Geography & Origins of the Middle East
 
<ul><li>There are three peninsulas in the area –  </li></ul><ul><li>Sinai ,  Arabian ,  Anatolia ,  </li></ul><ul><li>Peni...
<ul><li>There are three peninsulas in the area –  </li></ul><ul><li>Sinai ,  Arabian ,  Anatolia ,  </li></ul><ul><li>Peni...
<ul><li>There are three peninsulas in the area –  </li></ul><ul><li>Sinai ,  Arabian ,  Anatolia ,  </li></ul><ul><li>Peni...
<ul><li>The rivers of Southwest Asia (Middle East) are important because much of this region of the world is dry and deser...
<ul><li>The Tigris River begins in the mountains of Turkey and flows south through Iraq.  </li></ul><ul><li>It joins the E...
<ul><li>The Jordan River  is a much smaller than either the Tigris or the Euphrates, but it is still very important.  </li...
<ul><li>Dead Sea  is one of the saltiest bodies of water on Earth. </li></ul><ul><li>Salt and other minerals have collecte...
<ul><li>The Persian Gulf is one of the main ways oil is shipped from the rich fields of Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Iran, and ot...
<ul><li>Any ships coming out of or into the Persian Gulf must navigate through the very narrow Strait of Hormuz,  located ...
<ul><li>Once in the Arabian Sea, ships can sail east into the Red Sea, which is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the east and E...
 
 
 
<ul><li>The countries of the Middle East generally have a very hot and dry   climate.  </li></ul><ul><li>Climate is the ty...
 
<ul><li>    The word ISLAM has a two-fold meaning: peace, and submission to God. This submission requires a fully consciou...
<ul><li>Islam – submission to Allah </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim – one who submits to Allah </li></ul><ul><li>Allah – Arabic w...
<ul><li>Muhammad (570-632) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caravan trader living in Mecca </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First teachings...
<ul><ul><li>One god, Allah and Mohammad is the Prophet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prayer – 5X/day facing Mecca </li></ul><...
<ul><li>  </li></ul>
<ul><ul><li>Shahadah - The first pillar is the declaration of belief in Allah. The English translation of the Shahadah is ...
<ul><li>Always  facing Mecca </li></ul>
<ul><li>Benefit of faith in this pillar: </li></ul><ul><li>1) Purification of the self (soul) from the vices of stinginess...
<ul><li>The definition of Zakat is Alms Giving.  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a small portion of ones surplus of wealth equ...
<ul><li>Spiritual exercise of self control </li></ul><ul><li>Submission to God </li></ul><ul><li>Test of submission, do wh...
<ul><li>Only to those who can afford it and healthy enough to make the journey </li></ul><ul><li>This trip is travel for t...
 
 
<ul><li>Largely through military conquest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jihad (holy war) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Within 100 yea...
<ul><li>Largely through trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attraction as a religion of salvation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arab ...
<ul><ul><li>Attraction as a religion of salvation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Berber traders cross the Sahara Desert </li><...
 
<ul><ul><li>Draws on Greek, Persian, and Indian sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mathematics, astronomy and medicine </l...
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World geography - sw asia and the islamic world

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World Geography powerpoint on SW Asia / the middle East and the Islamic World

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World geography - sw asia and the islamic world

