Country project-Madeline Avallon


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  • Country project-Madeline Avallon

    1. 1. Country Project Madeline Avallon
    3. 3. Oman
    4. 4. Maps of Oman
    5. 5. Description <ul><li>Total Area: 309,500 sq km </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0 sq km of water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Location : 21 00 N, 57 00 E </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the Middle East </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman, and Persian Gulf. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>between Yemen and UAE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Population: 3,027,959 </li></ul><ul><li>Climate: arid subtropical, the climate differs from one region to another. the interior is normally very hot, with temperatures from May to October. The coastal areas are hot and humid from April to October. The summer wind, the Gharbi , makes the heat more oppressive. the south has a more moderate climate. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Flag <ul><li>The white represents peace and prosperity, the red remembers battles against foreign invaders, and the green symbolizes fertility and the Jebel Akhdar or Green Mountains. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Geography <ul><li>desert plains in the center </li></ul><ul><li>rugged mountains in the north and south </li></ul><ul><li>lowest point: Arabian Sea 0 m. </li></ul><ul><li>highest point: Jabal Shams 2,980 m </li></ul><ul><li>it is broken into 5 regions: Ad Dakhiliyah, Al Batinah, Al Wusta, Ash Sharqiyah and Az Zahirah, and 3 governorates: Masqat, Musandam and Zufur </li></ul><ul><li>There are no lakes in Oman, the country has two large areas of salt flats, one in the west-central region and another off the eastern coast. </li></ul><ul><li>Capital: Muscat </li></ul>
    8. 8. Geography (continued) <ul><li>Wildlife includes: leopard, Oryx, gazelle, ibex, desert foxes, wild cats, 400 species of birds, exotic marine life like turtles, tropical fish, and also 22 species of whale and dolphin in warm waters </li></ul><ul><li>Oman offers some of the most stunning beaches with a coastline of 1700km. </li></ul><ul><li>Khawr Najd, Kumzar Village located in the far north of Musandam peninsula, and Salalah a well known beach, the city of Muscat, its museums and mosques; the coastal sea town of Sur; the historical monuments of Nizwa - the country's ancient capital; the Musandam Peninsula with endless fishing and scuba diving are just a few interesting attractions </li></ul>
    9. 9. History <ul><li>Little is known about Oman's pre-Islamic past but recent discoveries say that early civilizations existed at least 5,000 years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>The Omanis are believed to have come from Yemen or northern Arabia. </li></ul><ul><li>The conversion to Islam occurred in the 7th century. Muscat, the capital was occupied by the Portuguese from 1508 to 1648, then the Ottoman Turks. in 1741, Ahmad Ibn Sa'id forced the Turks out, and the descendants of Sultan Ahmad rule Oman today. </li></ul><ul><li>On July 23, 1970, the sultan, Sa'id bin Taimur, was overthrown by his son, Qabus Ibn Sa'id, who promised to establish a modern government Oman joined the Arab League and the United Nations in 1971. </li></ul>
    10. 10. History (continued) <ul><li>In 1997, Sultan Qabus granted women the right to be elected to the country's consultative body, the Shura Council. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2003, the sultan extended voting rights to everyone over 21; previously, voters were selected from among the elite, and only about a quarter of the population was allowed to vote. </li></ul><ul><li>A long border dispute with Yemen was resolved in Oct. 1992; in 1997, </li></ul>
    11. 11. Current Day <ul><li>In late February 2011, protesters took to the streets of Sohar in the northeast, and demanded higher salaries, more employment opportunities, and other political reform. Police moved in and fired rubber bullets at the demonstrators, killing two people. After the violence, Sultan Qabus promised to create 50,000 jobs and offered each person seeking employment about $390 per month. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Economy <ul><li>Natural resources include: oil, natural gas, copper, marble, limestone, and chromium. </li></ul><ul><li>Products include dates, bananas, mangos, alfalfa </li></ul><ul><li>Fisheries include kingfish, tuna, shrimp, lobster, abalone. </li></ul><ul><li>Trade (2008): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exports -$37.72 billion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Major markets --China, U.A.E., Japan, South Korea, Thailand. