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NEW RESEARCHAND NEW IMPLICATIONS
DigitizedStudentDevelopment,
SocialMedia,
andIdentity
by@PaulGordonBrown,PhD
This Program counts towards APA Continuing Education credits.
The following program is based in research I did in partial
...
#SAdigitalID
This session is Twitter-friendly.
@paulgordonbrown
#ACPA16
1.Describe how college students view
their online life and the role social
media plays in it.
2.Explain the complex nature...
(Turkle, 2004, para 6)
“I want to study
not only what the
computer is doing
for us, but what it
is doing to us.”
- Turkle
CollegeStudents,
SocialMedia,DigitalIdentities,
AndTheDigitizedSelf
89%
of adults 18-29 years old use social media
67%
access it on mobile
98%
of adults ages 18-29 are on the internet
70
70
...
“Themajor
achievementof
normaldevelopment
wasafirmandfixed
‘senseofidentity’”
-Gergen
Traditionaltheoriesheldthat…
Wenolongerexist
asplaywrightsor
actorsbutas
terminalsof
multiplenetworks.
-Baudrillard
“Theattemptinthis
caseistoconstruct
anontologythat
replacesthevisionof
theboundedselfas
theatomofthe
socialworld.”
-Gergen
“Identity” is what one is and
carries with it a series of
properties. Although “identity”
and “self” have been conflated
in...
Question
Research
How do college students conceptualize who they
are and how they present themselves when they
are engaged...
Roger’s Diffusion of Innovation
(Rogers, 2003)
sample
16 student
College students 18-24 years old

‣ Completing/completed ...
Weekly
6%
Daily
6%
Multiple x Per Day
88%
FACEBOOK
Weekly
13%
Daily
19%
Multiple x Per Day
69%
INSTAGRAM
Infrequently
13%
...
Male
25%
Female
75%
Female
80%
Latino/Hispanic
20%
Grad
6%
4th Year
69%
3rd Year
13%
2nd Year
13%
No, Coursework
50%
Yes, ...
qualitative inquiry
grounded theory
(Charmaz, 2006; Glaser & Strauss, 1967; Strauss & Corbin, 1990)
Pre-interview Questionnaire

‣ Establish usage patterns of participant
Semistructured Interview (First Session, 1 hour)
‣ ...
Takeoutyour
phones.
Openasocial
mediaapp.
Gotoyour
profile.
Whatdoyouusethis
app/sitefor?
Whattypesofcontent
doyouposttothis
site?
Whattypesofcontent
doyouconsumeon
thissite?
Whattypesof
relationshipsdoyou
haveonthissite?
Doyouknowallof
theseconnections?
Howdoyouknow
them?
Howwouldyou
describeyourselfas
auseronthissocial
mediasite?
Ifyouhadtodescribe
yourselfonthisapp/
siteasothersview
you,wha...
Howimportantisthis
sitetoyou? Inother
words,ifIwereto
takeyouraccesstoit
away,whatwould
youmiss,ifanything?
Howreflectiveareyouaboutwhat
youpostonsocialmediaandhow
youareviewed?
Howdoesitfeelto“holdupamirror”
toyourselfandyoursoci...
Digital Identity
Digitized Development
@paulgordonbrown
Digital Identity
@paulgordonbrown
digital stamp
We need to educate
students on digital
reputation.
Digital Identity
@paulgordonbrown
A Psychological
Process
@paulgordonbrown
eRezLife
Digitized Development
MarciaBaxterMagolda’s
TheoryofSelf-Authorship
Student explores and experiments
openly with social media. This is
strongly influenced by authorities
(parents/guardians) ...
DigitalIdentity/
Reputation vs
Digitized
Development
What We Produce vs What We Are
What Other People See vs How We See Ou...
Digital Identites
Digitized DevelopmentOne’s level of sophistication in
navigating digitized development
impacts how one c...
MovingfromExternal
toInternalDefinition
Pursuitof
Likes
Addie discussing the pursuit of Likes:
“‘How many Likes did your post get?
What does that mean?’
…That number in itself do...
I personally don’t think that that should be
something you take personally.
‘Wow everyone on the Internet hates me.’
I don...
“Thatnumberinitself
doesn’tmeananything
unlessyoucompareitto
otherposts.”
-Addie
“Thenyougetinthatwhole
thingwherepeoplestart
comparingthemselvesto
otherpeople.Thatreallyisn’t
thebestroutetogodown.”
