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Physical Middle East


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Physical Middle East

  1. 1. The Middle East Physical Landscape and The People
  2. 2. Physical Middle East <ul><li>Also known as “Southwest Asia” </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes also includes North Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Islam </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arabic language </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oil </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Physical Middle East
  4. 4. <ul><li>A crossroads of civilization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Africa, Asia, and Europe are connected through trade routes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Migrating people spread ideas, inventions, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Culture originating in the Middle East </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Iron making </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alphabet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Judaism, Christianity, Islam </li></ul></ul></ul>Physical Middle East
  5. 5. Physical Middle East
  6. 6. <ul><li>The Middle East is also important to the world for economic reasons </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Control of important sea routes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Control of large oil reserves </li></ul></ul></ul>Physical Middle East
  7. 7. <ul><li>Five major regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Northern Tier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arabian Peninsula </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fertile Crescent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nile Valley </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Maghreb </li></ul></ul>Major Regions
  8. 8. <ul><li>Northern Tier </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turkey to Iran (pg. 552) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mountains and plateaus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diverse: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anatolian Plateau in Turkey : fertile soil, large population </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Iranian Plateau : dry, small population </li></ul></ul></ul>Major Regions
  9. 9. <ul><li>Arabian Peninsula </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large plateau </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest country: Saudi Arabia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small population: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oasis : fertile desert area that has enough water to support life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large amounts of oil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Birthplace of Islam </li></ul></ul>Major Regions
  10. 10. <ul><li>Fertile Crescent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eastern Mediterranean to the Persian Gulf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rich soil, abundant water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major population center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hotspot for early civilizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tigris and Euphrates Rivers </li></ul></ul>Major Regions
  11. 11. <ul><li>Nile Valley </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important historical connections between the people of Egypt and the people of the Fertile Crescent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Judaism </li></ul></ul></ul>Major Regions
  12. 12. <ul><li>The Maghreb </li></ul><ul><ul><li>North Africa : Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arab armies carried Islam to North Africa in the 600s AD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sahara Desert, Atlas Mountains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most people live along the coast, where there is more rain </li></ul></ul>Major Regions
  13. 13. Climate and Resources <ul><li>Nearly all of the region is desert </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of water caused some adaptations </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Building of irrigation systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Desalination : taking the salt out of sea water to make it drinkable </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Climate and Resources <ul><li>Oil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most valuable resource in the Middle East </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem: unevenly distributed </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. The People <ul><li>Ethnic diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arab : anyone whose native language is Arabic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Majority of people in Middle East are Arab </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turks, Iranians, Kurds </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. The People <ul><li>Religious Diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Islam is the majority religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most Arabs are Muslim </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christianity, Judaism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Judaism is the most ancient of the three religions from the region </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Review <ul><li>The Middle East is a crossroads </li></ul><ul><li>Five Major Regions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Northern Tier, Arabian Peninsula, Fertile Crescent, Nile Valley, The Maghreb </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resources: Oil </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Southwest Asia, oasis, desalination, Arab, </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Early Civilizations <ul><li>You will be assigned a section of the text to read. </li></ul><ul><li>Your objective is to fill in the chart on the board with information from your section of the textbook. </li></ul>