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imports --$22.92 billion: machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured goods, food, livestock, lubricants. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Major suppliers --U.A.E., Japan, United States, China, India. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Major industries include: crude oil production and refining, natural and liquefied natural gas production; construction, cement, copper, steel, chemicals, optic fiber. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Economy/Politics <ul><li>Oman is a middle-income economy. </li></ul><ul><li>it is dependent on oil resources but because of declining reserves, it has actively pursued a development plan that focuses on diversification, industrialization, and privatization, to reduce the oil sector's contribution to GDP </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism and gas-based industries are key components of the government's diversification strategy. </li></ul><ul><li>Government type- Monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Government Leader- Sultan Ahmad </li></ul>
    14. 14. People <ul><li>Ethnic Groups: Arab, Baluchi, South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, Sri Lankan, Bangladeshi), African </li></ul><ul><li>Religions: Ibadhi Muslim 75%,Sunni Muslim, Shia Muslim, Hindu </li></ul><ul><li>Arabic (official), English, Baluchi, Urdu, Indian dialects </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>total population: 81.4% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>male: 86.8% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>female: 73.5% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>20% of Oman’s population uses internet </li></ul>
    15. 15. People (continued) <ul><li>Life Expectancy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>total population: 74.22 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>male: 72.38 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>female : 76.16 years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clothing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Omani men wear dishdasha, simple collarless gowns to the ankle. Furakha is a tassel sewn into the neckline of this dress, dipped in perfume. A plain piece of cloth is worn below the dishdasha covering the body. they also wear different headdresses. Some men carry an ornamental stick called assa. Most men wear sandals on their feet. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Omani women dress in colorful, ornate clothing to reflect regions. The main component is a sirwal and a headdress called lihaf. they wear elaborate gold and silver jewelry around the head, neck, wrists, ankles, fingers and toes. Most women wear sandals and many paint their hands and feet with henna, especially before weddings, holidays and festivals. </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Culture <ul><li>Omani food represent a variety and are unique from other Arab counties. </li></ul><ul><li>Kahwa is a bitter drink like coffee flavored. It is served with Lokhemat, a deep-fried ball of flour and yeast spiced with dry fruits and nuts. Rice, meat, fish and bread are the main ingredients of most Omani dishes, like maqbous and aursia. Other specials are buttermilk drinks, salads and soups. </li></ul><ul><li>Shuva is a popular festive meal requiring an elaborate preparation, often by the whole village community. To make this, a whole cow is roasted up for two days in a special oven placed in a pit dug in the ground. The meat becomes extremely tender and is then spiced elaborately. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Culture (continued) <ul><li>Oman people have a great appreciation for tradition, the country preserves the richness of Arabian culture </li></ul><ul><li>They make ornate silverware and detailed embroidery </li></ul><ul><li>The music has rhythm that adds a unique touch to the tunes. Music is a big part of the peoples’ life. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They use instruments like the mizmar, rababa, and tanbura. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dance in Oman is marked by vibrant movements and all forms share a common dependency on beats and movement. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Conclusion <ul><li>Oman is a country very rich in tradition and heritage. It has a variety of wildlife and resources. Although they have no water internally it is surrounded by water so fishing is very successful. The government is very dependent on oil resource and are industrializing to reduce oil use. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Svalbard
