SlideShare a Scribd company logo
DR NILESH KATE
MBBS,MD
ASSOCIATE PROF
ESIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, GULBARGA.
DEPT. OF PHYSIOLOGY
CONTRACEPTIVE
METHODS.
OBJECTIVES
 Aims of contraception
 Ideal contraceptive.
 Contraceptive methods in females.
 Spacing methods
 Terminal methods
 Pregnancy vaccines.
 Contraceptive methods in males.
 Spacing methods.
 Terminal methods.
 Miscellaneous methods.
Thursday, May 21, 2015
Introduction.
 DEFINITION :-
Prevention Of Pregnancy.
 AIMS:-
Family Planning
Prevents STD’S – AIDS.
Medical Grounds – To control stress of
pregnancy, labour & lactation.
The characteristics of an ideal
contraceptive are listed below:
 Highly effective.
 No side effects.
 Independent of
intercourse.
 Rapidly reversible.
 Cheap.
 Widespread
availability.
 Acceptable to all
cultures and religions.
 Administration and
healthcare
personnel not
required.
 Easily distributed.
Thursday, May 21, 2015
CONTRACEPTIVE METHODS IN
FEMALES
 Spacing methods
 Terminal methods
 Pregnancy vaccines.
SPACING METHODS.
 Rhythm Methods.
 Barrier Methods.
 Chemical Methods.
 Intrauterine contraceptive devices.
Rhythm Methods.
 Calender method / safe period method /
natural method.
 Depend on time of ovulation.
 Dangerous period – ovulation occurs on 14 day &
ovum viable for 48-72 hrs & sperm remain alive
for 24-48 hrs. so pregnancy occurs if coitus occur
in this period.
Thursday, May 21, 2015
Rhythm Methods.
 Safe period – rest of cycle i.e. 5-6 days after
mensturation & 5-6 days before next cycle.
 Advantage – most natural
 Disadvantage – most unreliable when cycle
are irregular & ovulation time is variable.
Thursday, May 21, 2015
Barrier Methods.
 Mechanical .
 Diaphargm. –
 Flexible rim made up of spring.
 Cup shaped synthetic rubber
or plastic.
 Inserted into vagina over the
cervix.
 Cervical caps.
 Smaller than Diaphargm,
 Applied on cervix itself.
Thursday, May 21, 2015
Mechanical
 Advantages.
 Inexpensive.
 Do not require medical consultation.
 Disadvantages.
 Demonstration by trained person needed for proper
use.
 Failure most common – due to displacement of
device.
 Cervicitis ( inflammation of cervix) & local irritation.
Thursday, May 21, 2015
Chemical
 Spermicidal agents.–
destroy sperms.
 Ricinoleic acid
 Nanoxynol-9.
 Octoxynol-3.
 Available in different forms–
foam tablet, pastes, creams,
jellies & vaginal sponge
( TODAY --Polyurethane sponge
imprignated with nanoxynol-
9.)
 Advantages –
inexpensive, well
tolerated, provide good
protection.
 Disadvantages –
messiness, local irritation
& burning sensation.
 Combined
Thursday, May 21, 2015
Chemical Methods.
 Locally applied chemicals – anti-
spermicidal.
 Foams, jellies.
 Drugs –
 Steroidal –
 Oral contraceptives and depot preparation.
 Non-steroidal --
Steroidal
 ORAL CONTRACEPTIVE PILLS (OCP)
 Recommended in women of younger age group
( up to 35 yrs )
 Mechanism of action.
 Synthetic preparation of estrogen & Progesterone.
 When taken orally, hormone level rises
 Negative feedback effect act on Anterior pituitary
 Inhibit Gonadotrophins (FSH & LH)
 Inhibit Ovulation.
Thursday, May 21, 2015
Types.
 Combined pill.
 Sequential pill.
 Minipill pill.
 Postcoital (Morning
After) pill.
Thursday, May 21, 2015
Combined pill.
 Contains both
 Oestrogen (ethyl
estradiol/mestranol) 20-
50 Mg.
 Progesterone(norethister
one, norgestrel) 0.5-2mg.
 Availability
 MALA-N (21 Tab) &
MALA-D (28 Tab-7 ferrous
fumarate)
Thursday, May 21, 2015
Combined pill.
 Dosage –
 Everyday orally at night
for 21 days. ( from 5th
day
to 25th
day of cycle)
 7 day break for MALA-N
 During this bleeding
occurs, which is not
menstrual bleeding but
is withdrawal bleeding.
 Mechanism of action.
 Prevents Ovulation.
 Prevents Implantation.
 Makes cervical
secretions thick & viscid
& prevent entry of
sperm in female genital
tract.
Thursday, May 21, 2015
Sequential pill Mini-pill.
 High dose of estrogen
with moderate dose of
progesterone.
 Dose – oestrogen 5th
- to
15th
day, then both
oestrogen+progesterone
for 5 days.
 High incidence of
endometrial carcinoma so
not used.
 Micro-pill.
 Only progesterone.
 Dose – daily through whole
of menstrual cycle.
 Action – ovulation not
inhibited but prevents
fertility.
 Makes cervical mucosa
thick & decrease motility of
fallopian tube.
Thursday, May 21, 2015
POSTCOITAL
 Within 72 hrs of
unprotected intercourse.
 Dose – 2 combined pills
immediately followed by
2 pill after12 hrs.
 Indication – only in
emergency– rape,
contraceptive failure, or
unprotected sex.
 Mechanism of action.
 Prevents fertilization &
implantation by
hypermotility of
fallopian tube & uterus.
 If ovulation &
fertilization occurred
then it prevents
implantation of
blastocyst.
Thursday, May 21, 2015
OCP
 Advantages– 100 %
effectivity
 Dis-Advantages. –
 Hypertension.
 Thromboembolism.
 Metabolic effects –
diabetes & obesity.
 Carcinogenic effect –
breast & cervix.
 Contra-indications.
 Women having
carcinoma of breast &
uterus.
 Liver diseases
 Hyperlipidemia.
 Age group above 35 yrs.
Thursday, May 21, 2015
Depot preparation.
Injectable
 Oily solutions given
intramuscularly.
 Progestrin –
 Medroxyprogesterone
acetate (DMPA) – IM every
3-6 months, 150-400mg.
 Norethindrone enanthate
(NET-EN) – IM every 3
months , 200 mg.
 Combined –
 Both estrogen &
progesterone
 IM , monthly .
 MOA –
 Prevent ovulation &
alter cervical mucosal
secretions.
Thursday, May 21, 2015
Sub-dermal implants
 Types –
 Norplant – 6 flexible
silastic (silicon) tubes
 35 mg progesterone.
 Norplant 2 – 2 rods of
levonorgesterol
 Location – beneath skin
of arm or forearm.
 Contraception – 5-6 yrs.
Thursday, May 21, 2015
vaginal rings.
 Contains norgestrel.
 Progesterone
absorbed through
vaginal mucosa.
 Advantages –
 No daily intake
 Long lasting.
 Dis-Advantages –
 Leads to sterility.
 Alterations in
menstrual bleeding
pattern.
Thursday, May 21, 2015
Non-steroidal contraceptives
 Centchroman.
 Developed by Central
Drug Research Institute
(CDRI)
 Trade name – Saheli
 Dose – 30mg
twice/week for 12
weeks followed by once
in a week.
 Mechanism of action
 Suppress corpus luteal
function.
 Interfere with motility
of fallopian tube
 Advantages.
 Menstrual cycle remains
normal.
 Complete reversibility
after withdrawal..
Thursday, May 21, 2015
Intrauterine contraceptive
device (IUCD)
 Ideal candidate.
 Has born one child.
 Normal menstrual
cycle.
 No pelvic
inflammation.
 Ready to check the
device.
 Mechanism of action.
 Prevents implantation & growth
of ovum.
 By aseptic inflammation & causing
endometrium not suitable for
implantation.
 Sperm phagocytization – by
neutrophils & macrophages.
 Cu affects enzymes, motility
 Makes cervical mucus thick
prevent entry of sperm.
Thursday, May 21, 2015
Intrauterine contraceptive device
(IUCD)
Types.
 Non-medicated.
 1ST
generation IUCD.
 Lippes Loop- serpentine
or S shaped.
 Made up of Plastic.
 Medicated.
 2nd
generation Cu made
 2 types.
 Cu T
 Cu T 200
 Newer like NOVA-7, NOVA-T
 3rd
generation.
 Hormone releasing containing
progesterone reservoir
release continuously for 1 yr.
Thursday, May 21, 2015
Cu – T.
 Most commonly used .
 Made up of Cu.
 ‘T’ shaped attached
with a nylon thread.
(tail)
Thursday, May 21, 2015
Method of insertion.
 Withdrawl method.
 Ideal time – during
mensturation or
within 10 days. ( As
cervical cavity
diameter is more)
 Also during 1st
after
delivery.
Thursday, May 21, 2015
IUCD
 Advantages.
 Safe
 Effective
 Reversible
 Easily pulled out when
not required.
 Long term
contraception without
adverse effect.
 Disadvantages.
 May cause heavy bleeding.
 May come out accidently.
 Risk of ectopic pregnancy.
 Contraindications.
 Suspected pregnancy.
 Pelvic inflammation.
 Heavy bleeding during
mensturation.
 Suffering from carcinoma
cervix.
Thursday, May 21, 2015
Terminal methods.
 Permanent method.
 Indication.
 When family is
complete.
 Medical grounds.
Thursday, May 21, 2015
Terminal
methods.
 Surgical methods.
 Tubectomy.
 Fallopian tubes identified ,
cut , cut ends ligated &
buried.
 Laparoscopic occlusion.
 Tubes occluded using silicon
rubber bands, rings or clips
 Method – quicker, simple, no
hospitalization.
Thursday, May 21, 2015
MEDICAL TERMINATION OF
PREGNANCY.
 Medical termination of pregnancy or MTP or
abortion is allowed under MTP act 1971.
 Criteria.
 Person who can do MTP
 Place where it should be performed.
Thursday, May 21, 2015
MEDICAL TERMINATION OF
PREGNANCY.
 Indications.
 Medicals – continuation of pregnancy is hazardous
to the mother.
 Eugenic – substantial risk to the child if born.
 Humanitarian ground.– when pregnancy is result
of rape.
 Failure of contraceptive methods.
Thursday, May 21, 2015
MEDICAL TERMINATION OF
PREGNANCY.
 Methods –
 Dilatation & curettage (D & C).
 Cervix dilated with dilator & implanted ovum removed
by curettage of the endometrium.
 Vacuum aspiration. (up to 12 weeks)
 Same cervix is dilated & contents are aspirated by
vacuum / suction.
 Administration of prostaglandins.
 Prostaglandins are administered intravaginally
 Causes uterine contractions – expulsion of product of
conception.
Thursday, May 21, 2015
Thursday, May 21, 2015
Pregnancy vaccines.
 Under experimental trials.
 2 types.
 Active immunization.
 Β subunits of HCG – antibodies against beta
HCG destroy HCG produced by
syncytiotrophoblast.
 Tetanus toxoid – increases antigenecity
capacity.
 Vaccine against Zona Pellucida proteins
Thursday, May 21, 2015
CONTRACEPTIVE METHODS
IN MALES
Methods
 Spacing methods.
 Natural.
 Barrier.
 Chemical.
 Terminal methods.
 Miscellaneous methods.
Thursday, May 21, 2015
Spacing Methods
Natural Method ( Coitus Interruptus)
 Oldest method of voluntary fertility.
 Male withdraws penis before ejaculation into
vagina.
 Failure rate – high
 As precoital secretions may contain sperm & even a
drop is enough to cause fertilization.
 Wrong Timing of Withdrawl
Thursday, May 21, 2015
Barrier method–
 Condom
 Most widely used.
 Made up of fine latex sheath.
 Instructions –
 Should be worn on erect penis
before intercourse.
 Air must be expelled
 Held carefully when
withdrawing from vagina.
 A new condom should be used
for each sexual act.
Thursday, May 21, 2015
NIRODH
Barrier method
 Mechanism of action,
 Prevents deposition of semen into vagina.
 Advantages –
 Easily available , safe, inexpensive
 Use dose not require medical supervision.
 Provide protection against STD.
 Dis-advantage
 May slip off or tear off.

