Chapter 21


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Chapter 21

  1. 1. World Geography Chapter 21 Regional Atlas: Introduction to Central and Southwest Asia Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. World Geography Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. Section 1: Historical Overview Section 2: Physical Characteristics Section 3: Climates Section 4: Ecosystems Chapter 21: Regional Atlas: Introduction to Central and Southwest Asia Section 5: People and Cultures Section 6: Economics, Technology and Environment Section 7: Database
  3. 3. Historical Overview <ul><li>The Sumerians developed a complex civilization, and later Judaism and Christianity emerged as religions based on monotheism. </li></ul><ul><li>The Arabic-speaking peoples of the Arabian peninsula, inspired by Islam, conquered most of the region and founded an Islamic empire. </li></ul><ul><li>European powers divided Ottoman lands into a number of nations and protectorates after World War I. </li></ul><ul><li>The formation of the Jewish state of Israel was at the center of a number of clashes between Jews and Palestinian Arabs. </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim countries of the region are divided between supporters of Western-style democracy and supporters of Islamic rule. </li></ul>The agricultural revolution began in the Fertile Crescent around 8000 B.C . 1
  4. 4. Physical Characteristics 2
  5. 5. Physical Characteristics <ul><li>Mountains that experience frequent earthquakes ring the plateaus of Turkey and Iran. </li></ul><ul><li>The plains of Southwest Asia are covered with deserts, except where rivers provide water for irrigation. </li></ul><ul><li>In Central Asia, deserts cover the plains in the southwest, and rolling grasslands cover the plains in the north. </li></ul>Towering mountains and vast, arid plains dominate Central and Southwest Asia. 2
  6. 6. Climates 3
  7. 7. Climates <ul><li>Arid stretches across the Arabian Peninsula, much of Central Asia, and central Iran. </li></ul><ul><li>Semiarid covers most of Turkey and Iran, and rings the deserts of Central Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>Mediterranean lies along the coasts of the Mediterranean, Black, and Caspian seas. </li></ul><ul><li>Several other climate zones lie at the edges of the region. </li></ul>Most of this region has arid and semiarid climates, with little precipitation. 3
  8. 8. Ecosystems 4
  9. 9. Ecosystems <ul><li>Deserts cover the Arabian Peninsula, much of Central Asia, and central Iran. </li></ul><ul><li>Chaparral stretches along the coasts of the Mediterranean and Black seas. </li></ul><ul><li>Temperate grasslands cover much of northern Southwest Asia and the edges of Central Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>Forest ecosystems cover much of the highland areas. </li></ul>Desert, grassland, and chaparral ecosystems cover parts of the region. 4
  10. 10. People and Cultures <ul><li>The region’s nomadic livestock herders, who have for centuries lived in moveable tents called yurts, earn additional money by making fine rugs and carpets. </li></ul><ul><li>Mosques are the region’s most visible signs of Islamic heritage, where five times a day the muezzin, or crier, climbs the minaret to call the people to prayer. </li></ul><ul><li>Jerusalem is a city sacred to Jews, Christians, and Muslims, and a site of conflict for centuries as each group has fought for control of the region. </li></ul>Water is a scarce resource across much of the region, and the population is concentrated in river valleys and coastal areas. 5
  11. 11. Economics, Technology, and Environment 6
  12. 12. Economics, Technology, and Environment <ul><li>Commercial and subsistence farming are the main activities in areas with fertile soils and water. </li></ul><ul><li>Livestock raising and nomadic herding are practiced in most of the region. </li></ul><ul><li>Oil and natural gas extraction provide most of the region’s wealth. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydroelectric dams provide water and electricity, but also cause disputes with countries downstream. </li></ul>Most of the people in the region live in cities, where services and industry are the main economic activities. 6
  13. 13. Database <ul><li>Azerbaijan, a former Soviet republic, has a trade deficit, exports mostly oil and machinery, and could reduce the trade imbalance by expanding oil production. </li></ul><ul><li>Kazakhstan, another former Soviet republic, has a trade surplus, exporting mostly oil and metals and importing manufactured goods. </li></ul><ul><li>Saudi Arabia is the world’s largest exporter of petroleum products, and despite the nation’s need to import food and manufactured goods, petroleum exports give it an immense trade surplus. </li></ul><ul><li>Israel has an advanced technological economy, but has a trade deficit because it imports raw materials and military equipment. </li></ul>7