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Genetic code


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Genetic code

  1. 1. Genetic Code <ul><li>The genetic code is the set of rules by which information encoded in genetic material is translated into proteins by living cells. </li></ul><ul><li>The information in DNA is in the form of triplet codons. </li></ul><ul><li>It is first transcribed into RNA and then into proteins. </li></ul><ul><li>Every triplet codon in the DNA specifies one amino acid in the protein. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Continuous Translation <ul><li>The gene is transcribed and translated continuously from a fixed starting point to a fixed stop point. </li></ul><ul><li>Punctuations are not present between the codons. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Degeneracy of Genetic Code <ul><li>In the genetic code there are 64 codons. Three of them are stop codons (UAA, UAG & UGA). </li></ul><ul><li>Remaining 61 codons code for 20 amino acids. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus there are more than one codon for one amino acid. </li></ul><ul><li>This is called degeneracy of genetic code. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Non Overlapping <ul><li>One base cannot participate in the formation of more than one codon </li></ul><ul><li>This means that the code is non-overlapping. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Non-Ambiguous <ul><li>The genetic code is non-ambiguous. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus one codon cannot specify more than one amino acid. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Genetic Code <ul><li>The genetic code has polarity. It’s always translated in the 5’ to 3’ direction. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Genetic Code <ul><li>AUG is the initiation codon. It codes for the first amino acid in all proteins. </li></ul><ul><li>At the starting point it codes for methionine in eukaryotes and formyl methionine in prokaryotes. </li></ul>