Interfere with sexual sensation.
Thursday, May 21, 2015
Chemical method.
 Antispermatogenic Drugs – inhibit
spermatogenesis.
1. Male pill (Gossypol)
2 Hormonal preparation
-- Testosterone
-- Testosterone with Danazol
-- Cyproterone acetate
3 calcium channel blocker--
Nifedipine
Male pill ( Gossypol)
 Composition –
Gossypol, phenolic
derivatives of
cottonseed oil.
 Dose – orally.
200mg/D.– 2 months
followed by 60mg/wk.
 Mechanism of action –
exact action not known.
 Causes azoospermia.
 Advantages – neither
hormone nor antihormonal
activity
 No change in libido &
potency.
 Disadvantages –
permanent azospermic
after 6 months
Thursday, May 21, 2015
Hormonal preparation
 Testosterone
 400 mg orally causes
azospermia.
 Testosterone with
Danazol.
 Cyproterone acetate.
 Related to progesterone.
 Potent anti-androgenic
agent.
 Causes oligozoospermia &
loss of libido.
Thursday, May 21, 2015
Calcium channel blockers.
 Block Ca channel on cell membrane of sperm.
 Prevents Ca influx – membrane becomes
rigid & loaded with cholesterol.
 Rigid membrane prevents its binding to Zona
Pellucida.
 So patient on Ca channel blockers
(Nifedipine) for hypertension becomes
sterile.
Thursday, May 21, 2015
Terminal methods.
Vasectomy
Vas Occlusion with No-scalpel
technique
1. Elastomeric Plugs
2 SHUG
3 RISHUG
Vasectomy
 One cm vas deference
removed after clamping.
 Both ends ligated &
sutured.
 Mechanism of action –
entry of sperm into
semen prevented.
 Sperm production &
hormones not affected.
Thursday, May 21, 2015
Vasectomy
 Post-operative
instructions – use
contraceptive
measures (condom) as
he is not sterile ,after
30 ejaculations semen
is free from sperm.
 Advantages.—
 Simple, fast, less
expensive & no
hospitalization.
 Disadvantages.
 Failure rate -0.15%
 Spontaneous
recalalization.
 Autoimmune response.
Thursday, May 21, 2015
No scalpel vas occlusion.
 Newer technique.
 Safe, convenient &
acceptable
 Principle – Elastomer
injected get hardened
insitu within 20 min &
occlude it.
 Methods
 Elastomer plugs.
 MEDICAL GRADE
POLYURETHANE (MPU)
 MEDICAL GRADE
SILICON RUBBER(MSR)
 SHUG – preformed
silicon plug used.
 RISUG – reversible
inhibition of sperm
under guidance.
Thursday, May 21, 2015
Miscellaneous methods.
 Hot baths.
 Hot bath (460
for few weeks.)
 Suspensories.
 It holds testes close to the body.
 Insulated scrotal sack
Thursday, May 21, 2015
THANK YOU

More Related Content

What's hot

Ectopic Pregnancy
Ectopic PregnancyEctopic Pregnancy
Ectopic Pregnancy
Mononita Bhattacharjee
 
Family planning method
Family planning methodFamily planning method
Family planning method
Hari OM Mehta
 
INFERTILITY & IT'S MANAGEMENT
INFERTILITY  & IT'S MANAGEMENTINFERTILITY  & IT'S MANAGEMENT
INFERTILITY & IT'S MANAGEMENT
Abhilasha verma
 