    20. 20. Maps of Sval bard
    21. 21. Description <ul><li>Total area: 62,045 sq km </li></ul><ul><ul><li>water : 0 sq km </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>slightly smaller than West Virginia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Climate: Arctic, cool summers, cold winters; North Atlantic Current flows along west and north coasts, keeping water open and navigable most of the year </li></ul>
    22. 22. Description <ul><li>Located in Northern Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>between the Arctic Ocean, Barents Sea, Greenland Sea, and Norwegian Sea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>north of Norway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>78 00 N, 20 00 E </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Population : 2,019 </li></ul><ul><li>Capital: Longyearbyen </li></ul>
    23. 23. Flag of Svalbard <ul><li>It is the same as the flag of Norway </li></ul>
    24. 24. Geography <ul><li>rugged mountains </li></ul><ul><li>much land is ice covered </li></ul><ul><li>west coast clear of ice for about one-half of the year </li></ul><ul><li>fjords along west and north coasts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>long, narrow inlet with steep sides </li></ul></ul><ul><li>lowest point: Arctic Ocean 0 m </li></ul><ul><li>highest point: Newtontoppen 1,717 m </li></ul><ul><li>northernmost part of the Kingdom of Norway; consists of nine main islands; glaciers and snowfields cover 60% of the total area </li></ul>
    25. 25. Geography <ul><li>The principal islands are Spitsbergen, Nordaustlandet, Barentsøya, Edgeøya, Kong Karls Land, Prins Karls Forland, and Bjørnøya (Bear Island). </li></ul><ul><li>there are few lakes on Svalbard. Most lakes are small and shallow, and many bottom-freeze in winter. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The best known and studied lake on Svalbard is Linné­vatnet,. It is more than 5 km long. </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Wildlife <ul><li>The only indigenous land mammals in Svalbard are the Arctic fox, the Svalbard reindeer and the polar bear. </li></ul><ul><li>Sea mammals include the ringed and the bearded seal, walruses and various species of whales, especially minky whales and belugas. </li></ul><ul><li>Svalbard has a very rich bird life in summer. The ptarmigan is the only bird to remain on the island a whole year. The most common birds are auks, arctic owls and gulls. </li></ul><ul><li>There are no trees, but the polar willow and the dwarf birch form small bushes. </li></ul><ul><li>Most common plants are mosses, lichen and fungi, but there are also about 170 vascular plants. </li></ul>
    27. 27. Attractions <ul><li>Most tourists arrive during spring and summer. Spitsbergen is one of the few places in Norway where a snowmobile can be driven in open country without special permission. </li></ul><ul><li>This is the only place in Europe where polar bears can be seen living in their natural habitat. </li></ul><ul><li>With few roads outside these settlements and the main way to see more of the island is on foot, snowmobile or by boat. </li></ul><ul><li>Expedition cruises arrive throughout the summer so tourists can explore the coast, see huge glaciers, visit the settlements and watch the wildlife. You can also join expeditions and go hiking and kayaking on the mountains and in the fjords. </li></ul><ul><li>In winter you can do many things like snowmobiling and husky sledding. </li></ul>
    28. 28. History <ul><li>the Dutch voyager Willem Barents, in search of a northeast passage to China is the first visitor from the European mainland. He named the islands Spitsbergen, or ‘sharp mountains’. The Norwegian name, Svalbard, comes from the Old Norse for ‘cold coast’. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1920 the Svalbard Treaty granted Norway sovereignty over the islands and restricted military activities. Initially signed by nine nations, it now has over 40 adherents, whose citizens enjoy the same rights on the islands as Norwegians themselves. </li></ul>
    29. 29. Politics <ul><li>territory of Norway </li></ul><ul><li>administered by the Polar Department of the Ministry of Justice, through a governor residing in Longyearbyen, Spitsbergen; </li></ul><ul><li>sovereignty was awarded to Norway by treaty (9 February 1920) </li></ul><ul><li>chief of state: King Harald V of Norway </li></ul><ul><li>head of government: Governor Odd Olsen Ingero </li></ul><ul><li>Assistant Governor Lars Fause </li></ul><ul><li>no elections, the monarchy is hereditary; </li></ul>
