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The Digital Development of College Students

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Originally presented in July 2015 to the staff at Indiana University Southeast. An overview of how social and digital technology may be impacting student development.
http://www.paulhordonbrown.com

Published in: Education, Technology
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The Digital Development of College Students

  1. @paulgordonbrown The Digital Development of College Students
  2. So who is this guy? @paulgordonbrown
  3. Research Impact of social and digital technology on college student’s concepts of self. Presentations - Be. Act. Do. Digital Leadership. - Digital Social Justice - What Every Digital #SApro Should Do - Engaging With Students Online and With Social Media @paulgordonbrown
  4. @paulgordonbrown www.paulgordonbrown.com paulgordonbrown@gmail.com
  5. (Turkle, 2004, para 6) “I want to study not only what the computer is doing for us, but what it is doing to us.” - Turkle
  6. 0 25 50 75 100 Facebook Instragram Twitter Pintrest LinkedIn Social Media Platform Adoption (2014) Source: Pew Research Center Social Media Update 2104 @paulgordonbrown
  7. Sex Race Age Educational Level Income Employment Status Urban/Rural Which demographic breakdown reveals the biggest disparity in social media adoption? @paulgordonbrown
  8. Age @paulgordonbrown
  9. 0 25 50 75 100 Facebook Instragram Twitter Pintrest LinkedIn Social Media Platform Adoption (2014) Age comparison 18-29 yo 65+ yo Source: Pew Research Center Social Media Update 2104 @paulgordonbrown
  10. 89% of adults 18-29 years old use social media 67% access it on mobile 98% of adults ages 18-29 are on the internet (Brenner, 2013; Brenner & Smith, 2013; Pew Internet Project, n.d.) younger generations are using the internet, social media, and mobile technologies at a high rate
  11. 0 25 50 75 100 Facebook Instragram Twitter Pintrest LinkedIn Social Media Platform Adoption (2014) Household income comparison Less than 30k/yr More than 75k/yr 30k- 30k- 75k+ 75k+ 75k+ Source: Pew Research Center Social Media Update 2104 @paulgordonbrown
  12. 0 25 50 75 100 Facebook Instragram Twitter Pintrest LinkedIn Social Media Platform Adoption (2014) Race comparison White Hispanic Black Black Black Black White White Source: Pew Research Center Social Media Update 2104 @paulgordonbrown
  13. 0 25 50 75 100 Facebook Instragram Twitter Pintrest LinkedIn Social Media Platform Adoption (2014) Sex comparison Men Women Women Women Men Women Men Source: Pew Research Center Social Media Update 2104 @paulgordonbrown
  14. @paulgordonbrown
  15. @paulgordonbrown
  16. @paulgordonbrown
  17. @paulgordonbrown
  18. anything in EXCESS is likely bad. @paulgordonbrown
  19. youth-normative vs adult-normative perspectives -Reynol Junco @paulgordonbrown
  20. NORMATIVE adult (Junco 2014)
  21. youth NORMATIVE (Junco 2014)
  22. social media is a TOOL @paulgordonbrown
  23. @paulgordonbrown
  24. Pick your platforms Twitter: I’m eating a #donut. Facebook: I like donuts. Foursquare: This is where I eat donuts. Instagram: Here’s a vintage photo of my donut. YouTube: Here I am eating a donut. LinkedIn: My skills include donut eating. Pintrest: Here’s a donut recipe. Spotify: Now listening to “Donuts.” Google+: I’m a Google employee who eats donuts.
  25. social media is also a CONTEXT @paulgordonbrown
  26. of jobs are landed through networking and personal relationships 80% John Bennett, Assistant professor of behavioral science at the McColl School of Business at Queens University of Charlotte
  27. of recruiters use or plan to begin using social networks/social media for recruiting 94% Jobvite Social Recruiting Survey 2013
