Ch 12

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Ch 12

  1. 1. Ch. 12 Reconstruction American History
  2. 2. Unresolved Legacies <ul><li>Reconstruction : (1865-1877), the time period following the Civil War </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Two questions to answer: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What will replace slavery? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What will freedom mean for ex-slaves? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How to reconstruct the South? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How will it be decided? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Unresolved Legacies
  4. 4. The Meaning of Freedom <ul><li>We’re free, now what? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There is still a deep-seeded racism in America </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family: finding family throughout the South </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Politics: get the right to vote </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use the power of the minority to gain rights </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education: 3 R’s vital to future generations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religion: ability to practice in public </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A mixture of Christian and African traditions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land: Sherman’s Field Order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abandoned lands in the South handed over to ex-slaves (“40 acres and a mule”) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The Meaning of Freedom <ul><li>Freedman’s Bureau : government organization created to help blacks achieve their goals </li></ul>
  6. 6. What will replace slavery? <ul><li>Sharecropping : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Landowners divided the land and gave each workers a few acres, seeds, and tools in return for a share of the harvest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Tenant farming : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rent land in return for cash </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Had to buy tools on credit, but freedmen couldn’t pay them back or save money </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. What will replace slavery? <ul><li>Cotton is replaced </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tobacco is the new cash crop </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Try to diversify the economy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Carpetbaggers: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Name given to Northerners who moved South during Reconstruction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seen negatively by many Southerners </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Obstacles <ul><li>Obstacles to Real Freedom: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Racism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Black codes : discriminatory laws that restricted African Americans’ lives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Same as slavery in many ways </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many people all over the nation opposed the far-reaching acts of Congress to give African Americans more freedom </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ku Klux Klan – Southern vigilante group that whipped and murdered former slaves </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Obstacles <ul><li>Goals of the KKK: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Destroy Republican party </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Throw out new state governments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Control African American labor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent African Americans from exercising their rights </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. How to Reconstruct? <ul><li>There were two types of Reconstruction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presidential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congressional </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lincoln had begun Reconstruction at the end of the war </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Was very lenient to the South </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Congress was not happy with his policies, wanted to take over </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Presidential Reconstruction <ul><li>Andrew Johnson : Lincoln’s successor </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Johnson allowed many Southern states to re-enter the Union by passing Reconstruction bills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Declare its secession illegal </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Swear allegiance to the Union </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ratify the 13 th Amendment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Presidential Reconstruction <ul><li>Congress becomes upset with Johnson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He provided no help for former slaves: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Land rights </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Voting rights </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protection under the law </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Congress reacts in two ways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expand the Freedman’s Bureau </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pass Civil Rights Act of 1866 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Johnson vetoed both acts </li></ul>
  13. 13. How to Reconstruct? <ul><li>Radical Republicans : opposed moderate Reconstruction </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Radical abolitionists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thaddeus Stevens : leader of the RR’s </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Congressional Reconstruction <ul><li>Congress takes matters into its own hands </li></ul><ul><li>14 th Amendment : all persons born or naturalized in the U.S. are citizens and are entitled to equal protection under the law </li></ul>
  15. 15. Congressional Reconstruction <ul><li>Elections of 1866- </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Radical Republicans gain control of Congress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Reconstruction Act of 1867 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Undid everything by Lincoln and Johnson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Required new state constitutions for Southern states </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Required right to vote for African American men </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must ratify the 14 th Amendment </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Congressional Reconstruction <ul><li>President Johnson impeached </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For firing a cabinet member without the Senate’s approval </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found not guilty </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Congressional Reconstruction <ul><li>Republican Ulysses S. Grant elected to the Presidency in 1868 </li></ul><ul><li>15 th Amendment (1870)- cannot deny the right to vote based on race </li></ul><ul><li>Public works programs created to rebuild the South </li></ul>
  18. 18. Obstacles to Reconstruction <ul><li>Panic of 1873 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Country begins to deal with the financial troubles of Reconstruction and political scandals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Financial failures occurred because investors were too optimistic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A 5 year depression resulted </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>

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