Barrier methods of contraceptive
Barrier methods of contraceptiveBarrier methods of contraceptive
Barrier methods of contraceptive
Fahad Ahmad
 
pre eclampsia
pre eclampsiapre eclampsia
pre eclampsia
Snehlata Parashar
 
Forceps delivery
Forceps deliveryForceps delivery
Forceps delivery
raj kumar
 
Antepartum haemorrhage
Antepartum haemorrhageAntepartum haemorrhage
Antepartum haemorrhage
Hui Pheng Neoh
 
Placenta previa
Placenta previaPlacenta previa
Placenta previa
Sandhya Kumari
 
Contraceptives
ContraceptivesContraceptives
Contraceptives
Snehlata Parashar
 
Diagnosis of pregnancy
Diagnosis of pregnancyDiagnosis of pregnancy
Diagnosis of pregnancy
Salini Mandal
 
Routine antenatal investigations, those are most common antenatal Investigat...
Routine antenatal investigations, those are  most common antenatal Investigat...Routine antenatal investigations, those are  most common antenatal Investigat...
Routine antenatal investigations, those are most common antenatal Investigat...
sonal patel
 
Vasectomy
VasectomyVasectomy
Pregnancy induced hypertension
Pregnancy induced hypertensionPregnancy induced hypertension
Pregnancy induced hypertension
Deepa Sinha
 
GDM
GDMGDM
Infertility
InfertilityInfertility
Infertility
Hesham Gaber
 
Hydatidiform Mole
Hydatidiform MoleHydatidiform Mole
Hydatidiform Mole
Sandhya Kumari
 
ABORTION
ABORTION ABORTION
Normal puerperium
Normal puerperiumNormal puerperium
Normal puerperium
Priyanka Gohil
 
Episiotomy
EpisiotomyEpisiotomy
Episiotomy
Shrooti Shah
 
Ectopic pregnancy
Ectopic pregnancyEctopic pregnancy
Ectopic pregnancy
Sourav Chowdhury
 

What's hot (20)

Ectopic Pregnancy
Ectopic PregnancyEctopic Pregnancy
Ectopic Pregnancy
 
Family planning method
Family planning methodFamily planning method
Family planning method
 
INFERTILITY & IT'S MANAGEMENT
INFERTILITY  & IT'S MANAGEMENTINFERTILITY  & IT'S MANAGEMENT
INFERTILITY & IT'S MANAGEMENT
 
Barrier methods of contraceptive
Barrier methods of contraceptiveBarrier methods of contraceptive
Barrier methods of contraceptive
 
pre eclampsia
pre eclampsiapre eclampsia
pre eclampsia
 
Forceps delivery
Forceps deliveryForceps delivery
Forceps delivery
 
Antepartum haemorrhage
Antepartum haemorrhageAntepartum haemorrhage
Antepartum haemorrhage
 
Placenta previa
Placenta previaPlacenta previa
Placenta previa
 
Contraceptives
ContraceptivesContraceptives
Contraceptives
 
Diagnosis of pregnancy
Diagnosis of pregnancyDiagnosis of pregnancy
Diagnosis of pregnancy
 
Routine antenatal investigations, those are most common antenatal Investigat...
Routine antenatal investigations, those are  most common antenatal Investigat...Routine antenatal investigations, those are  most common antenatal Investigat...
Routine antenatal investigations, those are most common antenatal Investigat...
 
Vasectomy
VasectomyVasectomy
Vasectomy
 
Pregnancy induced hypertension
Pregnancy induced hypertensionPregnancy induced hypertension
Pregnancy induced hypertension
 
GDM
GDMGDM
GDM
 
Infertility
InfertilityInfertility
Infertility
 
Hydatidiform Mole
Hydatidiform MoleHydatidiform Mole
Hydatidiform Mole
 
ABORTION
ABORTION ABORTION
ABORTION
 
Normal puerperium
Normal puerperiumNormal puerperium
Normal puerperium
 
Episiotomy
EpisiotomyEpisiotomy
Episiotomy
 
Ectopic pregnancy
Ectopic pregnancyEctopic pregnancy
Ectopic pregnancy
 

Viewers also liked

Contraception ppt
Contraception pptContraception ppt
Contraception ppt
aobyle
 
METHODS OF CONTRACEPTION
METHODS OF CONTRACEPTION METHODS OF CONTRACEPTION
METHODS OF CONTRACEPTION
Aboubakr Elnashar
 
Contraception presentation
Contraception presentationContraception presentation
Contraception presentation
Juan Felipe Parra Rosas
 
Contraceptives methods
Contraceptives methodsContraceptives methods
Contraceptives methods
Deepak Upadhyay
 
Family planning....ppt
Family planning....pptFamily planning....ppt
Family planning....ppt
Monika Sharma
 
Contraception & famiy planning
Contraception & famiy planningContraception & famiy planning
Contraception & famiy planning
Naila Memon
 
Methods of Family Planning
Methods of Family PlanningMethods of Family Planning
Methods of Family Planning
Erica Gonzales
 
Contraceptive methods
Contraceptive methodsContraceptive methods
Contraceptive methods
Nicole Czaplicki
 
Family planning and resent advanceses
Family planning and resent advancesesFamily planning and resent advanceses
Family planning and resent advanceses
Venu Bolisetti
 
Family planning
Family planningFamily planning
Family planning
Rio Anne Maño
 
Birth Control Methods
Birth Control Methods Birth Control Methods
Birth Control Methods
Sorayalu
 
Contraception for undergraduate
Contraception for undergraduateContraception for undergraduate
Contraception for undergraduate
Faculty of Medicine,Zagazig University,EGYPT
 
Physiological methods of contraception
Physiological methods of contraceptionPhysiological methods of contraception
Physiological methods of contraception
magdy abdel
 
Family Planning
Family PlanningFamily Planning
Family Planning
Sauyo High School
 
Birth Control
Birth ControlBirth Control
Birth Control
Brandi Hoffman
 
Dr. r santos evidence-based contraceptive methods
Dr. r santos   evidence-based contraceptive methodsDr. r santos   evidence-based contraceptive methods
Dr. r santos evidence-based contraceptive methods
rigelsuarez
 
Contraceptives
ContraceptivesContraceptives
Contraceptives
Magda Helmi
 
15 family planning
15 family planning15 family planning
15 family planning
obsgyna
 
Contraception
ContraceptionContraception
Contraception
chaimingcheng
 
Contraception
ContraceptionContraception
Contraception
Hanifullah Khan
 

Viewers also liked (20)

Contraception ppt
Contraception pptContraception ppt
Contraception ppt
 
METHODS OF CONTRACEPTION
METHODS OF CONTRACEPTION METHODS OF CONTRACEPTION
METHODS OF CONTRACEPTION
 
Contraception presentation
Contraception presentationContraception presentation
Contraception presentation
 
Contraceptives methods
Contraceptives methodsContraceptives methods
Contraceptives methods
 
Family planning....ppt
Family planning....pptFamily planning....ppt
Family planning....ppt
 
Contraception & famiy planning
Contraception & famiy planningContraception & famiy planning
Contraception & famiy planning
 
Methods of Family Planning
Methods of Family PlanningMethods of Family Planning
Methods of Family Planning
 
Contraceptive methods
Contraceptive methodsContraceptive methods
Contraceptive methods
 
Family planning and resent advanceses
Family planning and resent advancesesFamily planning and resent advanceses
Family planning and resent advanceses
 
Family planning
Family planningFamily planning
Family planning
 
Birth Control Methods
Birth Control Methods Birth Control Methods
Birth Control Methods
 
Contraception for undergraduate
Contraception for undergraduateContraception for undergraduate
Contraception for undergraduate
 
Physiological methods of contraception
Physiological methods of contraceptionPhysiological methods of contraception
Physiological methods of contraception
 