Addi...
IMAGE: CHOMPOO BARITONE
Curating
Perfected
Images
“…inthebackofmy
mindthere’sacertain
standardofinteraction
thatIgetoneverysingle
tweetthatIdon’twant
tomakesureIdon’t
dropb...
IMAGE: CHOMPOO BARITONE
Selective
Viewof
Reality
Hallie discussing how social media creates a
perfected image…
“I think it was cool that [my professor] asked
us think abou...
…I would just encourage [educators] to ask
their students about recognizing—not
necessarily changing it—but recognizing th...
“…weusesocialmediaasa
highlightreelofourlivesand
howmanytimesoutoften
wouldyousaythatyou
wouldn'tpostsomething
becauseit's...
contextcollapse
when physical and virtual worlds collide
masks
adance
outfits
“…it’salmostlikedoinga
dancethatyoucan’tbe
toomuchofsomething.”
-Liam
games
playing
“I'vegottokeepup.”
-Annie
“Yeahit’sexhausting…
it’swhatcausesmyunhappiness…
thecomparisonsgetsointense…
IfeellikeI’mjustaconstantfailure”
-Logan
IMAGE: CHOMPOO BARITONE
Consuming
Perfected
Images
“That’swhat,Iassume,[is]
causingmygreatest
dissatisfactionat[college].
Seeingmylifeincomparison
toothers.”
-Logan
“Idefinitelythinkaboutit
morethanIshould.”
-Ashley
Weneedtoteach
studentstoown,
ratherthanbe
ownedby,
technology.
Emergenceof
DigitizedSelfhood
AsaturatedSelf?
AdispersionofSelf?
OneSelf?
MultipleSelves?
Howaretheonline
andofflineSelf/
Selvesrelated?
MoreSeparate
Digital/PhysicalWorlds
MoreIntegrated
Digital/PhysicalWorlds
Analogies
“Differentmasks,orthe
differentfacesI'llputonfor
differentsocialmedia
platforms.It’snotnecessarily
thatI'macompletelydiffe...
“Ihavethisoneidentitybutit
kindofmoldsalittlebitto
matchwhatisnecessaryfor
eachsocialnetwork.Not
necessarilylyingaboutmyse...
“It'slikeapieceofyouand
eachsocialmediaoutletisa
differentpieceofyou…”
-Grace
MoreSeparate
Digital/PhysicalWorlds
MoreIntegrated
Digital/PhysicalWorlds
Analogies
Use of Technology
Heavy UsersLight Users
Digitized Development
High Level SophisticationLow Level Sophistication
Digitized...
ImplicationsforPractice
don’t teach
fearwith
don’t teach with
shame
Stay
current
ontech
trends.
Engage with students on
social media because we
need to understand them in
all of their contexts. Be open
to a different (...
Teach
college
students
about
managing
theirdigital
reputations.
Howwoulda
grandmotherreact?
collegesandemployers
arelistening
Learn from and with students
how to navigate the online
environment. Help them
avoid mistakes. Help them
understand their ...
Charttheirownpath.
It’sokay…andevenadvised…
totakeabreakfromsocial
mediaonoccasion.
making
mistakes
isbetter
than
faking
perfections
vulnerable
be
Understand how social
media may impact the
developmental process-both
in light of current theory and
in ways we do not yet...
being a good partner
to our students
FutureResearch
@paulgordonbrown
www.paulgordonbrown.com
paulgordonbrown@gmail.com
Digitized Student Development, Social Media, and Identity
Digitized Student Development, Social Media, and Identity
Digitized Student Development, Social Media, and Identity
Digitized Student Development, Social Media, and Identity
Digitized Student Development, Social Media, and Identity
Digitized Student Development, Social Media, and Identity
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Media, and Identity Slide 75 Digitized Student Development, Social Media, and Identity Slide 76 Digitized Student Development, Social Media, and Identity Slide 77 Digitized Student Development, Social Media, and Identity Slide 78 Digitized Student Development, Social Media, and Identity Slide 79 Digitized Student Development, Social Media, and Identity Slide 80 Digitized Student Development, Social Media, and Identity Slide 81 Digitized Student Development, Social Media, and Identity Slide 82 Digitized Student Development, Social Media, and Identity Slide 83 Digitized Student Development, Social Media, and Identity Slide 84 Digitized Student Development, Social Media, and Identity Slide 85 Digitized Student Development, Social Media, and Identity Slide 86 Digitized Student Development, Social Media, and Identity Slide 87 Digitized Student Development, Social Media, and Identity Slide 88
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Originally presented at the ACPA 2016 International Convention in Montreal, Canada. This presentation provides an overview of my research on college student development in digital/social spaces.

