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  1. 1. Physical Features Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt Stretches from the Atlantic Ocean to the Red Sea; Mediterranean Sea is off the northern coast; Sahara desert is to the south
  2. 2. The Nile World’s longest river  Flows northward through the eastern Sahara  Empties into the Mediterranean Sea  Blue Nile and White Nile merge to form the Nile  Water from Nile irrigates farmlands and forms a large river delta where it empties into the Mediterranean Sea  Flooding of the Nile has left silt (finely ground soil good for growing crops) in surrounding fields ○ Aswan High Dam was built to control flooding ○ Trapped water formed Lake Nasser in southern Egypt ○ Dam traps silt and now farmers must use fertilizers to enrich their fields
  3. 3. The Sinai Peninsula and SuezCanal Sinai Peninsula  East of the Nile  Barren, rocky mountains, and desert cover the peninsula Suez Canal was built by the French in 1860s  It is a strategic waterway that connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea
  4. 4. The Sahara  Covers most of North Africa ○ Largest desert in the world ○ Few people live here ○ Some settlements near oasis ○ Windswept gravel plains and sand dunes cover much of desert
  5. 5. Mountains Some sand dunes reach 1,000 feet Mountains  Ahagger Mountains located in central Sahara ○ Highest peak is 9,842 feet  Atlas Mountains located on northwestern side of Sahara ○ Rise to 13,671 feet
  6. 6. Climate& Resources 3 climate types:  Desert Climate covers most of region; temperatures from mild to very hot (136 degrees F); low humidity causes temperatures to drop rapidly after sunset  Mediterranean Climate (A climate characterized by moist, mild winters and hot, dry summers): ○ Northern coast west of Egypt  Steppe Climate (found in the middle of continents and in the lee of high mountains. The mountains block moist air from oceans or tropical climates from reaching the steppe ) ○ Between the Mediterranean climate and the Sahara Resources:  Oil and gas most important  Iron ore and minerals to make fertilizers  coal
  7. 7. Section 2
  8. 8. history Nile River home to world’s oldest civilizations  3200 B.C. Egyptian kingdom was formed along northern Nile  They also built pyramids, other monuments, and writing system  Later invaded by Greeks and Arabs
  9. 9. The Ancient Egyptians Built pyramids as tombs for pharaohs  Workers cut large blocks of stone far away and rolled them on logs to the Nile, moved on barges, and carved at building site
  10. 10. Egyptian Writing Developed hieroglyphics  Pictures and symbols stood for ideas or words  Carved into temples and monuments ○ Record words and achievements of pharaohs
  11. 11. Greek and Arab Civilizations Open to invaders due to long Mediterranean coastline  Greeks and Romans ○ Alexander the Great: founded city of Alexandria, Egypt  Became important seaport and trading center  Arab armies ○ Invaded; brought Arabic language & Islam ○ Cities became centers of learning, trade, and craft making
  12. 12. European Control 1800s European countries began taking over region 1912 controlled all of North Africa 1922 Egypt gained limited independence  British kept military bases & control of the Suez Canal until 1956 Region a major battle ground during WWII 1950s Libya, Morocco, & Tunisia each gained independence; Algeria in 1962 after bitter war with France Modern North Africa  After gaining independence, countries have tried to build stronger ties with Arab countries
  13. 13. CultureLanguage & Religion Common aspects of culture  Language, religion, foods, holidays, customs, & art and literature People and Language  Egyptians, Berbers, & Bedouins (nomadic herders who travel throughout deserts of Egypt and Southwest Asia) make up nearly all of Egypt’s population Arab & Berber ancestry  Berbers: an ethnic group who are native to North Africa and speak Berber language French, Italian, & English still spoken in some areas Religion  Most are Muslims ○ Pray 5 times a day  6% of Egyptians are Christians
  14. 14. Food & Festivals Grains, vegetables, fruits, & nuts are common Couscous: made from wheat and looks like small pellets of pasta; steamed over boiling water or soup; served with vegetables or meat, butter, & olive oil Fuul is a popular dish in Egypt  Made from fava beans mashed with olive oil, salt, pepper, garlic, & lemons
  15. 15. Holidays Birthday of the prophet of Islam, Muhammad  Marked with lights, parades, and special sweets of honey, nuts, & sugar During holy month of Ramadan, Muslims abstain from food and drink during the day
  16. 16. Art & Literature North Africa is know for its architecture, wood carving, & other crafts Women weave textiles (carpets with geometric designs and bright colors) Important writers and artists in this region  Egyptian poetry and other writings date back thousands of years  Naguib Mahfouz: 1st Arab writer to win Noble Prize in literature  Also has growing movie industry  Popular music based on singing and poetry is enjoyed by North Africans
  17. 17. North Africa Today
  18. 18. Egypt Most populous of North Africa’s countries Gov’t face challenges Most Egyptians are poor farmers  Limited resources & few jobs Gov’t and Society  Republic gov’t ○ Influenced by Islamic law  Constitution; elected officials; power shared between president & prime minister  Debate over role of Islam in country ○ Some believe laws should be based on Islam law, some fear this would cause fewer personal freedoms; some violence has resulted  Little clean water and disease are common in larger cities
  19. 19. Resources & Economy Few resources Farmland limited to Nile River valley & delta  Fertilizer must be used in soil (expensive)  Over watering has brought salt to the surface of the soil, which is bad for growing crops  Have caused increase in importing of foods Had to import much of its food recently Suez Canal is another sources of income; ships pay a toll to pass through it Economy dependent on:  Agriculture, petroleum exports, and tourism
  20. 20. Other Countries of North Africa Western Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, & Morocco called Maghreb  Arabic for west  Mostly covered by Sahara  Cities & farmland along the coast
  21. 21. Government & Economy Conflict over role of Islam in society Oil, mining, and tourism  Oil most important  Money from oil pays for schools, health care, other social programs, & military equipment Large deposits of natural gas, iron ore, & lead as well Agriculture is important  Wheat, other grains, olives, fruits, & nuts  Desert climate & poor soil limit farming  Food is generally imported
  22. 22. The Countries Today Share similar challenges  Violence: under dictator ships  Trying to strengthen trading relationships w/ U.S. & Europe
  23. 23. Algeria Violence between gov’t & Islamic groups killed thousands in1990s Today  Trying to recover from violence & strengthen economy w/ exports
  24. 24. Tunisia More rights granted to women recently Close economic relationships w/ Europe
  25. 25. Morocco Only North African country w/ little oil Important producer and exporter of fertilizer