Family Planning
Family PlanningFamily Planning
Family Planning
 
Birth Control
Birth ControlBirth Control
Birth Control
 
Dr. r santos evidence-based contraceptive methods
Dr. r santos   evidence-based contraceptive methodsDr. r santos   evidence-based contraceptive methods
Dr. r santos evidence-based contraceptive methods
 
Contraceptives
ContraceptivesContraceptives
Contraceptives
 
15 family planning
15 family planning15 family planning
15 family planning
 
Contraception
ContraceptionContraception
Contraception
 
Contraception
ContraceptionContraception
Contraception
 

Similar to CONTRACEPTIVE METHODS

CONTRACEPTIVE METHODS
CONTRACEPTIVE METHODSCONTRACEPTIVE METHODS
CONTRACEPTIVE METHODS
Dr Nilesh Kate
 
familyplanning-Devanshi 8 contraception.pptx
familyplanning-Devanshi 8 contraception.pptxfamilyplanning-Devanshi 8 contraception.pptx
familyplanning-Devanshi 8 contraception.pptx
IshanJain1034
 
familyplanning Pharmacy bpharm pharmacy.pptx
familyplanning Pharmacy bpharm pharmacy.pptxfamilyplanning Pharmacy bpharm pharmacy.pptx
familyplanning Pharmacy bpharm pharmacy.pptx
subhamsourajit1
 
familyplanning-santhu-160222164513ng.pdf
familyplanning-santhu-160222164513ng.pdffamilyplanning-santhu-160222164513ng.pdf
familyplanning-santhu-160222164513ng.pdf
PradeepKumarChaudhar6
 
Family planning
Family planning Family planning
Family planning
Aiswarya Thomas
 
FAMILY PLANNING METHODS OF CONCEPTION.pptx
FAMILY PLANNING METHODS OF CONCEPTION.pptxFAMILY PLANNING METHODS OF CONCEPTION.pptx
FAMILY PLANNING METHODS OF CONCEPTION.pptx
promisescottfield
 
Contraception-DrElshikh_ (1).ppt
Contraception-DrElshikh_ (1).pptContraception-DrElshikh_ (1).ppt
Contraception-DrElshikh_ (1).ppt
MohamedsMansaray1
 
Contracption 2014.pptx in obstetric and gynaecology in pregnancy
Contracption 2014.pptx in obstetric and gynaecology in pregnancyContracption 2014.pptx in obstetric and gynaecology in pregnancy
Contracption 2014.pptx in obstetric and gynaecology in pregnancy
rush2pratiksha007
 
Contraception.
Contraception.Contraception.
Contraception.
magdy abdel
 
Reproductive health problems and strategies
Reproductive health problems and strategiesReproductive health problems and strategies
Reproductive health problems and strategies
Tejasvi Bhatia
 
Contraception
Contraception Contraception
Contraception
CHITRA chithirams
 
Contraception_Lecture.ppt
Contraception_Lecture.pptContraception_Lecture.ppt
Contraception_Lecture.ppt
Lathan34
 
Contraceptive types and its mechanism
Contraceptive types and its mechanismContraceptive types and its mechanism
Contraceptive types and its mechanism
TaibaNaushad
 
contraception and infertility
contraception and infertilitycontraception and infertility
contraception and infertility
abhilasha chaudhary
 
Contraception2.ppt
Contraception2.pptContraception2.ppt
Contraception2.ppt
Kutemwa1
 
RH.pdf
RH.pdfRH.pdf
Methods of contraception
Methods of contraceptionMethods of contraception
Methods of contraception
Walaa Mahmoud
 
final PPT contraceptive methods28.5.21.pptx
final PPT contraceptive methods28.5.21.pptxfinal PPT contraceptive methods28.5.21.pptx
final PPT contraceptive methods28.5.21.pptx
drrichachoudhary1
 
Contraception
ContraceptionContraception
Contraception
Waled Ayad
 
Family planning methods and welfare services
Family planning methods and welfare servicesFamily planning methods and welfare services
Family planning methods and welfare services
jagadeeswari jayaseelan
 

Similar to CONTRACEPTIVE METHODS (20)

CONTRACEPTIVE METHODS
CONTRACEPTIVE METHODSCONTRACEPTIVE METHODS
CONTRACEPTIVE METHODS
 
familyplanning-Devanshi 8 contraception.pptx
familyplanning-Devanshi 8 contraception.pptxfamilyplanning-Devanshi 8 contraception.pptx
familyplanning-Devanshi 8 contraception.pptx
 
familyplanning Pharmacy bpharm pharmacy.pptx
familyplanning Pharmacy bpharm pharmacy.pptxfamilyplanning Pharmacy bpharm pharmacy.pptx
familyplanning Pharmacy bpharm pharmacy.pptx
 
familyplanning-santhu-160222164513ng.pdf
familyplanning-santhu-160222164513ng.pdffamilyplanning-santhu-160222164513ng.pdf
familyplanning-santhu-160222164513ng.pdf
 
Family planning
Family planning Family planning
Family planning
 
FAMILY PLANNING METHODS OF CONCEPTION.pptx
FAMILY PLANNING METHODS OF CONCEPTION.pptxFAMILY PLANNING METHODS OF CONCEPTION.pptx
FAMILY PLANNING METHODS OF CONCEPTION.pptx
 
Contraception-DrElshikh_ (1).ppt
Contraception-DrElshikh_ (1).pptContraception-DrElshikh_ (1).ppt
Contraception-DrElshikh_ (1).ppt
 
Contracption 2014.pptx in obstetric and gynaecology in pregnancy
Contracption 2014.pptx in obstetric and gynaecology in pregnancyContracption 2014.pptx in obstetric and gynaecology in pregnancy
Contracption 2014.pptx in obstetric and gynaecology in pregnancy
 
Contraception.
Contraception.Contraception.
Contraception.
 
Reproductive health problems and strategies
Reproductive health problems and strategiesReproductive health problems and strategies
Reproductive health problems and strategies
 
Contraception
Contraception Contraception
Contraception
 
Contraception_Lecture.ppt
Contraception_Lecture.pptContraception_Lecture.ppt
Contraception_Lecture.ppt
 
Contraceptive types and its mechanism
Contraceptive types and its mechanismContraceptive types and its mechanism
Contraceptive types and its mechanism
 
contraception and infertility
contraception and infertilitycontraception and infertility
contraception and infertility
 
Contraception2.ppt
Contraception2.pptContraception2.ppt
Contraception2.ppt
 
RH.pdf
RH.pdfRH.pdf
RH.pdf
 
Methods of contraception
Methods of contraceptionMethods of contraception
Methods of contraception
 
final PPT contraceptive methods28.5.21.pptx
final PPT contraceptive methods28.5.21.pptxfinal PPT contraceptive methods28.5.21.pptx
final PPT contraceptive methods28.5.21.pptx
 
Contraception
ContraceptionContraception
Contraception
 
Family planning methods and welfare services
Family planning methods and welfare servicesFamily planning methods and welfare services
Family planning methods and welfare services
 

More from Dr Nilesh Kate

RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY INTRODUCTION
RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY INTRODUCTIONRESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY INTRODUCTION
RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY INTRODUCTION
Dr Nilesh Kate
 
TRANSPORT OF OXYGEN
TRANSPORT OF OXYGENTRANSPORT OF OXYGEN
TRANSPORT OF OXYGEN
Dr Nilesh Kate
 
ELECTROMYOGRAPHY
ELECTROMYOGRAPHYELECTROMYOGRAPHY
ELECTROMYOGRAPHY
Dr Nilesh Kate
 
NERVE GROWTH FACTORS, NEUROTROPHINS
NERVE GROWTH FACTORS, NEUROTROPHINSNERVE GROWTH FACTORS, NEUROTROPHINS
NERVE GROWTH FACTORS, NEUROTROPHINS
Dr Nilesh Kate
 
