level areas.

Research portfolio delta_academy_s2_2014_2015

Every semester the 4 research groups of the Delta Academy offer research possibilities for internships, final thesis and Minor. The document (also in English) shows the assignments for the second semester of study year 2014/2015.

Research portfolio da arc 2014-2015 s1

This document provides a summary of research projects conducted by the Delta Academy Applied Research Centre between September 2014 and January 2015. The research was divided among four main research groups: Aquaculture in Delta Areas, Building with Nature, Water Technology, and Water Safety & Area Development. The projects covered a wide range of topics including algae cultivation, shellfish feeding, bioremediation, coastal ecosystem restoration, wastewater reuse, community resilience, and water management in the Dutch delta region.

Research portfolios1 2013_2014 jan july 2014

Mindert de Vries (mindert.devries@hz.nl)
FEEDING TRIALS OYSTERS
The quality of algal biomass as feed for shellfish is dependent on the cultivation parameters. In order to
determine the effect of algal quality on shellfish growth and condition, feeding trials with oysters using
algae cultivated under different parameters are needed. In cooperation with the algae research a set of
feeding trials will be designed and executed. Growth and condition parameters of the oysters will be
determined. This will give insight in the effect of algal quality on shellfish production parameters.
Research type: experiments (HZ, Vlissingen)
Research level: minor

Presentatie AET voor scholieren 15-11-2013

Presentatie AET voor scholieren 15-11-2013

Vision group1(5)

This document outlines a vision and action plan for sustainable development along the Guadalete river basin in Spain. It discusses objectives in areas like water quality, water quantity, ecosystem management, and economic development. It proposes various measures like improving wastewater treatment, promoting renewable energy, education initiatives, green infrastructure projects, sustainable tourism, and balancing economic and natural resource goals. Stakeholders are grouped according to their priorities and the plan identifies both short and long term actions needed to achieve an integrated approach to river management.

Final presentation spain quattro

This document discusses plans for sustainable management of the Guadelete River basin in southern Spain. It envisions transitioning the region away from traditional agriculture and overdevelopment towards more sustainable practices like aquaculture, eco-tourism, and sustainable agriculture/aquaculture. Specific measures proposed include improving wastewater treatment, promoting sustainable farming techniques, developing rural hotels and tourism activities centered around the river, and restoring abandoned salt marshes to create jobs and biodiversity. Stakeholders like universities, NGOs, and different levels of government would need to cooperate to achieve this sustainable vision for the river basin.

Final presentation group 3

The document outlines a plan to improve the Guadalete river basin in Spain by 2030. The vision is for the river basin to have good water quality, sustainable industries, increased environmental awareness, good management, and a high quality of living. Several objectives are identified, including sustainable development, increasing public awareness, and improving water quality and management. Specific measures and timelines are proposed to achieve these objectives, such as improving wastewater treatment plants, sewage systems, and increasing taxes from industries and tourism to fund improvements. Educational programs for local schools are also described to increase environmental awareness among residents.

Chocolate river

The Chocolate River Group has a vision to ensure the Guadalete River Basin in Spain is communicative, multi-functional, economically thriving and ecologically sustainable by 2030. They identify issues like unsustainable tourism, population growth, pollution, and poverty. Their solutions focus on eco-tourism, efficient water treatment, water safety, natural water treatment, collaboration, education, and law enforcement. They propose restoration projects like constructing wetlands near wastewater treatment plants, planting vegetation along river banks, and technical improvements to water infrastructure.

Gastcollege mli

Gastcollege mli

Cu07821 10management and maintenance2015

Cu07821 10management and maintenance2015

Cu07821 9 zoning plan2015

Cu07821 9 zoning plan2015

Cu07821 8 weirs

Cu07821 8 weirs

Cu07821 7 culverts new

Cu07821 7 culverts new

Cu07821 6 pumping stations_update

Cu07821 6 pumping stations_update

Cu07821 5 drainage

Cu07821 5 drainage

Cu07821 4 soil

Cu07821 4 soil

Cu07821 3 precipitation and evapotranspiration

Cu07821 3 precipitation and evapotranspiration

Cu07821 2 help

Cu07821 2 help

Cu07821 1 intro_1415

Cu07821 1 intro_1415

Research portfolio delta_academy_s2_2014_2015

Research portfolio delta_academy_s2_2014_2015

Research portfolio da arc 2014-2015 s1

Research portfolio da arc 2014-2015 s1

Jacobapolder

Jacobapolder

Research portfolios1 2013_2014 jan july 2014

Research portfolios1 2013_2014 jan july 2014

Presentatie AET voor scholieren 15-11-2013

Presentatie AET voor scholieren 15-11-2013

Vision group1(5)

Vision group1(5)