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Digitized Student Development, Social Media, and Identity

  1. NEW RESEARCHAND NEW IMPLICATIONS DigitizedStudentDevelopment, SocialMedia, andIdentity by@PaulGordonBrown,PhD
  2. This Program counts towards APA Continuing Education credits. The following program is based in research I did in partial fulfillment of the requirements of my PhD Program. All of the data collected, analyzed, and presented here were collected in accordance with guidelines ensuring ethical research involving human subjects. All study procedures were approved by the Institutional Review Board at Boston College. There is minimal risk associated with the application of the research presented here. It should be noted that given the relative homogeneity of the sample used, care should be taken in applying these concepts to differently situated groups with different demographics. There is no conflict of interest related to my presenting this material as a part of APA Continuing Education.
  3. #SAdigitalID This session is Twitter-friendly. @paulgordonbrown #ACPA16
  4. 1.Describe how college students view their online life and the role social media plays in it. 2.Explain the complex nature of identity, self-concept and selfhood in virtual and technology-mediated environments. 3.Apply concepts of digital identity and digitized development in educational interventions for students.
  5. (Turkle, 2004, para 6) “I want to study not only what the computer is doing for us, but what it is doing to us.” - Turkle
  6. CollegeStudents, SocialMedia,DigitalIdentities, AndTheDigitizedSelf
  7. 89% of adults 18-29 years old use social media 67% access it on mobile 98% of adults ages 18-29 are on the internet 70 70 70 43% 60% 89% 65+ 50-64 30-49 70 78% 18-29 social media use by age Sources: younger generations are using the internet, social media, and mobile technologies at a high rate
  8. “Themajor achievementof normaldevelopment wasafirmandfixed ‘senseofidentity’” -Gergen Traditionaltheoriesheldthat…
  9. Wenolongerexist asplaywrightsor actorsbutas terminalsof multiplenetworks. -Baudrillard
  10. “Theattemptinthis caseistoconstruct anontologythat replacesthevisionof theboundedselfas theatomofthe socialworld.” -Gergen
  11. “Identity” is what one is and carries with it a series of properties. Although “identity” and “self” have been conflated in discourse, they are understood here to be separate but related. “Self” is subject to “identity” as object. From one’s sense of self flows one’s identity (and potentially identities).
  12. Question Research How do college students conceptualize who they are and how they present themselves when they are engaged in digital and social media? @paulgordonbrown
  13. Roger’s Diffusion of Innovation (Rogers, 2003) sample 16 student College students 18-24 years old ‣ Completing/completed coursework in social media (half) ‣ Identified by college staff has heavy/sophisticated users (half) Student Profile ‣ From a highly selective research university on a residential campus near a major metropolitan area in the Northeast
  14. Weekly 6% Daily 6% Multiple x Per Day 88% FACEBOOK Weekly 13% Daily 19% Multiple x Per Day 69% INSTAGRAM Infrequently 13% Daily 19% Multiple x Per Day 69% SNAPCHAT
  15. Male 25% Female 75% Female 80% Latino/Hispanic 20% Grad 6% 4th Year 69% 3rd Year 13% 2nd Year 13% No, Coursework 50% Yes, Coursework 50% COURSEWORK YEAR GENDERID RACE
  16. qualitative inquiry grounded theory (Charmaz, 2006; Glaser & Strauss, 1967; Strauss & Corbin, 1990)
  17. Pre-interview Questionnaire ‣ Establish usage patterns of participant Semistructured Interview (First Session, 1 hour) ‣ Probe how students understand self ‣ Examine how sense is made of online/offline life Synchronous Ethnographic Tour * (Second Session, 1 hour) ‣ Observe how students interact online ‣ How is identity constructed/understood Semistructured Interview (First Session, 1 hour) ‣ Probe how students understand self ‣ Examine how sense is made of online/offline life data collection * (Martínez Alemán & Lynk Wartman, 2009, p. 23)
  18. Takeoutyour phones. Openasocial mediaapp. Gotoyour profile.
  19. Whatdoyouusethis app/sitefor?
  20. Whattypesofcontent doyouposttothis site? Whattypesofcontent doyouconsumeon thissite?
  21. Whattypesof relationshipsdoyou haveonthissite? Doyouknowallof theseconnections? Howdoyouknow them?
  22. Howwouldyou describeyourselfas auseronthissocial mediasite? Ifyouhadtodescribe yourselfonthisapp/ siteasothersview you,whatdoyou thinkthey’dsay?