CELL JUNCTIONS AND CYTOSKELETON
CELL JUNCTIONS AND CYTOSKELETONCELL JUNCTIONS AND CYTOSKELETON
CELL JUNCTIONS AND CYTOSKELETON
Dr Nilesh Kate
 
TISSUE-GLANDS
 TISSUE-GLANDS TISSUE-GLANDS
TISSUE-GLANDS
Dr Nilesh Kate
 
CELL JUNCTIONS.pptx
CELL JUNCTIONS.pptxCELL JUNCTIONS.pptx
CELL JUNCTIONS.pptx
Dr Nilesh Kate
 
Compliance of lung
Compliance of lungCompliance of lung
Compliance of lung
Dr Nilesh Kate
 
Compliance of lung
Compliance of lungCompliance of lung
Compliance of lung
Dr Nilesh Kate
 
GASTRIC FUNCTION TESTS
GASTRIC FUNCTION TESTSGASTRIC FUNCTION TESTS
GASTRIC FUNCTION TESTS
Dr Nilesh Kate
 
GENETICS
GENETICSGENETICS
GENETICS
Dr Nilesh Kate
 
ENERGY SOURCE AND THERMAL CHANGES IN MUSCLE CONTRACTION
ENERGY SOURCE AND THERMAL CHANGES IN MUSCLE CONTRACTIONENERGY SOURCE AND THERMAL CHANGES IN MUSCLE CONTRACTION
ENERGY SOURCE AND THERMAL CHANGES IN MUSCLE CONTRACTION
Dr Nilesh Kate
 
Functional anatomy and physiology of cardiac muscle
Functional anatomy and physiology of cardiac muscleFunctional anatomy and physiology of cardiac muscle
Functional anatomy and physiology of cardiac muscle
Dr Nilesh Kate
 
Disturbances of respiration
Disturbances of respirationDisturbances of respiration
Disturbances of respiration
Dr Nilesh Kate
 
Vestibular apparatus
Vestibular apparatusVestibular apparatus
Vestibular apparatus
Dr Nilesh Kate
 
Skin
SkinSkin
Sexual growth and development
Sexual growth and developmentSexual growth and development
Sexual growth and development
Dr Nilesh Kate
 
Semen analysis
Semen analysisSemen analysis
Semen analysis
Dr Nilesh Kate
 
Renal hormones
Renal hormonesRenal hormones
Renal hormones
Dr Nilesh Kate
 
Physiology of pregnancy
Physiology of pregnancyPhysiology of pregnancy
Physiology of pregnancy
Dr Nilesh Kate
 

More from Dr Nilesh Kate (20)

RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY INTRODUCTION
RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY INTRODUCTIONRESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY INTRODUCTION
RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY INTRODUCTION
 
TRANSPORT OF OXYGEN
TRANSPORT OF OXYGENTRANSPORT OF OXYGEN
TRANSPORT OF OXYGEN
 
ELECTROMYOGRAPHY
ELECTROMYOGRAPHYELECTROMYOGRAPHY
ELECTROMYOGRAPHY
 
NERVE GROWTH FACTORS, NEUROTROPHINS
NERVE GROWTH FACTORS, NEUROTROPHINSNERVE GROWTH FACTORS, NEUROTROPHINS
NERVE GROWTH FACTORS, NEUROTROPHINS
 
CELL JUNCTIONS AND CYTOSKELETON
CELL JUNCTIONS AND CYTOSKELETONCELL JUNCTIONS AND CYTOSKELETON
CELL JUNCTIONS AND CYTOSKELETON
 
TISSUE-GLANDS
 TISSUE-GLANDS TISSUE-GLANDS
TISSUE-GLANDS
 
CELL JUNCTIONS.pptx
CELL JUNCTIONS.pptxCELL JUNCTIONS.pptx
CELL JUNCTIONS.pptx
 
Compliance of lung
Compliance of lungCompliance of lung
Compliance of lung
 
Compliance of lung
Compliance of lungCompliance of lung
Compliance of lung
 
GASTRIC FUNCTION TESTS
GASTRIC FUNCTION TESTSGASTRIC FUNCTION TESTS
GASTRIC FUNCTION TESTS
 
GENETICS
GENETICSGENETICS
GENETICS
 
ENERGY SOURCE AND THERMAL CHANGES IN MUSCLE CONTRACTION
ENERGY SOURCE AND THERMAL CHANGES IN MUSCLE CONTRACTIONENERGY SOURCE AND THERMAL CHANGES IN MUSCLE CONTRACTION
ENERGY SOURCE AND THERMAL CHANGES IN MUSCLE CONTRACTION
 
Functional anatomy and physiology of cardiac muscle
Functional anatomy and physiology of cardiac muscleFunctional anatomy and physiology of cardiac muscle
Functional anatomy and physiology of cardiac muscle
 
Disturbances of respiration
Disturbances of respirationDisturbances of respiration
Disturbances of respiration
 
Vestibular apparatus
Vestibular apparatusVestibular apparatus
Vestibular apparatus
 
Skin
SkinSkin
Skin
 
Sexual growth and development
Sexual growth and developmentSexual growth and development
Sexual growth and development
 
Semen analysis
Semen analysisSemen analysis
Semen analysis
 
Renal hormones
Renal hormonesRenal hormones
Renal hormones
 
Physiology of pregnancy
Physiology of pregnancyPhysiology of pregnancy
Physiology of pregnancy
 

Recently uploaded

acne vulgaris -Mpharm (2nd semester) Cosmetics and cosmeceuticals
acne vulgaris -Mpharm (2nd semester) Cosmetics and cosmeceuticalsacne vulgaris -Mpharm (2nd semester) Cosmetics and cosmeceuticals
acne vulgaris -Mpharm (2nd semester) Cosmetics and cosmeceuticals
MuskanShingari
 
K CỔ TỬ CUNG.pdf tự ghi chép, chữ hơi xấu
K CỔ TỬ CUNG.pdf tự ghi chép, chữ hơi xấuK CỔ TỬ CUNG.pdf tự ghi chép, chữ hơi xấu
K CỔ TỬ CUNG.pdf tự ghi chép, chữ hơi xấu
HongBiThi1
 
Pune Call Girls 7339748667 AVAILABLE HOT GIRLS AUNTY BOOK NOW
Pune Call Girls 7339748667 AVAILABLE HOT GIRLS AUNTY BOOK NOWPune Call Girls 7339748667 AVAILABLE HOT GIRLS AUNTY BOOK NOW
Pune Call Girls 7339748667 AVAILABLE HOT GIRLS AUNTY BOOK NOW
Get New Sim
 
Computer in pharmaceutical research and development-Mpharm(Pharmaceutics)
Computer in pharmaceutical research and development-Mpharm(Pharmaceutics)Computer in pharmaceutical research and development-Mpharm(Pharmaceutics)
Computer in pharmaceutical research and development-Mpharm(Pharmaceutics)
MuskanShingari
 
biomechanics of running. Dr.dhwani.pptx
biomechanics of running.   Dr.dhwani.pptxbiomechanics of running.   Dr.dhwani.pptx
biomechanics of running. Dr.dhwani.pptx
Dr. Dhwani kawedia
 
5 Effective Homeopathic Medicines for Irregular Periods
5 Effective Homeopathic Medicines for Irregular Periods5 Effective Homeopathic Medicines for Irregular Periods
5 Effective Homeopathic Medicines for Irregular Periods
Dr. Deepika's Homeopathy - Gaur City
 
Pollen and Fungal allergy: aeroallergy.pdf
Pollen and Fungal allergy: aeroallergy.pdfPollen and Fungal allergy: aeroallergy.pdf
Pollen and Fungal allergy: aeroallergy.pdf
Chulalongkorn Allergy and Clinical Immunology Research Group
 
