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World Regional Geography Chapter 9:   A Geographic Profile of   Sub-Saharan Africa
Sub-Saharan Africa
 
 
<ul><li>Second largest land area of all the major world regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Covers 17.4 million square miles  (T...
Comparison of Area & Latitude: Sub-Saharan Africa vs. Conterminous U.S.
Population Distribution
Population Cartogram
Homes Elevated to Minimize Risk of Flooding
<ul><li>Africa has the world’s youngest population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>43% of the region’s people are under 15 years of ...
<ul><li>The Landscapes of Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Africa’s Biomes and Climates </li></ul><ul><li>Living off the Land </li...
<ul><li>Most of Africa is a vast plateau, or series of plateaus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typical elevation of more than 1,000...
Physical Geography of Sub-Saharan Africa
<ul><li>Insert fig 9.6 (of Kilimanjaro) </li></ul>Mount Kilimanjaro
Mount Kenya
Kariba Dam on the Zambezi River
<ul><li>Equator bisects Africa, so about two-thirds of the region lies in the low latitudes, having tropical climates </li...
Climates of Sub-Saharan Africa
Biomes of Sub-Saharan Africa
<ul><li>Most productive lands are on river plains, in volcanic regions, and in some grassland areas of tropical steppes </...
Land Use in Sub-Saharan Africa
Mother and Child in Zimbabwe
Zebu Cattle in Madagascar
<ul><li>Africa has the planet’s most spectacular and numerous populations of large mammals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical ...
Daggers as Dress Accessory in Yemen
<ul><li>African continent was the original home of humankind </li></ul><ul><li>After 5000 B.C.E., indigenous people were r...
<ul><li>Peoples of this region speak more than 1,000 languages, which generally belong to one of four broad language group...
Languages of Sub-Saharan Africa
<ul><li>Spiritualism is extremely strong, but spiritual affiliations and practices are more interwoven and flexible than i...
Religions of Sub-Saharan Africa
<ul><li>Over a period of 12 centuries, as many as 25 million people from sub-Saharan Africa were forced to become slaves, ...
Slave Export Trade Routes
<ul><li>European colonialism began to overshadow and inhibit the growth of indigenous African civilizations in 16 th  C. <...
Colonial Rule in 1914
<ul><li>Sub-Saharan Africa is characterized by great poverty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>25 of the world’s 30 poorest countries ...
Coffee as Kenya’s Cash Crop
<ul><li>Per capita food output in most of Sub-Saharan Africa has declined or remained flat since independence </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>Notable Mineral Exports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Precious metals and precious stones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron ...
Minerals, Oil Pipelines and Transportation Links
<ul><li>Poor Transportation Hindering Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Few countries can afford to build extensive new ro...
Ferries for River Crossings Without Bridges
<ul><li>Commodities boom brought annual economic growth rates of about 5% to 16 Sub-Saharan African countries </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>Failed-State Syndrome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pernicious process of economic and political decay that is eating away...
<ul><li>Sub-Saharan Africa is often judged as marginal in world affairs, but the region deserves and is receiving increase...
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Chapter9

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Chapter9

  1. 1. World Regional Geography Chapter 9: A Geographic Profile of Sub-Saharan Africa
  2. 2. Sub-Saharan Africa
  3. 5. <ul><li>Second largest land area of all the major world regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Covers 17.4 million square miles (Twice the size of the U.S.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Population of 749 million (2007) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overpopulated in areas, yet much of region is sparsely populated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average population density is slightly more than that of the U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rate of population increase is 2.5 percent per year </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preference for Large Families </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extra hands to perform work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability for parents to be looked after when old or sick </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the case of girls, to receive “bride wealth” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large families convey status </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Birth rates have been dropping in every country in the region over the past past two decades </li></ul>9.1 Area & Population
  4. 6. Comparison of Area & Latitude: Sub-Saharan Africa vs. Conterminous U.S.