  23. Howimportantisthis sitetoyou? Inother words,ifIwereto takeyouraccesstoit away,whatwould youmiss,ifanything?
  24. Howreflectiveareyouaboutwhat youpostonsocialmediaandhow youareviewed? Howdoesitfeelto“holdupamirror” toyourselfandyoursocialmedia accounts?
  25. Digital Identity Digitized Development @paulgordonbrown
  26. Digital Identity @paulgordonbrown
  27. digital stamp
  28. We need to educate students on digital reputation.
  29. Digital Identity @paulgordonbrown
  30. A Psychological Process @paulgordonbrown
  31. eRezLife Digitized Development
  32. MarciaBaxterMagolda’s TheoryofSelf-Authorship
  33. Student explores and experiments openly with social media. This is strongly influenced by authorities (parents/guardians) through access and peers through peer culture. Student does not understand how online and offline interactions can impact each other or possess a sophisticated understanding of context. Student makes conscious choices about social media usage and how it fits into life desires, outlook, and goals. Student realizes that one’s online life requires constant renegotiation as one’s goals, needs, contexts, and circumstances change.
  34. DigitalIdentity/ Reputation vs Digitized Development What We Produce vs What We Are What Other People See vs How We See Ourselves Can Be Taught Through Rules vs Must Be Learned Dynamically A By-Product Of Development vs The Developmental Process Itself
  35. Digital Identites Digitized DevelopmentOne’s level of sophistication in navigating digitized development impacts how one chooses to present one’s digital identities and how one understands these digital identities in relation to their sense of self. One’s digital identities and the exploration of and action through these identities influences one’s level of sophistication in navigating digitized development (and potentially how one conceptualizes one’s selfhood as digitized). Digital identities are the different representations and personas students take on through different social media platforms and in presentation to different audiences. Digitized development is what occurs when developmental processes, behaviors, and life experiences play out differently as a result of the influence of social and digital technology, their affordances, and the virtual spaces these technologies create. ReciprocalRelationship
  36. MovingfromExternal toInternalDefinition
  37. Pursuitof Likes
  38. Addie discussing the pursuit of Likes: “‘How many Likes did your post get? What does that mean?’ …That number in itself doesn’t mean anything unless you compare it to other posts. Then you get in that whole thing where people start comparing themselves to other people. That really isn’t the best route to go down. Is that what you should be doing whenever you have a piece of content and it doesn’t do as well as someone else’s? What does that say about you?
  39. I personally don’t think that that should be something you take personally. ‘Wow everyone on the Internet hates me.’ I don’t think that should be the reaction but I don’t know that everyone else feels the same way. I know people that have deleted posts because they don’t get enough Likes. I know people who Unlike a photo on Instagram because it suddenly now has a hundred Likes and they’re mad about. That doesn’t make sense to me. You’re thinking about it too much.”
  40. “Thatnumberinitself doesn’tmeananything unlessyoucompareitto otherposts.” -Addie
  41. “Thenyougetinthatwhole thingwherepeoplestart comparingthemselvesto otherpeople.Thatreallyisn’t thebestroutetogodown.” Addie “You’rethinkingaboutit toomuch.”
  42. IMAGE: CHOMPOO BARITONE Curating Perfected Images
  43. “…inthebackofmy mindthere’sacertain standardofinteraction thatIgetoneverysingle tweetthatIdon’twant tomakesureIdon’t dropbelow.” -Mesut
  44. IMAGE: CHOMPOO BARITONE Selective Viewof Reality
  45. Hallie discussing how social media creates a perfected image… “I think it was cool that [my professor] asked us think about the highlight reel. Do we use social media as a highlight reel of our lives and how many times out of ten would you say that you wouldn't post something because it's not a highlight. And all of us were like, “Oh, all the time.” He was like, “Go through your day. How many things would you post, and how many wouldn't you?”
