CP - Geography of the Middle East

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CP - Geography of the Middle East

  1. 1. Please copy these questions in your notebook,Please copy these questions in your notebook, leaving HALF A PAGE for each response.leaving HALF A PAGE for each response. Save a little extra room for question #3!Save a little extra room for question #3! Essential QuestionsEssential Questions: Geography of the Middle: Geography of the Middle EastEast      1.  Why is the Middle East such a 1.  Why is the Middle East such a strategic locationstrategic location?? 2.  How do water resources in the Middle East 2.  How do water resources in the Middle East  promote both promote both conflict and cooperationconflict and cooperation in the  in the  region? region?  3.  How do the 3.  How do the major geographic featuresmajor geographic features of the  of the  Middle East dictate Middle East dictate settlement patterns andsettlement patterns and population densitypopulation density?? 4.  How have humans changed their environment in 4.  How have humans changed their environment in  order to suit their needs?order to suit their needs?
  2. 2. Middle East? OR Near East? OR Southwest Asia? OR….?
  3. 3. Crossroads of Continents: connects Europe, Africa and Asia Africa           Europe Asia
  4. 4. The Natural Resources of the Middle East
  5. 5. World Oil Reserves Persian Gulf Oil
  6. 6. 1.  Why is the Middle East such a 1.  Why is the Middle East such a  strategic locationstrategic location?? • Crossroads of 3 continents • Natural trade routes • 65% of the world’s known oil reserves • Religious importance
  7. 7. 2.  How do water resources in the Middle East 2.  How do water resources in the Middle East  promote both promote both conflict and cooperationconflict and cooperation in the  in the  region?region? • Water is scarce; a precious resource. • Conflict – some countries control other  countries’ water supplies – Ie. Turkey, Iraq; Israel, Palestinian  territories • Cooperation – countries work together  to build dams, irrigation projects
  8. 8. Fresh Groundwater Sources
  9. 9. 3.  How do the 3.  How do the major geographic featuresmajor geographic features   of the Middle East dictate of the Middle East dictate settlementsettlement patterns and population densitypatterns and population density?? Major Geographic Regions of the Middle  East • Northern Tier (Turkey, Iran) • Arabian Peninsula • Nile Valley • Fertile Crescent • Maghreb (Northern Africa)
  10. 10. Middle East: Population Density
  11. 11. The Arabian Peninsula is mostly desert
  12. 12. Rub al-Khali: “The Empty Quarter - large desert in Saudi Arabia, virtually uninhabited
  13. 13. Desert Oases: Water at a Premium! Oasis is a place where water comes to the surface in desert area.
  14. 14. The Mighty Nile River: “Longest River in the World”
  15. 15. *The Nile and its tributaries flow though nine countries.
  16. 16. The Nile River flows South to North, where accumulation of sediment forms a delta.
  17. 17. Egypt: The “Gift of the Nile” Annual Nile Flooding Nile Delta 95% of the Egyptian people live on 5% of the land!
  18. 18. Nile Delta • Most densely populated area in the Middle East • Regular flooding left behind silt – thick black soil, ideal for farming • TODAY – silt is caught behind dam, leaving little for farming in the delta
  19. 19. The Fertile Crescent
  20. 20. The Fertile Crescent • Mesopotamia - “land between the rivers." • Many different civilizations developed in this small region because it is HIGHLY strategic and coveted • Flooding of rivers produced fertile soil • Today - Iraq Mesopotamia: “Land Between the Two Rivers” Marsh Arabs, So. Iraq
  21. 21. Dust Storms Along the Tigris-Euphrates Flood Plains
  22. 22. The Jordan River System: Israel & Jordan--A Fight Over Water Rights?
  23. 23. Dead Sea: Lowest Point on Earth Highest Salt Content (35%) 1,360’ below sea level
  24. 24. Dead Sea FloaterDead Sea Floater • Lowest point on Earth- 1,360 feet below sea level • Saltiest water in the world • You float in its
  25. 25. The Middle East vs. the U. S. Latitude Lines
  26. 26. Middle East: Climate Regions
  27. 27. Middle East: Population Density
  28. 28. Cairo, Egypt: Most Populated City in the Middle East 17,000,000 + People!
  29. 29. 4. How have humans4. How have humans changed their environment inchanged their environment in order to suit their needs?order to suit their needs? • ASWAN HIGH DAM - on the Nile River • Prevents flooding, Controls irrigation, Can plant 3 crops instead of only 1 a year, Hydroelectric power • New layer of fertile soil no longer deposited by annual flood, must use fertilizers, Very expensive, New soil not added to Delta, which causes erosion • Suez Canal – Connect the Mediterranean and Red Seas – Used to transport goods
  30. 30. Aswan High Dam, Egypt Hydroelectric Power Plant The Dam wall is 365 feet high Created artificial lake- Lake Nasser, which covers 300 miles
  31. 31. Sinai Peninsula located between Egypt and the Arabian Peninsula
  32. 32. Suez Canal Completed by the British
  33. 33. Suez Canal *The 101-mile waterway connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea. * The Suez Canal is used to transport goods to and from all three continents.
  34. 34. To what extent does the United States rely on theTo what extent does the United States rely on the Middle East for its oil consumption? How do you thinkMiddle East for its oil consumption? How do you think this dependence affects our relationship with oilthis dependence affects our relationship with oil producing countries?producing countries? The U. S. imports 30% of its oil
  35. 35. Kuwait: An Island Floating on a Sea of Oil Kuwait City
  36. 36. Saudi Oil Fields & Refineries
  37. 37. The Middle East: Natural Vegetation
  38. 38. Completed Map Tigris River Nile River Euphrates RiverJordan River Persian Gulf Arabian Sea Mediterranean Sea Indian Ocean Red Sea Black Sea Gulf of Aden Strait of Hormuz Suez Canal Dardanelles Strait Atlantic Ocean Gulf of Oman Caspian Sea Arabian Desert Negev Desert Sinai Desert Rub al-Khali Atlas Mts.  Elburz M ts. Taurus Mts. Zagros Mts. Iranian Plateau Anatolian Plateau Caucasus Mts. HejazMts. Sahara Desert Libyan Desert
  39. 39. • Answer the 5 essentialAnswer the 5 essential questions using 5 SPECIFICquestions using 5 SPECIFIC details/examples from thedetails/examples from the PowerPoint and/or the web toPowerPoint and/or the web to support your answer.support your answer.

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