  5. 7. Population Distribution
  6. 8. Population Cartogram
  7. 9. Homes Elevated to Minimize Risk of Flooding
  8. 10. <ul><li>Africa has the world’s youngest population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>43% of the region’s people are under 15 years of age </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Malthusian Scenario </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 Percent Gap </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Population has had growth rate of about 3% since 1960s </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food production has grown at only about 2% annually </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This is the only world region where per capita food production is declining </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HIV/AIDS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Possibly a Malthusian “check” to population growth </li></ul></ul></ul>9.1.1 Africa’s Population Prospects
  9. 11. <ul><li>The Landscapes of Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Africa’s Biomes and Climates </li></ul><ul><li>Living off the Land </li></ul><ul><li>Africa’s Wildlife </li></ul>9.2 Physical Geography & Human Adaptations
  10. 12. <ul><li>Most of Africa is a vast plateau, or series of plateaus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typical elevation of more than 1,000 feet, though in places elevation rises to 5,000 feet and higher </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The character of African rivers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapids and waterfalls block navigation a short distance inland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Great potential for hydroelectric energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Africa’s discontinuous inland waterways are interconnected by railroads and highways </li></ul></ul>9.2.1 The Landscapes of Africa
  11. 13. Physical Geography of Sub-Saharan Africa
  12. 14. <ul><li>Insert fig 9.6 (of Kilimanjaro) </li></ul>Mount Kilimanjaro
  13. 15. Mount Kenya
  14. 16. Kariba Dam on the Zambezi River
  15. 17. <ul><li>Equator bisects Africa, so about two-thirds of the region lies in the low latitudes, having tropical climates </li></ul><ul><li>Biomes of Sub-Saharan Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical Rain Forest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Savanna </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steppe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mediterranean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humid Subtropical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marine West Coast </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Precipitation in region is high, but unevenly distributed </li></ul><ul><li>Drought is a persistent problem </li></ul>9.2.2 Africa’s Biomes and Climates
  16. 18. Climates of Sub-Saharan Africa
  17. 19. Biomes of Sub-Saharan Africa
  18. 20. <ul><li>Most productive lands are on river plains, in volcanic regions, and in some grassland areas of tropical steppes </li></ul><ul><li>To support growing populations, fallow periods have been shortened, and the lands pressed to yield more crops </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-Saharan Africa’s soils favor subsistence agriculture and pastoralism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Half of the region’s population practices these livelihoods </li></ul></ul>9.2.3 Living off the Land
  19. 21. Land Use in Sub-Saharan Africa
  20. 22. Mother and Child in Zimbabwe
  21. 23. Zebu Cattle in Madagascar
  22. 24. <ul><li>Africa has the planet’s most spectacular and numerous populations of large mammals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical grasslands and open forests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Habitats of large herbivorous animals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elephant, Buffalo, Zebra, Giraffe, and many species of Antelope </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carnivorous and scavenging animals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lion, Leopard, and Hyena </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical rain forests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abundant species of insects, birds, and monkeys </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Streams and rivers draining the forests and wetter savannas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hippopotamus, crocodile, and a great variety of fish </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Home to some of the world’s most extraordinary and successfully managed national parks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International tourism to these parks is a major source of revenue </li></ul></ul>9.2.4 Africa’s Wildlife
  23. 25. Daggers as Dress Accessory in Yemen
  24. 26. <ul><li>African continent was the original home of humankind </li></ul><ul><li>After 5000 B.C.E., indigenous people were responsible for agricultural innovation in four culture hearths: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethiopian Plateau </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>West African Savanna </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>West African Forest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forest-Savanna Boundary of West Central Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Domestication of important crops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Millet, sorghum, yams, cowpeas, okra, watermelons, coffee, and cotton </li></ul></ul>9.3 Cultural & Historical Geographies
  25. 27. <ul><li>Peoples of this region speak more than 1,000 languages, which generally belong to one of four broad language groups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Niger-Congo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Afro-Asiatic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nilo-Saharan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Khoisan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The African Union, the continent’s supranational organization, uses 6 official languages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>English, French, Portuguese, Spanish, Swahili, and Arabic </li></ul></ul>9.3.1 The Languages of Africa
  26. 28. Languages of Sub-Saharan Africa
  27. 29. <ul><li>Spiritualism is extremely strong, but spiritual affiliations and practices are more interwoven and flexible than in most other world regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not uncommon for family members to follow different faiths, or for an individual to change religious beliefs and practices in the course of a lifetime </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dominant Religions of Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Islam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christianity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indigenous African Religions (Animism) </li></ul></ul>9.3.2 Africa’s Belief Systems
  28. 30. Religions of Sub-Saharan Africa
