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Chapter 6 - World History


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Chapter 6 - World History

  1. 1. Rome & Christianity Chapter 6
  2. 2. The Roman Republic <ul><li>Myth of Rome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Founded by Romulus and Remus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Twins abandoned and raised by she-wolf </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Roman Republic <ul><li>Benefits of location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>River </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peninsula </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alps </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Roman Republic <ul><li>Latins , Greeks , and Etruscans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alphabet and arch </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The Roman Republic <ul><li>After being taken over and ruled by a number of Etruscan kings, the people of Rome wanted new government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Republic : power rests with the citizens who have the right to vote for their leaders </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The Roman Republic <ul><li>Social classes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Patricians : wealthy landowners with most power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plebeians : commoners who made up majority of population </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Roman Republic <ul><li>Patricians </li></ul><ul><li>Inherited status </li></ul><ul><li>Make laws </li></ul><ul><li>Forced to write the Twelve Tables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All free citizens have right to protection of law </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plebeians </li></ul><ul><li>Right to vote </li></ul><ul><li>Couldn’t hold government positions </li></ul><ul><li>Tribunes : assemblies of plebeian representatives </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Roman Republic <ul><li>By the 1 st century B.C. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Roman Republic <ul><li>Two consuls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Like kings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ran military </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One-year term </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can veto each other </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Roman Republic <ul><li>Senate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally only had patricians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made foreign and domestic policies </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. The Roman Republic <ul><li>Tribunes & Assemblies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly plebeians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made laws for the common people </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. The Roman Republic <ul><li>Dictator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In times of crisis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In power for only 6 months </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. The Roman Republic <ul><li>Roman army </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for much of Rome’s success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All landowners must serve </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Highly organized: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Legions : largest military unit </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The Roman Republic <ul><li>Page 157 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With a partner, answer questions #1 and 2 that go with the chart “Comparing Republican Governments” </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. The Roman Republic <ul><li>By 265 B.C. Rome had conquered most of Italy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Latins became full citizens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conquered people had all rights of citizens except the vote </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why do you think the Romans gave full citizens to conquered people living close to Rome? </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Roman Republic <ul><li>Rome’s only enemy was Carthage (pg. 159) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Punic Wars (264-146 B.C.): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rome vs. Carthage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hannibal : famous general of Carthage led a massive attack through Spain to Italian peninsula </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Finally defeated Carthage under General Scipio </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. The Roman Empire <ul><li>What are the benefits of having a single ruler in power? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the drawbacks? </li></ul>
  18. 18. The Roman Empire <ul><li>Problems in Roman Republic: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rich/poor gap widened </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poor totaled over half of population </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Murders of Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As tribunes, attempted to give more land to the poor </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Civil war began </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Power-hungry military leaders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recruited the poor by promising land </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soldiers now felt allegiance to generals, not the republic </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. The Roman Empire <ul><li>One military leader takes control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Julius Caesar , Crassus, and Pompey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Triumvirate : group of three rulers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Won men’s loyalty because he also fought in war </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Served one year as consul, then governor of Gaul </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. The Roman Empire <ul><li>Becoming dictator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Success in Gaul gains popular support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pompey feared Caesar was power-hungry, ordered him to disband his army </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marched to Rome and the senate declared him “dictator for life” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. The Roman Empire <ul><li>Good absolutism? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Had total power, but used it to make reforms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Citizenship granted to provinces </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expanded senate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Created jobs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased soldiers’ pay </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Created regions where poor could own property </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. The Roman Empire <ul><li>Many feared Caesar’s power and popularity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marcus Brutus and Gaius Cassius plotted to kill him at the Senate </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. The Roman Empire <ul><li>Second Triumvirate: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lepidus, Octavian , Marc Antony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Octavian forced Lepidus to retire and defeated Marc Antony/Cleopatra’s forces </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Declared “ Augustus ”: exalted one </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Pax Romana : 200-year period of peace </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stable government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paid civil service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stable economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture- 90% of ppl worked in farming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Denarius- same coin throughout empire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extensive network of roads </li></ul></ul></ul>The Roman Empire