Call Girls In Mumbai +91-7426014248 High Profile Call Girl Mumbai
Call Girls In Mumbai +91-7426014248 High Profile Call Girl MumbaiCall Girls In Mumbai +91-7426014248 High Profile Call Girl Mumbai
Call Girls In Mumbai +91-7426014248 High Profile Call Girl Mumbai
Mobile Problem
 
PGx Analysis in VarSeq: A User’s Perspective
PGx Analysis in VarSeq: A User’s PerspectivePGx Analysis in VarSeq: A User’s Perspective
PGx Analysis in VarSeq: A User’s Perspective
Golden Helix
 
CBL Seminar 2024_Preliminary Program.pdf
CBL Seminar 2024_Preliminary Program.pdfCBL Seminar 2024_Preliminary Program.pdf
CBL Seminar 2024_Preliminary Program.pdf
suvadeepdas911
 
Skin Diseases That Happen During Summer.
 Skin Diseases That Happen During Summer. Skin Diseases That Happen During Summer.
Skin Diseases That Happen During Summer.
Gokuldas Hospital
 
NAVIGATING THE HORIZONS OF TIME LAPSE EMBRYO MONITORING.pdf
NAVIGATING THE HORIZONS OF TIME LAPSE EMBRYO MONITORING.pdfNAVIGATING THE HORIZONS OF TIME LAPSE EMBRYO MONITORING.pdf
NAVIGATING THE HORIZONS OF TIME LAPSE EMBRYO MONITORING.pdf
Rahul Sen
 
PARASITIC INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN peads.pptx
PARASITIC INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN peads.pptxPARASITIC INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN peads.pptx
PARASITIC INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN peads.pptx
MwambaChikonde1
 
SENSORY NEEDS B.SC. NURSING SEMESTER II.
SENSORY NEEDS B.SC. NURSING SEMESTER II.SENSORY NEEDS B.SC. NURSING SEMESTER II.
SENSORY NEEDS B.SC. NURSING SEMESTER II.
KULDEEP VYAS
 
Artificial Intelligence Symposium (THAIS)
Artificial Intelligence Symposium (THAIS)Artificial Intelligence Symposium (THAIS)
Artificial Intelligence Symposium (THAIS)
Josep Vidal-Alaball
 
NARCOTICS- POLICY AND PROCEDURES FOR ITS USE
NARCOTICS- POLICY AND PROCEDURES FOR ITS USENARCOTICS- POLICY AND PROCEDURES FOR ITS USE
NARCOTICS- POLICY AND PROCEDURES FOR ITS USE
Dr. Ahana Haroon
 
Acute Gout Care & Urate Lowering Therapy .pdf
Acute Gout Care & Urate Lowering Therapy .pdfAcute Gout Care & Urate Lowering Therapy .pdf
Acute Gout Care & Urate Lowering Therapy .pdf
Jim Jacob Roy
 
Histololgy of Female Reproductive System.pptx
Histololgy of Female Reproductive System.pptxHistololgy of Female Reproductive System.pptx
Histololgy of Female Reproductive System.pptx
AyeshaZaid1
 
Local anesthetics 2024/ Medicinal Chemistry pdf
Local anesthetics 2024/ Medicinal Chemistry pdfLocal anesthetics 2024/ Medicinal Chemistry pdf
Local anesthetics 2024/ Medicinal Chemistry pdf
NarminHamaaminHussen
 
“Psychiatry and the Humanities”: An Innovative Course at the University of Mo...
“Psychiatry and the Humanities”: An Innovative Course at the University of Mo...“Psychiatry and the Humanities”: An Innovative Course at the University of Mo...
“Psychiatry and the Humanities”: An Innovative Course at the University of Mo...
Université de Montréal
 

Recently uploaded (20)

acne vulgaris -Mpharm (2nd semester) Cosmetics and cosmeceuticals
acne vulgaris -Mpharm (2nd semester) Cosmetics and cosmeceuticalsacne vulgaris -Mpharm (2nd semester) Cosmetics and cosmeceuticals
acne vulgaris -Mpharm (2nd semester) Cosmetics and cosmeceuticals
 
K CỔ TỬ CUNG.pdf tự ghi chép, chữ hơi xấu
K CỔ TỬ CUNG.pdf tự ghi chép, chữ hơi xấuK CỔ TỬ CUNG.pdf tự ghi chép, chữ hơi xấu
K CỔ TỬ CUNG.pdf tự ghi chép, chữ hơi xấu
 
Pune Call Girls 7339748667 AVAILABLE HOT GIRLS AUNTY BOOK NOW
Pune Call Girls 7339748667 AVAILABLE HOT GIRLS AUNTY BOOK NOWPune Call Girls 7339748667 AVAILABLE HOT GIRLS AUNTY BOOK NOW
Pune Call Girls 7339748667 AVAILABLE HOT GIRLS AUNTY BOOK NOW
 
Computer in pharmaceutical research and development-Mpharm(Pharmaceutics)
Computer in pharmaceutical research and development-Mpharm(Pharmaceutics)Computer in pharmaceutical research and development-Mpharm(Pharmaceutics)
Computer in pharmaceutical research and development-Mpharm(Pharmaceutics)
 
biomechanics of running. Dr.dhwani.pptx
biomechanics of running.   Dr.dhwani.pptxbiomechanics of running.   Dr.dhwani.pptx
biomechanics of running. Dr.dhwani.pptx
 
5 Effective Homeopathic Medicines for Irregular Periods
5 Effective Homeopathic Medicines for Irregular Periods5 Effective Homeopathic Medicines for Irregular Periods
5 Effective Homeopathic Medicines for Irregular Periods
 
Pollen and Fungal allergy: aeroallergy.pdf
Pollen and Fungal allergy: aeroallergy.pdfPollen and Fungal allergy: aeroallergy.pdf
Pollen and Fungal allergy: aeroallergy.pdf
 
Call Girls In Mumbai +91-7426014248 High Profile Call Girl Mumbai
Call Girls In Mumbai +91-7426014248 High Profile Call Girl MumbaiCall Girls In Mumbai +91-7426014248 High Profile Call Girl Mumbai
Call Girls In Mumbai +91-7426014248 High Profile Call Girl Mumbai
 
PGx Analysis in VarSeq: A User’s Perspective
PGx Analysis in VarSeq: A User’s PerspectivePGx Analysis in VarSeq: A User’s Perspective
PGx Analysis in VarSeq: A User’s Perspective
 
CBL Seminar 2024_Preliminary Program.pdf
CBL Seminar 2024_Preliminary Program.pdfCBL Seminar 2024_Preliminary Program.pdf
CBL Seminar 2024_Preliminary Program.pdf
 
Skin Diseases That Happen During Summer.
 Skin Diseases That Happen During Summer. Skin Diseases That Happen During Summer.
Skin Diseases That Happen During Summer.
 
NAVIGATING THE HORIZONS OF TIME LAPSE EMBRYO MONITORING.pdf
NAVIGATING THE HORIZONS OF TIME LAPSE EMBRYO MONITORING.pdfNAVIGATING THE HORIZONS OF TIME LAPSE EMBRYO MONITORING.pdf
NAVIGATING THE HORIZONS OF TIME LAPSE EMBRYO MONITORING.pdf
 
PARASITIC INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN peads.pptx
PARASITIC INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN peads.pptxPARASITIC INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN peads.pptx
PARASITIC INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN peads.pptx
 
SENSORY NEEDS B.SC. NURSING SEMESTER II.
SENSORY NEEDS B.SC. NURSING SEMESTER II.SENSORY NEEDS B.SC. NURSING SEMESTER II.
SENSORY NEEDS B.SC. NURSING SEMESTER II.
 