  1. 2. Geography & Origins of the Middle East
  2. 4. <ul><li>There are three peninsulas in the area – </li></ul><ul><li>Sinai , Arabian , Anatolia , </li></ul><ul><li>Peninsula – a piece of land surrounded by water on three sides. </li></ul><ul><li>The Sinai Peninsula </li></ul><ul><li>is separated from Africa by the </li></ul><ul><li>Suez Canal , which was dug in </li></ul><ul><li>1868. </li></ul>PENINSULAS
  3. 5. <ul><li>There are three peninsulas in the area – </li></ul><ul><li>Sinai , Arabian , Anatolia , </li></ul><ul><li>Peninsula – a piece of land surrounded by water on three sides. </li></ul><ul><li>The Arabian Peninsula is encased by the Red Sea, Arabian Sea, and Persian Gulf. It is home to the largest oil reserve. </li></ul>PENINSULAS
  4. 6. <ul><li>There are three peninsulas in the area – </li></ul><ul><li>Sinai , Arabian , Anatolia , </li></ul><ul><li>Peninsula – a piece of land surrounded by water on three sides. </li></ul><ul><li>The Anatolia Peninsula is engulfed by the Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea. It is home to Turkey , the only Middle East country in both Asia and Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Strait – a narrow channel </li></ul><ul><li>connecting two bodies of water. </li></ul>PENINSULAS
  5. 7. <ul><li>The rivers of Southwest Asia (Middle East) are important because much of this region of the world is dry and desert or semi-desert. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the longest rivers in the region is the Euphrates River , which begins in Turkey, and flows through Syria and Iraq. </li></ul>Euphrates River
  6. 8. <ul><li>The Tigris River begins in the mountains of Turkey and flows south through Iraq. </li></ul><ul><li>It joins the Euphrates in southern Iraq. </li></ul><ul><li>These two rivers provide water for both drinking and farming. </li></ul><ul><li>The countries that share these rivers have had problems over how the water will be shared among them. </li></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><li>The Jordan River is a much smaller than either the Tigris or the Euphrates, but it is still very important. </li></ul><ul><li>The Jordan River begins at the southern end of the Sea of Galilee and flows south until it reaches the Dead Sea. </li></ul><ul><li>This river is one of the main sources of water for Israel, Jordan, parts of Syria, and many of those living in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. </li></ul><ul><li>Because so much water is taken out of the Jordan River by the different groups that depend on it, less and less water reaches the Dead Sea . </li></ul><ul><li>The Jordan River is also important because it is the political boundary between Israel and the West Bank, and Jordan. </li></ul>
  8. 10. <ul><li>Dead Sea is one of the saltiest bodies of water on Earth. </li></ul><ul><li>Salt and other minerals have collected in it because it has no rivers running through it to make the water fresh. </li></ul><ul><li>Water that flows in stays there and because so much evaporates in the desert air, the water remaining is high in salts and other chemicals. </li></ul><ul><li>The Dead Sea is more than a thousand feet below sea level. </li></ul><ul><li>Nothing but bacteria lives here. </li></ul><ul><li>There are no fish living in the Dead Sea, and that is the reason for its name. </li></ul>
  9. 11. <ul><li>The Persian Gulf is one of the main ways oil is shipped from the rich fields of Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Iran, and other countries that line its shores. </li></ul><ul><li>All of the countries that produce oil in that region depend on the Persian Gulf as a shipping route. </li></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>Any ships coming out of or into the Persian Gulf must navigate through the very narrow Strait of Hormuz, located at one end of the Persian Gulf. </li></ul><ul><li>This waterway connects the Persian Gulf to the Arabian Sea. </li></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><li>Once in the Arabian Sea, ships can sail east into the Red Sea, which is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the east and Egypt to the west. </li></ul><ul><li>At the northern end of the Red Sea, ships can enter t Suez Canal, which is Man-Made and will allow them to get to the Mediterranean Sea without having to sail all around the continent of Africa. </li></ul>
  12. 17. <ul><li>The countries of the Middle East generally have a very hot and dry climate. </li></ul><ul><li>Climate is the type of weather area region has over a very long period. </li></ul><ul><li>Four large oceans or bodies of water, the Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea, the Arabian Gulf, and the Indian Ocean border the Middle East. </li></ul><ul><li>Even so, mountain ranges close to many of the coastal areas block rains coming from these bodies of water and the result is that much of the interior of this region is desert. </li></ul><ul><li>Because there are coastal areas as well as a number of large rivers, other parts of this region have enough water to support agriculture and towns and cities of significant size. </li></ul>
  13. 19. <ul><li>    The word ISLAM has a two-fold meaning: peace, and submission to God. This submission requires a fully conscious and willing effort to submit to the one Almighty God. </li></ul>
  14. 20. <ul><li>Islam – submission to Allah </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim – one who submits to Allah </li></ul><ul><li>Allah – Arabic word for God (Arabic Christians and Jews use the same word) </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims pray to the same god as Christians and Jews </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims see Jesus as a very holy man, but still a man (a prophet from God) </li></ul><ul><li>Jews and Christians are considered “people of the book” </li></ul>