  29. 31. <ul><li>Over a period of 12 centuries, as many as 25 million people from sub-Saharan Africa were forced to become slaves, exported as merchandise from their homelands </li></ul><ul><li>The trade began in the 7th century, with Arab merchants using trans-Saharan camel caravan routes to exchange goods </li></ul><ul><li>Slave traffic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provided motivation for European commerce along African coasts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest slave traffic was the European controlled slave trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transatlantic slave trade peaked between 1700 and 1870 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>80% of an estimated 10 million slaves made the crossing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More than 10 million others probably died </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Slavery has not yet died out in the region </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enslavement of children persists in West Africa </li></ul></ul>9.3.3 The Origins and Impacts of Slavery
  30. 32. Slave Export Trade Routes
  31. 33. <ul><li>European colonialism began to overshadow and inhibit the growth of indigenous African civilizations in 16 th C. </li></ul><ul><li>Portugal was earliest colonial power to build an African empire </li></ul><ul><li>Conference of Berlin in 1884-1885 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>European powers carved up Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modern national boundaries do not correspond with ethnic boundaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nigeria as the “Mistake of 1914” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>European colonization had both positive and negative impacts on the region </li></ul><ul><li>Most countries still have important links with their former colonial powers </li></ul>9.3.4 The Impact of Colonialism
  32. 34. Colonial Rule in 1914
  33. 35. <ul><li>Sub-Saharan Africa is characterized by great poverty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>25 of the world’s 30 poorest countries are located there </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All economies except South Africa’s are underindustrialized </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Africa’s place in the commercial world is mainly that of a producer of primary products </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cash Crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raw Materials </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social and structural problems contribute to the region’s underdevelopment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most African societies lack a substantial middle class and the prospect of upward economic mobility </li></ul></ul>9.4 Economic Geography
  34. 36. Coffee as Kenya’s Cash Crop
  35. 37. <ul><li>Per capita food output in most of Sub-Saharan Africa has declined or remained flat since independence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Malnutrition afflicts almost half the region’s children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid population growth and drought are responsible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many regimes have invested more in their militaries than in getting food to their citizens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Governmental preference for cash crops over subsistence food crops </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Export Crops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grown on small farms rather than on plantations / estates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most valuable export crops are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coffee, Cacao, Cotton, Peanuts & Oil Palm Products </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary Cash Crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sisal, Pyrethrum, Tea, Tobacco, Rubber, Pineapples, Bananas, Cloves, Vanilla, Cane Sugar & Cashews </li></ul></ul></ul>9.4.1 Agriculture
  36. 38. <ul><li>Notable Mineral Exports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Precious metals and precious stones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron alloys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uranium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Petroleum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High-grade iron ore </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Destined principally for Europe, the U.S., and China </li></ul><ul><li>Mining has attracted far more investment capital to Africa than any other economic activity </li></ul>9.4.2 Mineral Resources
  37. 39. Minerals, Oil Pipelines and Transportation Links
  38. 40. <ul><li>Poor Transportation Hindering Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Few countries can afford to build extensive new road or rail networks, and much of colonial infrastructure has deteriorated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contributes to famine, with the inability to transport crop surpluses to parts with chronic food shortages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contributes to high costs of agricultural inputs (i.e., fertilizers) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bridging the Digital Divide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical shortage of telephone, fax, e-mail, and other communication technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Cafés </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile Phones </li></ul></ul>9.4.3 Africa’s Fragile Infrastructure
  39. 41. Ferries for River Crossings Without Bridges
  40. 42. <ul><li>Commodities boom brought annual economic growth rates of about 5% to 16 Sub-Saharan African countries </li></ul><ul><li>Many countries outside the region have effectively closed their doors to African imports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subsidies, high tariffs, and/or low quotas imposed on agricultural products or manufactured goods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Africa’s Debt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forgiveness of $40 billion of debt by G-8 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>China’s engagement with the region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pledge of $20 billion in infrastructure and trade financing </li></ul></ul></ul>9.4.4 Africa in World Markets & Economies
  41. 43. <ul><li>Failed-State Syndrome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pernicious process of economic and political decay that is eating away at some African countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some countries are little more than “shell states” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9 of world’s 15 most corrupt countries are in this region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Donor Democracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leaders make just enough concessions to win outside aid without instituting real reform </li></ul></ul></ul>9.4.5 A Legacy of Failed States
  42. 44. <ul><li>Sub-Saharan Africa is often judged as marginal in world affairs, but the region deserves and is receiving increased international attention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humanitarian problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global implications of its public health and environmental situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems in the management of Africa’s natural resource wealth, its oil reserves, and concerns over terrorism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrorism Hot Spots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kenya, Somalia, Djibouti, Niger, Chad, and Mali </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HIV/AIDS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Link between U.S. and Africa via air traffic routes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Potential AIDS-related political instability or civil wars </li></ul></ul></ul>9.5 Geopolitical Issues

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