  25. 25. <ul><li>Roman values </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gravitas : Strength, loyalty, usefulness, power, and discipline </li></ul></ul></ul>The Roman Empire
  26. 26. Assignment <ul><li>Sections 3-4 worksheet </li></ul><ul><li>Extra Credit (10 pts): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Re-read pages 164-165 and read 166-167 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write a short story (one page) set in Rome. Choose a character and a problem. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A person may be unable to afford the luxuries required for a business banquet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A charioteer may need to win an important race </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A poor child gets lost coming home from the Coliseum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A family is separated when Vesuvius erupts </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Christianity Development, Teaching, and Spread of the Religion
  28. 28. Rise of Christianity <ul><li>This religion grew out of Jewish traditions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jewish prophets predicted that a messiah , or one anointed by Yahweh, would be sent to deliver the Jews from foreign rule </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jesus, founder of Christianity </li></ul>
  29. 29. Rise of Christianity <ul><li>Gospels : written by the followers of Jesus, tell about the life of Jesus </li></ul>
  30. 31. Rise of Christianity <ul><li>Roman officials worried about Jesus’ popularity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They considered him to be a rebel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jesus was sentenced to die by crucifixion </li></ul>
  31. 32. Teachings of Jesus <ul><li>Monotheism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed in the Jewish God and the Ten Commandments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Placed less emphasis on law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More emphasis on compassion, forgiveness, and equality of all people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Taught with parables : short stories with simple moral lessons </li></ul>
  32. 33. Teachings of Jesus <ul><li>Bible: the holy book of Christianity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes all prophets of Torah and most books of the Torah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adds the New Testament, which includes the Gospels and other books by Jesus’ followers </li></ul></ul>
  33. 34. <ul><li>Compared with Judaism, Christianity spread over far distances in a very short time </li></ul><ul><li>This was due to a few factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Judaism is mostly an ethnic religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Missionaries and martyrs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appeal of Christianity </li></ul></ul>Spread of Christianity
  34. 35. Spread of Christianity <ul><li>Followers of Jesus were called “Christians” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Christ= Savior= messiah </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Missionaries were able to spread Jesus’ teachings by taking advantage of a peaceful time in the Roman empire, and also good roads were available </li></ul>
  35. 36. <ul><li>Eventually, enough people were involved in Christianity that the Roman empire began to respond </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Christians were persecuted for not believing in the Roman gods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many Christians became martyrs : people who suffer or die for their beliefs </li></ul></ul></ul>Spread of Christianity
  36. 37. <ul><li>Widespread persecution continued until 313 AD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emperor Constantine ended persecution of Christians with an Edict of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tolerance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He converted on his deathbed </li></ul></ul>Spread of Christianity
  37. 38. ASSIGNMENT <ul><li>In-class: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emperor’s Edict </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Homework: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sections 4 and 5 worksheets </li></ul></ul>
  38. 39. <ul><li>How have people responded to difficult economic times and political uncertainty? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Panic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pessimism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anxiety </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anger/blame </li></ul></ul></ul>Fall of the Roman Empire
  39. 40. <ul><li>180 AD is the end to Pax Romana </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic problems: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reached limit of expansion, lacked new resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Raised taxes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inflation : drop in value of money and rise in prices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low harvests </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overworked soil </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Warfare destroyed land </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Fall of the Roman Empire
  40. 41. <ul><li>180 AD is the end to Pax Romana </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Military and Political Problems: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Roman soldiers lost allegiance to Rome </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mercenaries : foreign soldiers who fought for money </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People were less patriotic </li></ul></ul></ul>Fall of the Roman Empire
  41. 42. <ul><ul><ul><li>Severely limited personal freedoms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Doubled size of Roman army </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Set fixed prices on goods to control inflation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Claimed descent from Roman gods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Split the empire in two </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greek East </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Latin West </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Fall of the Roman Empire Emperor Diocletian’s reforms:
  42. 43. <ul><li>Emperor Constantine’s Reforms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Re-united East and West </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moved the capital from Rome to Byzantium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Why this city? (pg. 175) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Renamed Constantinople </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shifted power of empire to East </li></ul></ul></ul>Fall of the Roman Empire
  43. 44. <ul><li>Fall of the West </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Germanic invasions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attila the Hun </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ barbarians” sacked Rome in 410 and 476 AD </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Romulus Augustulus was the last emperor of Rome </li></ul></ul>Fall of the Roman Empire
  44. 45. <ul><li>East becomes the Byzantine Empire </li></ul>Fall of the Roman Empire