Artificial Intelligence Symposium (THAIS)
Artificial Intelligence Symposium (THAIS)Artificial Intelligence Symposium (THAIS)
Artificial Intelligence Symposium (THAIS)
 
NARCOTICS- POLICY AND PROCEDURES FOR ITS USE
NARCOTICS- POLICY AND PROCEDURES FOR ITS USENARCOTICS- POLICY AND PROCEDURES FOR ITS USE
NARCOTICS- POLICY AND PROCEDURES FOR ITS USE
 
Acute Gout Care & Urate Lowering Therapy .pdf
Acute Gout Care & Urate Lowering Therapy .pdfAcute Gout Care & Urate Lowering Therapy .pdf
Acute Gout Care & Urate Lowering Therapy .pdf
 
Histololgy of Female Reproductive System.pptx
Histololgy of Female Reproductive System.pptxHistololgy of Female Reproductive System.pptx
Histololgy of Female Reproductive System.pptx
 
Local anesthetics 2024/ Medicinal Chemistry pdf
Local anesthetics 2024/ Medicinal Chemistry pdfLocal anesthetics 2024/ Medicinal Chemistry pdf
Local anesthetics 2024/ Medicinal Chemistry pdf
 
“Psychiatry and the Humanities”: An Innovative Course at the University of Mo...
“Psychiatry and the Humanities”: An Innovative Course at the University of Mo...“Psychiatry and the Humanities”: An Innovative Course at the University of Mo...
“Psychiatry and the Humanities”: An Innovative Course at the University of Mo...
 

