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X ray diffraction

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  • Light and its nature have caused a lot of ink to flow during these last decades. Its dual behavior is partly explained by (1)Double-slit experiment of Thomas Young - who represents the photon’s motion as a wave - and also by (2)the Photoelectric effect in which the photon is considered as a particle. A Revolution: SALEH THEORY solves this ambiguity and this difficulty presenting a three-dimensional trajectory for the photon's motion and a new formula to calculate its energy. More information on : https://youtu.be/mLtpARXuMbM https://www.slideshare.net/SalehTheory/saleh-theory?qid=e7da2b84-6d5e-409d-8b12-cae0f58a825b&v=&b=&from_search=1
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X ray diffraction

  1. 1. X-Ray Diffraction Praveen Kumar Central University of Bihar School of Earth Biological and Environmental Sciences
  2. 2. An electromagnetic wave of high energy and very short wavelength (between ultraviolet light and gamma rays), which is able to pass through many materials opaque to light. Energy : 100 eV to 100keV Wavelength : 0.01 to 10 nanometer X Ray Why are x- rays used? λ ~ Å
  3. 3. The process by which a beam of light or other system of waves is spread out as a result of passing through a narrow aperture or across an edge, typically accompanied by interference between the wave forms produced. Diffraction
  4. 4. X Ray Diffraction A technique used to determine the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions. The atomic planes of a crystal cause an incident beam of X- rays to interfere with one another as they leave the crystal. The phenomenon is called X-ray diffraction. A stream of X-rays directed at a crystal diffract and scatter as they encounter atoms. The scattered rays interfere with each other and produce spots of different intensities that can be recorded on film.
  5. 5. Working Principle Bragg’s Law Bragg's law was used to explain the interference pattern of X-rays scattered by crystals Nλ = 2dhkl sinθ q q dhkldhkl
  6. 6. Experimental Setup Source: http://pruffle.mit.edu/atomiccontrol/education/xray/xray_diff.php
  7. 7. How Does It WorkSource:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:X_ray_diffraction.png Crystal (regular array of atoms) is mounted on a Goniometer Bombarded with X-Ray while rotating Production of diffraction pattern of regularly spaced spots The 2-D images taken at different rotation are converted to 3-D models of the electron density map by the method of Fourier Transform
  8. 8. Some Example Images
  9. 9. Uses  XRD is a non-destructive technique.  To determine structural properties such as Lattice parameters (10-4Å), strain, grain size  Biological macromolecular crystallography  To determine atomic arrangement.  To measure thickness of thin films and multi-layers.
  10. 10. Thanks

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