Final presentation spain quattro

Final presentation spain quattro

Final presentation group 3

Final presentation group 3

Chocolate river

Chocolate river

The History of Stoke Newington Street Names

Presented at the Stoke Newington Literary Festival on 9th June 2024
www.StokeNewingtonHistory.com

Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47

Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47
Event Link:- https://meetups.mulesoft.com/events/details/mulesoft-mysore-presents-mule-event-processing-models/
Agenda
● What is event processing in MuleSoft?
● Types of event processing models in Mule 4
● Distinction between the reactive, parallel, blocking & non-blocking processing
For Upcoming Meetups Join Mysore Meetup Group - https://meetups.mulesoft.com/mysore/YouTube:- youtube.com/@mulesoftmysore
Mysore WhatsApp group:- https://chat.whatsapp.com/EhqtHtCC75vCAX7gaO842N
Speaker:-
Shivani Yasaswi - https://www.linkedin.com/in/shivaniyasaswi/
Organizers:-
Shubham Chaurasia - https://www.linkedin.com/in/shubhamchaurasia1/
Giridhar Meka - https://www.linkedin.com/in/giridharmeka
Priya Shaw - https://www.linkedin.com/in/priya-shaw

ZK on Polkadot zero knowledge proofs - sub0.pptx

ZK on Polkadot zero knowledge proofs - sub0.pptx

Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf

The Best topic of my Interest.

Temple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation results

The temple and the sanctuary around were dedicated to Asklepios Zmidrenus. This name has been known since 1875 when an inscription dedicated to him was discovered in Rome. The inscription is dated in 227 AD and was left by soldiers originating from the city of Philippopolis (modern Plovdiv).

Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation

In this webinar, participants learned how to utilize Generative AI to streamline operations and elevate member engagement. Amazon Web Service experts provided a customer specific use cases and dived into low/no-code tools that are quick and easy to deploy through Amazon Web Service (AWS.)

BBR 2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training

Qualitative research interview training by Professor Katrina Pritchard and Dr Helen Williams

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Physical pharmaceutics notes for B.pharm students

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spot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skills

sample presentation

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https://app.box.com/s/qhtvq32h4ybf9t49ku85x0n3xl4jhr15How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17

In Odoo, making a field required can be done through both Python code and XML views. When you set the required attribute to True in Python code, it makes the field required across all views where it's used. Conversely, when you set the required attribute in XML views, it makes the field required only in the context of that particular view.

ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf

it describes the bony anatomy including the femoral head , acetabulum, labrum . also discusses the capsule , ligaments . muscle that act on the hip joint and the range of motion are outlined. factors affecting hip joint stability and weight transmission through the joint are summarized.

The History of Stoke Newington Street Names

The History of Stoke Newington Street Names

Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47

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ZK on Polkadot zero knowledge proofs - sub0.pptx

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Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf

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Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation

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BBR 2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training

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RHEOLOGY Physical pharmaceutics-II notes for B.pharm 4th sem students

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ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf

- 1. CU06997 Fluid Dynamics Flow in pipes and closed conduits 4.1 Introduction (page 91) 4.2 The historical context (page 91-93) 4.3 Fundamental concepts of pipe flow (page 94-97) 4.4 Laminar flow (page 97-100) 4.5 Turbulent flow (page 100 – 111) 1
- 2. Pipe with head loss 2 2 u u h1 1 h4 4 H14 2g 2g Q u1 A1 u4 A4 Head loss Total Head Pressure Head 1
- 3. Reynolds number: p 93 (pipe), p 127 (open channel) 𝜌∙ 𝑉∙ 𝐷 𝑉∙ 𝐷 𝑅𝑒 = = 𝜇= Absolute viscosity [m2/s] 𝜇 𝜈 𝜐= Kinematic viscosity [kg/ms] water, 20°C= 1,00 ∙ 10−6 𝑉. 4𝑅 𝜌 = Density of liquid [kg/m3] 𝑅𝑒 = 𝑉 = Velocity [m/s] 𝜈 D = Hydraulic diameter [m] R= Hydraulic Radius = D/4 [m] 𝑅𝑒 = Reynolds Number [1] 𝑹𝒆 > 𝟒𝟎𝟎𝟎 Turbulent flow 𝑹𝒆 < 𝟐𝟎𝟎𝟎 Laminar flow 1
- 4. Laminar flow, frictional head loss [Energieverlies tgv wrijving] Total Head 32 ∙ 𝜇 ∙ 𝐿 ∙ 𝑉 Pressure Head ℎ𝑓 = 𝜌 ∙ 𝑔 ∙ 𝐷2 ℎ𝑓 = frictional head loss ∆H [m] 𝜇= Absolute viscosity [kg/ms] 𝐿= Length between the Head Loss [m] 𝑉= mean velocity [m/s] D= Hydraulic Diameter [m] 𝜌= Density of liquid [kg/m3] 2 𝑔= earths gravity [m/s2]
- 5. Laminar flow, wall shear stress [Schuifspanning] 4∙ 𝜇∙ 𝑉 𝜏0= 𝑅 τ0 = shear stress at solid boundary [N/m2] 𝜇= Absolute viscosity [kg/ms] 𝑉= mean velocity [m/s] R= Hydraulic Radius [m] 2
- 6. Head loss /Energy loss [m] • Turbulent flow u 2 • Friction loss (wrijvingsverlies) ΔΗ [m] 2g • Local loss (lokaal verlies) • ΔH = Head loss or Energy loss [m] • u2/2g = Velocity head [m] • ξ (ksie) = Loss coëfficiënt [1] 3
- 7. 2 2 Darcy-Weisbach L u u ΔΗ f 4 R 2g 2g Total Head L f Pressure Head 4R • ΔH = Head loss by friction [m] • u2/2g = Velocity head [m] • L = Length [m] • λ = (lamda) = Friction coëfficiënt[1] • ξ (ksie) = Loss coëfficiënt [1] 3 • R = hydraulic radius [m]
- 8. Remarks friction loss Darcy-Weisbach • λ (boundary roughness) depends on material and construction. λ often between 0,01 and 0,10 • λ is not a constant, depends on “boundary layer”. “Smooth” or “Rough”, Most of the time “Smooth” How to calculate λ !!! • During exams Fluid Dynamics, the λ will be given 3
- 9. Colebrook-White transition formula 1 𝑘𝑠 2,51 = −2 ∙ 𝑙𝑜𝑔 + 𝜆 3,70 ∙ 𝐷 Re∙ 𝜆 𝜆= Friction coefficient [1] D= Hydraulic Diameter 4R [m] kS = surface roughness [m] (k-waarde) Difficult to solve Could use figure 4.5 page 105 Nowadays computers? 3
- 10. Moody diagram 3
- 11. Colebrook-White and Darcy Weisbach 𝑘𝑠 2,51υ 𝑉 = −2 2𝑔 ∙ 𝐷 ∙ 𝑆 𝑓 ∙ 𝑙𝑜𝑔 + 3,70𝐷 D 2𝑔∙𝐷∙𝑆 𝑓 ℎ𝑓 with 𝑆 𝑓 = 𝐿 𝑉= Average velocity [m/s] D= Hydraulic Diameter (4R) [m] kS = surface roughness [m] 𝜐= Kinematic viscosity [kg/ms] Sf = slope of hydraulic gradient [-] hf = frictional head loss (∆Hf) [m] 𝐿= Length between the Head Loss [m] 3
- 12. Turbulent flow , Mean boundary shear stress 𝜏0 = 𝜌 ∙ 𝑔 ∙ 𝑅 ∙ 𝑆0 τ0 = shear stress at solid boundary [N/m2] R= Hydraulic Radius [m] 𝑆0 = Slope of channel bed [1] In sewer minimum shear stress value (0.5 – 1.5 N/m2) 3
- 13. Local head losses 2 u ΔΗ l [m] 2g 4
- 14. Head loss Sudden Pipe Enlargement V1 V2 2 ∆𝐻 𝑙 = (1 − 𝐴1 2 𝑉1 ) ∙ 2 ΔΗ l 𝐴2 2𝑔 2g 4
- 15. Head loss Sudden Pipe Enlargement ∆𝐻 𝑙 = (1 − 𝐴1 2 𝑉1 ) ∙ 2 𝜉 𝑙 = (1 − 𝐴1 2 ) (𝑉1 − 𝑉2 )2 𝐴2 2𝑔 𝐴2 ∆𝐻 𝑙 = 2𝑔 ∆𝐻 𝑙 = Head Loss due to sudden pipe enlargement [m] 𝜉𝑙 = Loss coefficient due to sudden pipe enlargement [1] 𝐴= Wetted Area [m2] 𝑉= Mean Fluid Velocity [m/s] 𝑔= earths gravity [m/s2] 1= Before enlargement 2= After enlargement 4
- 16. Head loss Sudden Pipe Contraction 4 2 𝐴1 2 𝑉2 𝑉2 ∆𝐻 𝑙 = ( − 1)2 ∙ 𝐴3 2𝑔 and 𝐴3 ≅ 0,6 ∙ 𝐴2 ∆𝐻 𝑙 = 0,44 ∙ 2𝑔 ∆𝐻 𝑙 = Head Loss due to sudden pipe contraction [m] 𝑉2 = Mean Fluid Velocity after sudden pipe contraction [m/s] 𝑔 = earths gravity [m/s2]
- 17. Local head loss coefficients 𝑢2 𝑘 𝑙 = 𝜉𝑙 ∆𝐻 𝑙 = 𝑘 𝑙 ∙ 2𝑔 4