CONTRACEPTIVE METHODS

  • 1. DR NILESH KATE MBBS,MD ASSOCIATE PROF ESIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, GULBARGA. DEPT. OF PHYSIOLOGY CONTRACEPTIVE METHODS.
  • 2. OBJECTIVES  Aims of contraception  Ideal contraceptive.  Contraceptive methods in females.  Spacing methods  Terminal methods  Pregnancy vaccines.  Contraceptive methods in males.  Spacing methods.  Terminal methods.  Miscellaneous methods. Thursday, May 21, 2015
  • 3. Introduction.  DEFINITION :- Prevention Of Pregnancy.  AIMS:- Family Planning Prevents STD’S – AIDS. Medical Grounds – To control stress of pregnancy, labour & lactation.
  • 4. The characteristics of an ideal contraceptive are listed below:  Highly effective.  No side effects.  Independent of intercourse.  Rapidly reversible.  Cheap.  Widespread availability.  Acceptable to all cultures and religions.  Administration and healthcare personnel not required.  Easily distributed. Thursday, May 21, 2015
  • 5. CONTRACEPTIVE METHODS IN FEMALES  Spacing methods  Terminal methods  Pregnancy vaccines.
  • 6. SPACING METHODS.  Rhythm Methods.  Barrier Methods.  Chemical Methods.  Intrauterine contraceptive devices.
  • 7. Rhythm Methods.  Calender method / safe period method / natural method.  Depend on time of ovulation.  Dangerous period – ovulation occurs on 14 day & ovum viable for 48-72 hrs & sperm remain alive for 24-48 hrs. so pregnancy occurs if coitus occur in this period. Thursday, May 21, 2015
  • 8. Rhythm Methods.  Safe period – rest of cycle i.e. 5-6 days after mensturation & 5-6 days before next cycle.  Advantage – most natural  Disadvantage – most unreliable when cycle are irregular & ovulation time is variable. Thursday, May 21, 2015
  • 9. Barrier Methods.  Mechanical .  Diaphargm. –  Flexible rim made up of spring.  Cup shaped synthetic rubber or plastic.  Inserted into vagina over the cervix.  Cervical caps.  Smaller than Diaphargm,  Applied on cervix itself. Thursday, May 21, 2015
  • 10. Mechanical  Advantages.  Inexpensive.  Do not require medical consultation.  Disadvantages.  Demonstration by trained person needed for proper use.  Failure most common – due to displacement of device.  Cervicitis ( inflammation of cervix) & local irritation. Thursday, May 21, 2015
  • 11. Chemical  Spermicidal agents.– destroy sperms.  Ricinoleic acid  Nanoxynol-9.  Octoxynol-3.  Available in different forms– foam tablet, pastes, creams, jellies & vaginal sponge ( TODAY --Polyurethane sponge imprignated with nanoxynol- 9.)  Advantages – inexpensive, well tolerated, provide good protection.  Disadvantages – messiness, local irritation & burning sensation.  Combined Thursday, May 21, 2015
  • 12. Chemical Methods.  Locally applied chemicals – anti- spermicidal.  Foams, jellies.  Drugs –  Steroidal –  Oral contraceptives and depot preparation.  Non-steroidal --
  • 13. Steroidal  ORAL CONTRACEPTIVE PILLS (OCP)  Recommended in women of younger age group ( up to 35 yrs )  Mechanism of action.  Synthetic preparation of estrogen & Progesterone.  When taken orally, hormone level rises  Negative feedback effect act on Anterior pituitary  Inhibit Gonadotrophins (FSH & LH)  Inhibit Ovulation. Thursday, May 21, 2015
  • 14. Types.  Combined pill.  Sequential pill.  Minipill pill.  Postcoital (Morning After) pill. Thursday, May 21, 2015
  • 15. Combined pill.  Contains both  Oestrogen (ethyl estradiol/mestranol) 20- 50 Mg.  Progesterone(norethister one, norgestrel) 0.5-2mg.  Availability  MALA-N (21 Tab) & MALA-D (28 Tab-7 ferrous fumarate) Thursday, May 21, 2015
  • 16. Combined pill.  Dosage –  Everyday orally at night for 21 days. ( from 5th day to 25th day of cycle)  7 day break for MALA-N  During this bleeding occurs, which is not menstrual bleeding but is withdrawal bleeding.  Mechanism of action.  Prevents Ovulation.  Prevents Implantation.  Makes cervical secretions thick & viscid & prevent entry of sperm in female genital tract. Thursday, May 21, 2015
  • 17. Sequential pill Mini-pill.  High dose of estrogen with moderate dose of progesterone.  Dose – oestrogen 5th - to 15th day, then both oestrogen+progesterone for 5 days.  High incidence of endometrial carcinoma so not used.  Micro-pill.  Only progesterone.  Dose – daily through whole of menstrual cycle.  Action – ovulation not inhibited but prevents fertility.  Makes cervical mucosa thick & decrease motility of fallopian tube. Thursday, May 21, 2015
  • 18. POSTCOITAL  Within 72 hrs of unprotected intercourse.  Dose – 2 combined pills immediately followed by 2 pill after12 hrs.  Indication – only in emergency– rape, contraceptive failure, or unprotected sex.  Mechanism of action.  Prevents fertilization & implantation by hypermotility of fallopian tube & uterus.  If ovulation & fertilization occurred then it prevents implantation of blastocyst. Thursday, May 21, 2015
  • 19. OCP  Advantages– 100 % effectivity  Dis-Advantages. –  Hypertension.  Thromboembolism.  Metabolic effects – diabetes & obesity.  Carcinogenic effect – breast & cervix.  Contra-indications.  Women having carcinoma of breast & uterus.  Liver diseases  Hyperlipidemia.  Age group above 35 yrs. Thursday, May 21, 2015
  • 20. Depot preparation. Injectable  Oily solutions given intramuscularly.  Progestrin –  Medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) – IM every 3-6 months, 150-400mg.  Norethindrone enanthate (NET-EN) – IM every 3 months , 200 mg.  Combined –  Both estrogen & progesterone  IM , monthly .  MOA –  Prevent ovulation & alter cervical mucosal secretions. Thursday, May 21, 2015
  • 21. Sub-dermal implants  Types –  Norplant – 6 flexible silastic (silicon) tubes  35 mg progesterone.  Norplant 2 – 2 rods of levonorgesterol  Location – beneath skin of arm or forearm.  Contraception – 5-6 yrs. Thursday, May 21, 2015
  • 22. vaginal rings.  Contains norgestrel.  Progesterone absorbed through vaginal mucosa.  Advantages –  No daily intake  Long lasting.  Dis-Advantages –  Leads to sterility.  Alterations in menstrual bleeding pattern. Thursday, May 21, 2015
  • 23. Non-steroidal contraceptives  Centchroman.  Developed by Central Drug Research Institute (CDRI)  Trade name – Saheli  Dose – 30mg twice/week for 12 weeks followed by once in a week.  Mechanism of action  Suppress corpus luteal function.  Interfere with motility of fallopian tube  Advantages.  Menstrual cycle remains normal.  Complete reversibility after withdrawal.. Thursday, May 21, 2015
  • 24. Intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD)  Ideal candidate.  Has born one child.  Normal menstrual cycle.  No pelvic inflammation.  Ready to check the device.  Mechanism of action.  Prevents implantation & growth of ovum.  By aseptic inflammation & causing endometrium not suitable for implantation.  Sperm phagocytization – by neutrophils & macrophages.  Cu affects enzymes, motility  Makes cervical mucus thick prevent entry of sperm. Thursday, May 21, 2015
  • 25. Intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) Types.  Non-medicated.  1ST generation IUCD.  Lippes Loop- serpentine or S shaped.  Made up of Plastic.  Medicated.  2nd generation Cu made  2 types.  Cu T  Cu T 200  Newer like NOVA-7, NOVA-T  3rd generation.  Hormone releasing containing progesterone reservoir release continuously for 1 yr. Thursday, May 21, 2015
  • 26. Cu – T.  Most commonly used .  Made up of Cu.  ‘T’ shaped attached with a nylon thread. (tail) Thursday, May 21, 2015
  • 27. Method of insertion.  Withdrawl method.  Ideal time – during mensturation or within 10 days. ( As cervical cavity diameter is more)  Also during 1st after delivery. Thursday, May 21, 2015
  • 28. IUCD  Advantages.  Safe  Effective  Reversible  Easily pulled out when not required.  Long term contraception without adverse effect.  Disadvantages.  May cause heavy bleeding.  May come out accidently.  Risk of ectopic pregnancy.  Contraindications.  Suspected pregnancy.  Pelvic inflammation.  Heavy bleeding during mensturation.  Suffering from carcinoma cervix. Thursday, May 21, 2015
  • 29. Terminal methods.  Permanent method.  Indication.  When family is complete.  Medical grounds. Thursday, May 21, 2015
  • 30. Terminal methods.  Surgical methods.  Tubectomy.  Fallopian tubes identified , cut , cut ends ligated & buried.  Laparoscopic occlusion.  Tubes occluded using silicon rubber bands, rings or clips  Method – quicker, simple, no hospitalization. Thursday, May 21, 2015
  • 31. MEDICAL TERMINATION OF PREGNANCY.  Medical termination of pregnancy or MTP or abortion is allowed under MTP act 1971.  Criteria.  Person who can do MTP  Place where it should be performed. Thursday, May 21, 2015
  • 32. MEDICAL TERMINATION OF PREGNANCY.  Indications.  Medicals – continuation of pregnancy is hazardous to the mother.  Eugenic – substantial risk to the child if born.  Humanitarian ground.– when pregnancy is result of rape.  Failure of contraceptive methods. Thursday, May 21, 2015
  • 33. MEDICAL TERMINATION OF PREGNANCY.  Methods –  Dilatation & curettage (D & C).  Cervix dilated with dilator & implanted ovum removed by curettage of the endometrium.  Vacuum aspiration. (up to 12 weeks)  Same cervix is dilated & contents are aspirated by vacuum / suction.  Administration of prostaglandins.  Prostaglandins are administered intravaginally  Causes uterine contractions – expulsion of product of conception. Thursday, May 21, 2015
  • 35. Pregnancy vaccines.  Under experimental trials.  2 types.  Active immunization.  Β subunits of HCG – antibodies against beta HCG destroy HCG produced by syncytiotrophoblast.  Tetanus toxoid – increases antigenecity capacity.  Vaccine against Zona Pellucida proteins Thursday, May 21, 2015
  • 37. Methods  Spacing methods.  Natural.  Barrier.  Chemical.  Terminal methods.  Miscellaneous methods. Thursday, May 21, 2015
  • 38. Spacing Methods Natural Method ( Coitus Interruptus)  Oldest method of voluntary fertility.  Male withdraws penis before ejaculation into vagina.  Failure rate – high  As precoital secretions may contain sperm & even a drop is enough to cause fertilization.  Wrong Timing of Withdrawl Thursday, May 21, 2015
  • 39. Barrier method–  Condom  Most widely used.  Made up of fine latex sheath.  Instructions –  Should be worn on erect penis before intercourse.  Air must be expelled  Held carefully when withdrawing from vagina.  A new condom should be used for each sexual act. Thursday, May 21, 2015 NIRODH
  • 40. Barrier method  Mechanism of action,  Prevents deposition of semen into vagina.  Advantages –  Easily available , safe, inexpensive  Use dose not require medical supervision.  Provide protection against STD.  Dis-advantage  May slip off or tear off.  Interfere with sexual sensation. Thursday, May 21, 2015
  • 41. Chemical method.  Antispermatogenic Drugs – inhibit spermatogenesis. 1. Male pill (Gossypol) 2 Hormonal preparation -- Testosterone -- Testosterone with Danazol -- Cyproterone acetate 3 calcium channel blocker-- Nifedipine
  • 42. Male pill ( Gossypol)  Composition – Gossypol, phenolic derivatives of cottonseed oil.  Dose – orally. 200mg/D.– 2 months followed by 60mg/wk.  Mechanism of action – exact action not known.  Causes azoospermia.  Advantages – neither hormone nor antihormonal activity  No change in libido & potency.  Disadvantages – permanent azospermic after 6 months Thursday, May 21, 2015
  • 43. Hormonal preparation  Testosterone  400 mg orally causes azospermia.  Testosterone with Danazol.  Cyproterone acetate.  Related to progesterone.  Potent anti-androgenic agent.  Causes oligozoospermia & loss of libido. Thursday, May 21, 2015
  • 44. Calcium channel blockers.  Block Ca channel on cell membrane of sperm.  Prevents Ca influx – membrane becomes rigid & loaded with cholesterol.  Rigid membrane prevents its binding to Zona Pellucida.  So patient on Ca channel blockers (Nifedipine) for hypertension becomes sterile. Thursday, May 21, 2015
  • 45. Terminal methods. Vasectomy Vas Occlusion with No-scalpel technique 1. Elastomeric Plugs 2 SHUG 3 RISHUG
  • 46. Vasectomy  One cm vas deference removed after clamping.  Both ends ligated & sutured.  Mechanism of action – entry of sperm into semen prevented.  Sperm production & hormones not affected. Thursday, May 21, 2015
  • 47. Vasectomy  Post-operative instructions – use contraceptive measures (condom) as he is not sterile ,after 30 ejaculations semen is free from sperm.  Advantages.—  Simple, fast, less expensive & no hospitalization.  Disadvantages.  Failure rate -0.15%  Spontaneous recalalization.  Autoimmune response. Thursday, May 21, 2015
  • 48. No scalpel vas occlusion.  Newer technique.  Safe, convenient & acceptable  Principle – Elastomer injected get hardened insitu within 20 min & occlude it.  Methods  Elastomer plugs.  MEDICAL GRADE POLYURETHANE (MPU)  MEDICAL GRADE SILICON RUBBER(MSR)  SHUG – preformed silicon plug used.  RISUG – reversible inhibition of sperm under guidance. Thursday, May 21, 2015
  • 49. Miscellaneous methods.  Hot baths.  Hot bath (460 for few weeks.)  Suspensories.  It holds testes close to the body.  Insulated scrotal sack Thursday, May 21, 2015