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Qanat rehabilitation in the MENA region from Morocco to Iraq

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"Qanat rehabilitation in the MENA region rom Morocco to Iraq" UNESCO Presentation for the International Conference on Foggara, 9-12 April, Adrar, Algeria, 2012.

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Qanat rehabilitation in the MENA region from Morocco to Iraq

  1. 1. Qanat rehabilitation in the MENA region from Morocco to Iraq By Dr. Joshka Wessels
  2. 2. Nice to meet you ! Combining visual anthropology and geography for Sustainable Traditional Water Management. Eco-documentaries about water, sustainable development, ecopeace, sanitation and the environment. Films broadcast on BBC World and Al Jazeera English, Discovery Channel, The Water Channel.
  3. 3. PhD Thesis 2008 “ TO COOPERATE OR NOT TO COOPERATE…?” Collective action for rehabilitation of traditional water tunnel systems (qanats) in Syria Promotors: Ton Dietz - UvA, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Tony Allan - SOAS/Kings college, London, UK Support from ICARDA, UNU, SDC, DGIS Professor Iwao Kobori (Tokyo University)
  4. 5. What is a qanat ? Source: Prof. Dale Lightfoot, Oklahoma State University
  5. 6. What is a qanat ? Qanat as a human ecosystem
  6. 7. PhD Thesis - problem tree Qanats in Syria are being abandoned Qanats fall dry Qanats do not give enough revenue Qanats cannot provide enough water and food Population explosion Changing socio-economic environment Overexploitation groundwater resources Climate change Lack of collective action for maintenance Qanats are destroyed Earthquakes, floods and wars Introduction of newer extraction technologes Socio-political changes In landuse Landreform and redivision of land
  7. 8. Pilot renovations carried out between 2000 and 2004
  8. 10. Digital Video to document oral history and knowledge
  9. 11. Conclusions <ul><li>A seemingly homogenous, small-scale and close-knit community appeared to be in fact very diverse and socially complex. </li></ul><ul><li>The presence of powerful leaders, mediators and initiators at community level are main factors of success </li></ul><ul><li>Local socio-political history, perception, and power are important aspects of collective community action for successful qanat rehabilitation </li></ul>
  10. 12. Important Qanat countries <ul><li>Iran (Qanat) </li></ul><ul><li>North-Iraq (Kurdistan) (Karez) </li></ul><ul><li>Azerbaijan (Karez) </li></ul><ul><li>Oman (Falaj) </li></ul><ul><li>Yemen (Ghayls) </li></ul><ul><li>Uzbekistan (Karez) </li></ul><ul><li>China (Karez) </li></ul><ul><li>Algeria (Foggara) </li></ul><ul><li>Morocco (Khettara) </li></ul><ul><li>Tunisia (Foggara) </li></ul>
  11. 13. Karez in Kurdistan <ul><li>Restoration and Maintenance of Karez in Iraq: Advanced Techniques in Planning, Methodology and Applications </li></ul><ul><li>How to work with user communities </li></ul><ul><li>GUIDEBOOK FOR SUSTAINABLE QANAT REHABILITATION </li></ul>
  12. 14. Karez in Kurdistan
  13. 15. Government Participation
  14. 16. Almost 40% of the qanats in this region have died since the onset of drought in 2005 (most of those stopped in 2006-2008).
  15. 17. Using GIS and Google Earth for documentation and survey of Karezes – PhD study Hawta Khayyat at Oklahoma State University under supervision of Prof. Dale Lightfoot
  16. 18. Using GIS and Google Earth for documentation and survey of Karezes
  17. 19. Groundwater Geographic Information System Goals <ul><li>Open Data Access – providing better access to a large volume of high quality, general purpose hydrologic data (for individuals, ministries, organizations). </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrologic Observatories – storing and synthesizing (organizing) hydrologic data for a region. </li></ul><ul><li>Interdisciplinary – providing a stronger hydrologic information infrastructure for the scientific community and other disciplines (scholars, planners, etc.). </li></ul><ul><li>Education Outreach – bringing more hydrologic data into the world, and decision support systems </li></ul>
  18. 20. Karez in Kurdistan
  19. 21. Karez in Kurdistan
  20. 22. Karez in Kurdistan
  21. 23. Karez in Kurdistan
  22. 24. Karez in Kurdistan
  23. 25. Karez in Kurdistan
  24. 26. Karez in Kurdistan
  25. 27. Karez in Kurdistan
  26. 28. Karez in Kurdistan
  27. 29. Karez in Kurdistan
  28. 30. Karez in Kurdistan
  29. 31. Karez in Kurdistan
  30. 32. Karez in Kurdistan
  31. 33. Karez in Kurdistan
  32. 34. Karez in Kurdistan
  33. 35. Karez in Kurdistan
  34. 36. Karez in Kurdistan
  35. 37. Benefits for community
  36. 38. Benefits for community
  37. 39. Water from the Dawn of Civilization <ul><li>The use of GIS, Google Earth and Digital </li></ul><ul><li>Video for accessible documentation of oral </li></ul><ul><li>history and intangible heritage of Qanat </li></ul><ul><li>experts and users for future generations – </li></ul><ul><li>An international proposal </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Last Diggers” </li></ul>
  38. 40. Water from the Dawn of Civilization The need for interdisciplinary cooperation and holistic approach Participatory development approach Involvement environmental NGOs, Civil society and Communities Designate Qanats as World Heritage both tangible and intangible

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