  15. 21. <ul><li>Muhammad (570-632) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caravan trader living in Mecca </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First teachings of the Koran revealed by the Angel Gabriel in 610 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Koran – the Islamic holy book </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rejected by the people of Mecca </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accepted by the people of Medina (Medina was the first Muslim city) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Led an army back to Mecca in 632 and conquered the city without a fight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Died in 632 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seen as a prophet – the final prophet from God </li></ul></ul>
  16. 22. <ul><ul><li>One god, Allah and Mohammad is the Prophet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prayer – 5X/day facing Mecca </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alms to the poor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fasting during Ramadan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Hajj – pilgrimage to Mecca </li></ul></ul>The Five Pillars
  17. 23. <ul><li>  </li></ul>
  18. 24. <ul><ul><li>Shahadah - The first pillar is the declaration of belief in Allah. The English translation of the Shahadah is &quot;There is nothing which has the right to be worshipped except Allah (alone) and Muhammad is His Messenger.&quot; Anyone who says these words and means it is a Muslim. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  19. 25. <ul><li>Always facing Mecca </li></ul>
  20. 26. <ul><li>Benefit of faith in this pillar: </li></ul><ul><li>1) Purification of the self (soul) from the vices of stinginess and miserliness; as they are two dispraised characteristics in all legislations, from the legislations of Allah. </li></ul><ul><li>2) Support of Islam and fulfillment of the Muslims needs. </li></ul><ul><li>3) Increase of wealth used for charity, for wealth is not decreased from charity rather it increases, rather it increases. </li></ul>
  21. 27. <ul><li>The definition of Zakat is Alms Giving. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a small portion of ones surplus of wealth equal to 2.5 % every year given to the poor and needy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can also give time to help others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eight categories of individuals may receive the zakat: [7] </li></ul><ul><li>1. The needy ( Muslims or non-Muslim ) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Extremely poor ( Muslims or non-Muslims ) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Those employed to collect </li></ul><ul><li>4. Those whose hearts are to be won </li></ul><ul><li>5. To free the captives </li></ul><ul><li>6. Those in debt ( Muslims or non-Muslims ) </li></ul><ul><li>7. In the way of Allah </li></ul><ul><li>8. Wayfarer ( Muslims or non-Muslims ) </li></ul>
  22. 28. <ul><li>Spiritual exercise of self control </li></ul><ul><li>Submission to God </li></ul><ul><li>Test of submission, do what God order even if it causes pain </li></ul>
  23. 29. <ul><li>Only to those who can afford it and healthy enough to make the journey </li></ul><ul><li>This trip is travel for the sake of God </li></ul><ul><li>  It is currently the largest annual pilgrimage in the world </li></ul>
  24. 32. <ul><li>Largely through military conquest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jihad (holy war) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Within 100 years, Muslims conquer territory from Holy Land to the Iberian Peninsula </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Displays weakness of Byzantine Empire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stopped in the West at the Battle of Tours (732) </li></ul></ul>The Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem <ul><ul><li>To the West (North Africa and Europe) </li></ul></ul>
  25. 33. <ul><li>Largely through trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attraction as a religion of salvation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arab traders control trade throughout the Indian Ocean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest Islamic country is Indonesia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>India is 25% Muslim </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spices and tea trade will be important for later units </li></ul></ul>TheTaj Mahal <ul><ul><li>To the East (Asia and India) </li></ul></ul>
  26. 34. <ul><ul><li>Attraction as a religion of salvation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Berber traders cross the Sahara Desert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Timbuktu in Mali becomes a center of Islamic learning with a great library </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Islamic proverb states that &quot;Salt comes from the north, gold from the south, but the word of God and the treasures of wisdom come from Timbuktu.“ </li></ul></ul>Mosque in Timbuktu
  27. 36. <ul><ul><li>Draws on Greek, Persian, and Indian sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mathematics, astronomy and medicine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Idea that learning is a gift from Allah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Algebra, the Zero and Surgery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed the first hospitals where the sick could be treated by professionals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advances become important components of later western culture, although it will take Christian loses in the Crusades to bring many Arab cultural ideas to Europe </li></ul></ul>Islamic Science and Medicine

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