  46. …I would just encourage [educators] to ask their students about recognizing—not necessarily changing it—but recognizing that what they post, and what other people post, isn't 100 percent their lives. Because there's a lot of times when you think that people have the best life ever because of what they're posting. When in reality they're going through a lot, and probably many similar things that you are, but because they're posting all this fun stuff, you think that their lives are perfect.”
  47. “…weusesocialmediaasa highlightreelofourlivesand howmanytimesoutoften wouldyousaythatyou wouldn'tpostsomething becauseit'snotahighlight.” -Hallie
  48. contextcollapse when physical and virtual worlds collide
  49. masks adance outfits
  50. “…it’salmostlikedoinga dancethatyoucan’tbe toomuchofsomething.” -Liam
  51. games playing
  52. “I'vegottokeepup.” -Annie
  53. “Yeahit’sexhausting… it’swhatcausesmyunhappiness… thecomparisonsgetsointense… IfeellikeI’mjustaconstantfailure” -Logan
  54. IMAGE: CHOMPOO BARITONE Consuming Perfected Images
  55. “That’swhat,Iassume,[is] causingmygreatest dissatisfactionat[college]. Seeingmylifeincomparison toothers.” -Logan
  56. “Idefinitelythinkaboutit morethanIshould.” -Ashley
  57. Weneedtoteach studentstoown, ratherthanbe ownedby, technology.
  58. Emergenceof DigitizedSelfhood
  59. AsaturatedSelf? AdispersionofSelf? OneSelf? MultipleSelves? Howaretheonline andofflineSelf/ Selvesrelated?
  60. MoreSeparate Digital/PhysicalWorlds MoreIntegrated Digital/PhysicalWorlds Analogies
  61. “Differentmasks,orthe differentfacesI'llputonfor differentsocialmedia platforms.It’snotnecessarily thatI'macompletelydifferent person,butit'sjustdifferent.” -Meghan
  62. “Ihavethisoneidentitybutit kindofmoldsalittlebitto matchwhatisnecessaryfor eachsocialnetwork.Not necessarilylyingaboutmyself it’sjustthatIkindoffitmy identityintothatspecificoneI guess.” -Logan
  63. “It'slikeapieceofyouand eachsocialmediaoutletisa differentpieceofyou…” -Grace
  64. MoreSeparate Digital/PhysicalWorlds MoreIntegrated Digital/PhysicalWorlds Analogies
  65. Use of Technology Heavy UsersLight Users Digitized Development High Level SophisticationLow Level Sophistication Digitized Selfhood mulitplistic/relativistic/relationalsingular/unitary Heavy technology usage is necessary but not sufficient for digitized development to emerge. One could be a heavy user of technology and yet not use it in a way that leads towards greater digitization of development. Similar to physical world development, individuals reach towards higher level sophistication in navigating digitized development over time. Digitized selfhood is the extent to which one views digital/virtual spaces as an integral part of one’s being and therefore constructs concepts of self that are more multiplistic, relativistic, and relational as opposed to singular and unitary. Technology Usage, Digitized Development, and Digitized Selfhood ? ?? Digitized selfhood was hypothesized, but only weakly found in this study. Digitized development is what occurs when developmental processes, behaviors, and life experiences play out differently as a result of the influence of social and digital technology, their affordances, and the virtual spaces these technologies create.
  66. ImplicationsforPractice
  67. don’t teach fearwith
  68. don’t teach with shame
  69. Stay current ontech trends.
  70. Engage with students on social media because we need to understand them in all of their contexts. Be open to a different (not necessarily better or worse) way.
  71. Teach college students about managing theirdigital reputations.
  72. Howwoulda grandmotherreact?
  73. collegesandemployers arelistening
  74. Learn from and with students how to navigate the online environment. Help them avoid mistakes. Help them understand their self- presentation and reputation online. Be a role model.
  75. Charttheirownpath.
  76. It’sokay…andevenadvised… totakeabreakfromsocial mediaonoccasion.
  77. making mistakes isbetter than faking perfections
  78. vulnerable be
  79. Understand how social media may impact the developmental process-both in light of current theory and in ways we do not yet understand. Be able to help students understand, navigate and leverage it.
  80. being a good partner to our students
  81. FutureResearch
  82. @paulgordonbrown www.paulgordonbrown.com paulgordonbrown@gmail.com
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Originally presented at the ACPA 2016 International Convention in Montreal, Canada. This presentation provides an overview of my research on college student development in digital/social spaces.

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