  28. Use Twitter 55% Jobvite Social Recruiting Survey 2013
  29. Use Facebook 65% Jobvite Social Recruiting Survey 2013
  30. Use LinkedIn 94% Jobvite Social Recruiting Survey 2013
  31. So what do we DOabout it?
  32. Social media is increasingly understood as a part of the developmental process.
  33. DIGITAL IDENTITY ? @paulgordonbrown
  34. confusion there’s a lot of with this word… @paulgordonbrown
  35. “Many student affairs professionals use the term digital identity development to refer to online professional self- presentation; however, it is important to tease apart the differences between using social media as part of the exploration and development of identity and using social media to present oneself in a certain way.” (Junco, 2014, p. 257) @paulgordonbrown
  36. “Labeling the latter digital identity development confounds a developmental process with a professional communication strategy. Furthermore, labeling online professional self-presentation digital identity development may keep the field of student affairs from more critically and deeply examining how the emerging adult identity development process is affected by online interactions.” (Junco, 2014, p. 257)
  37. Self Presentation Developmental Process @paulgordonbrown
  38. Self Presentation Some use it to refer to
  39. digital stamp.
  40. digital footprints follow us.
  41. FROM THE WOMB! We even have digital stamps
  42. Self Presentation Developmental Process @paulgordonbrown
  43. Psychological Process conflated with a @paulgordonbrown
  44. in here today we’ll be talking about what’s going on @paulgordonbrown
  45. research What does the say? @paulgordonbrown
  46. é Engagement é Persistence é Social Capital é Relationships é Narcissism ê Task-Switching Whattheresearchtellsus… Collegestudentsocialmedia useandoutcomes…
  47. nothing. There has been little to no qualitative research focusing on the influence of digital and social media on student development.
  48. You can take two points of view…
  49. “human development ‘remain[s] much the same from age to age and must so remain as long as human nature and physical environment existing theories modify/apply (Evans, Forney, Guido, Patton, & Renn, 2010, p. 93; Haskins, 1957) continue what they have been. In his relations to life and learning the medieval student resembled his modern successor far more than is often supposed’ (p. 93).”
  50. (Evans, Forney, Guido, Patton, & Renn, 2010, p. 5; Woodard, Love, & Komives, 2000) “Rapidly changing conditions within society have created dramatically different circumstances for students across time and location… student development must be considered in light of these changing scenarios.” develop new theories
  51. Applying current theories to online/ social media contexts. • Chickering • Baxter Magolda/Kegan • Bronfenbrenner
  52. Vectorsof Identity Development Chickering’s DIGITAL
  53. • Developing competence • Managing emotions • Moving through autonomy to interdependence • Developing mature interpersonal relationships • Establishing identity • Developing Purpose • Establishing Integrity Vectors
  54. Developing Competence
  55. • Time management • Facility in using online tools to complete tasks • Communication and interaction skills • Relationship skills • Not exhibiting humblebrag behavior Developing Competence DIGITAL
  56. Managing Emotions
  57. • Anger management - Thinking before posting • Dealing with depression - Self confidence recognizing that social media posts often only show the positive • Expanding and expressing range of positive emotions • Not posting for sympathy or to elicit response form others Managing Emotions DIGITAL
  58. Autonomy & Interdependence
  59. • Ownership over one’s online life • Able to use social media as a tool for action • Finding information and resources • Resisting peer pressure • Consciously choosing peers and relationships • Basing relationships on equality and reciprocity Autonomy & Interdependence DIGITAL
  60. “And I like honesty in a relationship… I’m not into playing games.” Mature Interpersonal Relationships
  61. • Able to engage in civil discourse through comments and chats • Understanding what online versus offline relationship maintenance should look like - acts appropriately • Thinks about one’s posts and its impact on others Mature Interpersonal Relationships DIGITAL
  62. Marcia Baxter Magolda’s Theory of Self-Authorship
  63. What is Self-Authorship? A particular and relatively enduring way of understanding and orienting oneself to provocative situations in a way that: 1) Recognizes the contextual nature of knowledge; and 2) Balances and guides this understanding with the development of internally defined goals and sense of self
  64. Urie Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory
  65. The student.
  66. is in network with others… campus cultures… decision makers and rules… and broader societal beliefs.
  67. These all interact in complex overlapping ways…
  68. Microsystem Mesosystem Exosystem Macrosystem Creating an overall context within which interactions and processes occur that impact a student’s development through time.
  69. Microsystem Mesosystem Exosystem Macrosystem Online interactions with other individuals are placed within the microsystem Microsystems are where one-on-one interactions occur.
