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  1. 1. Romanesque Art
  2. 2. Romanesque Art • 11th and 12th Centuries CE in Western Europe • Romanesque refers to “in the Roman style” • Term Romanesque Art first used in 19th Century • Architectural style includes Roman style details, including Roman columns and round arches in the windows
  3. 3. Major Events during Romanesque Period Pilgrimages - religious travel to important sacred sites Crusades - series of military campaigns waged by Roman Catholics to gain control over the Holy Land in the Middle East First Crusade: 1095 – 1099 CE Second Crusade: 1147 – 1149 CE Third Crusade: 1188 – 1192 CE
  4. 4. Pisa Cathedral Complex of Pisa (Tuscany, Italy), Romanesque Architecture, begun 1173 CE
  5. 5. Pisa • “Leaning Tower of Pisa” part of Cathedral complex of buildings • Tower is a Campanile (type of bell tower) • Campanile built on top of the ruins of an old building • Campanile started to lean right away • Today, the Campanile leans 13 feet off of the perpendicular • The tower continues to move, but much less since they’ve added lead to the foundation of the building Cathedral Complex of Pisa (Tuscany, Italy), Romanesque Architecture
  6. 6. Campanile (Bell Tower)
  7. 7. Romanesque Churches Plans were designed in the shape of a Crucifix nave apse t r a n s e p t
  8. 8. Church of Sainte-Foy (France) Abbey Church of Sainte-Foy (Conques, France), Romanesque Architecture, 1120 CE
  9. 9. Church of Sainte-Foy (France) • Pilgrimage Church (Religious Travel) • People travel here to be healed • Sainte-Foy was a child Saint in 4th Century • Contains the bones of Sainte- Foy (reliquary) that were stolen by monks • Additive Architecture (added extra towers, and rebuilt some parts later) - Original Dome Collapsed Abbey Church of Sainte-Foy (Conques, France), Romanesque Architecture, 1120 CE
  10. 10. The nave of St. Sernin, Toulouse, France, 1080 – 1120 CE Nave – “body of the church” Romanesque round arches Masonry (stone) arches Arched Vaulted Ceiling and Columns on walls support the ceiling Design leaves little space for windows (lack of natural light) St. Sernin – pilgrimage church – very large building for a Romanesque style church – needed large space for visitors
  11. 11. Romanesque Portals • A Portal is the decoration around the entrance to a building, usually Churches • Round Arches • Relief Sculpture
  12. 12. Romanesque Portals • A Portal is the decoration around the entrance to a building, usually Churches • Round Arches • Relief Sculpture
  13. 13. Portal Cathedral of Saint-Lazare
  14. 14. Portal Cathedral of Saint-Lazare • Judgment of Christ (Christ deciding who goes to heaven or hell). Sinners on one side and saints on the other side of Christ in center on Tympanum • Warning to those entering the church, including text (written in Latin) • Relief Sculpture Portal, Cathedral of Saint-Lazare (Burgundy, France), Romanesque Architecture, 1130 CE
  15. 15. Creation and Fall of Adam and Eve
  16. 16. Creation and Fall of Adam and Eve Wiligelmus, Creation and Fall of Adam and Eve, Modena Cathedral (Italy), height 92cm, 1099 CE Artist - Wiligelmus Narrative Portal - (narrative is a story) Tells the Story of Adam and Eve Relief Sculpture - modeling of figures gives relief strong 3-D feeling. Originally Painted with Bright Colors Three Scenes Scene 1 - God with angels and God Creating Adam Scene 2 - Eve Born from Adam Scene 3 - Adam and Eve eat forbidden fruit in shame
  17. 17. Romanesque Capitals
  18. 18. The Magi Asleep
  19. 19. The Magi Asleep The Magi Asleep, capital from interior of Catedral of Saint-Lazare, 1125 CE Capital - Decorative top of Architectural Columns Creation of Narrative Scenes on Capitals is a Romanesque innovation Also called “Historiated Capitals” Scene from childhood of Jesus - story of Angel Waking the 3 Wise Men View from Above
  20. 20. Christ in Majesty
  21. 21. Christ in Majesty Christ in Majesty, detail of apse wall painting from Church of San Climent (Barcelona, Spain), 1123 CE Christ figure in center of wall painting Christ as ruler and judge of the world Alpha and Omega - first and last letters of Greek alphabet on either side of Christ (“Beginning and End”) Christ holds a book with Latin “ego sum lux mundi” (“I am the light of the world”) Decorative patterns and stylized forms Colorful palette - Romanesque artists liked bright colors
  22. 22. Bayeux Embroidery
  23. 23. Detail from the Bayeux Embroidery
  24. 24. Bishop Odo Blessing the Feast (from Bayeux Embroidery)
  25. 25. Bishop Odo Blessing the Feast, detail from Bayeux Embroidery, Linen with Wool Thread, 1066 - 1082 CE Strip of Embroidered Linen known as Bayeux Embroidery created by women in France Embroidery - handcrafted stitches using thread on already-woven fabric creating images and text 50 Scenes with 600 human figures, 700 horses, dogs, and other creatures, 2000 letters This Scene is a feast before a battle - Bishop and Knights eating at curved table Translation of text: “…and here the servants perform their duty. Here they prepare the meal. Here the bishop blesses the food and drink.”
  26. 26. Reliquary Statue of Sainte Foy
  27. 27. Reliquary Statue of Sainte Foy Reliquary Statue of Sainte Foy, Wood with Gold and Gems, Height 85 cm, 980 CE Relics of Sainte Foy stored inside the sculpture - body is hollow (relics are sacred objects from a religious figures - can include bones, hair, teeth, personal objects, etc.) Gems and Cameos added by those making a pilgrimage to Reliquary Church of Sainte-Foy in Conques, France Head may be from an older sculpture from Roman Empire (head of a Roman emperor?) Sculpture survived several wars through history, including French Revolution in late 18th Century
  28. 28. Virgin and Child
  29. 29. Virgin and Child Virgin and Child from Auvergne, France, late 12th Century, height 78.7cm, Oak Wood Only wealthy churches could afford art works in precious metals and gems - wood was more common medium Statue of Virgin Mary and Christ Child Serious and Stiff Stylized drapery of clothing Mary seated on a throne (represents wisdom) Christ Child once held a book in his left hand representing wisdom, his right hand raised in blessing