  70. Microsystem Mesosystem Exosystem Macrosystem “Although Bronfenbrenner did not include computer-mediated contexts in which college students now experience ‘activities, roles, and interpersonal relations’ (p. 16), in the twenty-first century it seems reasonable to include these contexts, which are not face-to-face settings, in the definition of microsystems since they are sites where social, physical, and symbolic features may provoke or retard engagement with the environment, as described by Bronfenbrenner (1993).” p.163
  71. The student is at an intersection point of a number of networks.
  72. Microsystem Mesosystem Exosystem Macrosystem is in network with others… is immersed in social media site culture… and is subject to rules and decisions made by social media designers… …and broader beliefs about how the site functions and is used.
  73. Applying current theories to online/ social media contexts. • Chickering • Baxter Magolda/Kegan • Bronfenbrenner
  74. Developing new theory my research
  75. “The major achievement of normal development was a firm and fixed ‘sense of identity’” - Gergen Traditional theories held that… (Gergen, 2000, p. 41)@paulgordonbrown
  76. We no longer exist as playwrights or actors but as terminals of multiple networks. -Baudrillard (Baudrillard, 1987/2012, p. 23)@paulgordonbrown
  77. BLURRYHYBRIDIZED SATURATED The online profile “is and is not the user.” (Martínez Alemán & Lynk Wartman, 2009, p. 23) a “rupture” or “a series of decisive far-reaching breaks from the past” (Bloland, 2005, p. 125) an “implosion” or a collapse of boundaries (Baudrillard, 1981/1995) “singularity… a future period during which the pace of technological change will be so rapid, its impact so deep, that human life will be irreversibly transformed” (Kurzweil, 2005) @paulgordonbrown
  78. Maria discussing her Instagram profile: “I think it's who I am but also who I want to be and who I want to become.”
  79. Adie discussing her friend who is constantly on social media: “I guess she experiences a lot of fo-mo in general…. it's like you're consuming other peoples' lives through social media. I guess that might appeal to some people, in a sense, not that they're necessarily upset that they missed the event that someone else was at because that person posted at it, but you get to experience what you were doing and what your friend was doing based on their post. So in a way it's like you're passing on that experience.”
  80. Question Research How do contemporary college students understand and develop concepts of “self” online? @paulgordonbrown
  81. preliminary findings @paulgordonbrown
  82. Who are the “yous”? @paulgordonbrown
  83. Is there an online you? Is there an offline you? Is there a Facebook you? Is there a Twitter you? IS there a student you? Is there a family you? Are there multiple “yous” within them? @paulgordonbrown
  84. Are you a different person in these contexts? Are you the same person? @paulgordonbrown
  85. HolisticSeparate “DigitizedSelfhood” Spectrum @paulgordonbrown
  86. Projector @paulgordonbrown
  87. @paulgordonbrown
  88. Parallel @paulgordonbrown
  89. Octopus @paulgordonbrown
  90. @paulgordonbrown
  91. What is digitized selfhood? @paulgordonbrown
  92. HolisticSeparate “DigitizedSelfhood” Spectrum @paulgordonbrown
  93. Developing new theory my research
  94. some things to thinkabout
  95. (Turkle, 2004, para 6) “I want to study not only what the computer is doing for us, but what it is doing to us.” - Turkle
  96. Engage with students on social media because we need to understand them in all of their contexts. Be open to a different (not necessarily better or worse) way. Learn from and with students how to navigate the online environment. Help them avoid mistakes. Help them understand their self- presentation and reputation online; Understand how social media may impact the developmental process-both in light of current theory and in ways we do not yet understand. Be able to help students understand, navigate and leverage it.
  97. Maria’s advice for college administrators educating college students about social media: “I think I'd say not to phrase it as a cautionary tale, because it’s something that we’re never gonna listen to… we know we know more than administrators with social media. So I think it should be more about trying to really understand how we use it, and not just look at it negatively, because I think it's so stigmatized, but really understand how to work with it, because it's not going away.”
  98. @paulgordonbrown The Digital Development of College Students
  99. @paulgordonbrown www.paulgordonbrown.com paulgordonbrown@gmail.com

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