    30. 30. Economy <ul><li>Coal mining, tourism, and international research are the major businesses </li></ul><ul><li>There is also hunting of seals, reindeer, and foxes. </li></ul><ul><li>Export $197.6 million </li></ul><ul><li>Trade partners: UK, Germany, Netherlands, France, Sweden, US </li></ul>
    31. 31. Culture <ul><li>Traditions: fur trapping </li></ul><ul><li>You can dog sleigh or scooter </li></ul><ul><li>They have colorful houses to contrast with the mountains </li></ul><ul><li>Kayaking or hiking, many adventurous activities </li></ul><ul><li>Food: Lapskois- traditional food, is potato simmered with diced beef, carrots and sausages. </li></ul><ul><li>Fish is also very important because of Svalbard’s location </li></ul><ul><li>Protestant religion </li></ul><ul><li>Language : English, Norwegian is spoken in Norwegian settlements, and Russian in Russian settlements. </li></ul>
    32. 32. Conclusion <ul><li>Svalbard is Europe’s northern most territory, it is a territory of Norway and is made up of several different islands. Coal mining and tourism are their most successful businesses. Many tourists go to see the ice and glaciers and other beautiful sites. </li></ul>
    33. 33. Bosnia and Herzegovina
    34. 34. Maps of Bosnia Herzegovina
    35. 35. Description <ul><li>Capital: Sarajevo </li></ul><ul><li>Location: Southeastern Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bordering Croatia, Montenegro, Serbia and the Adriatic Sea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>44 00 N, 18 00 E </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Total Area: 51,197 sq km </li></ul><ul><ul><li>water: 10 sq km </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>slightly smaller than West Virginia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Climate: hot summers and cold winters; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters while the coast has mild, rainy winters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Population: 4,622,163 </li></ul>
    36. 36. Flag of Bosnia Herzegovina <ul><li>the triangle represents the shape of the country and its three points stand for the Bosnians, Croats, and Serbs </li></ul><ul><li>the stars represent Europe and are meant to be continuous, that’s why there are half stars at the top and bottom </li></ul><ul><li>the colors represent neutrality and peace, which are normally linked with Bosnia </li></ul>
    37. 37. Geography <ul><li>It is made up of many mountains and valleys </li></ul><ul><li>lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m </li></ul><ul><li>highest point: Maglic 2,386 m </li></ul><ul><li>Natural resources: coal, iron ore, bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, cobalt, manganese, nickel, clay, gypsum, salt, sand, timber, hydropower </li></ul><ul><li>Rivers and Lakes: Glina , Sava Bosna, Neretva and Bijela are a few of the many bodies of water found there. </li></ul><ul><li>Wildlife: Eurasian lynx, bears, hundreds of species of birds, which are attracted to the many species of fish </li></ul>
    38. 38. Attractions <ul><li>Sarajevo is the “European Jerusalem” because of its many mosques, synagogues, and churches. </li></ul><ul><li>Sarajevo bridges, The City Hall- the biggest building from the Austro-Hungarian period, Emperor's mosque and Cathedral of Jesus' Sacred Heart </li></ul>
    39. 39. History <ul><li>Bosnia-Herzegovina is annexed to Austria-Hungary. Austria-Hungary collapses at the end of world war I. </li></ul><ul><li>Bosnia-Herzegovina becomes part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. </li></ul><ul><li>It becomes a republic within the Yugoslav Socialist Federation. </li></ul><ul><li>conflict breaks out between Muslims and Croats </li></ul><ul><li>In 1995 Dayton peace accord creates two lands, one for Bosnian Muslims and Croats, the other for Serbs </li></ul><ul><li>2011- Bosnia's central government has still not yet been formed </li></ul>
    40. 40. Political <ul><li>It is trying to become a federal democratic republic </li></ul><ul><li>Chairman of the Presidency Nebojsa Radmanovic </li></ul><ul><li>Chairman of the Council of Ministers Nikola Spiric </li></ul>
    41. 41. Economy <ul><li>second poorest republic of the former Yugoslavia </li></ul><ul><li>Major industries: steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, aluminum, vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, ammunition, domestic appliances, oil refining </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture: wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables; livestock </li></ul><ul><li>Exports: metals, clothing, wood products </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Partners: Croatia, Slovenia, Italy, Germany, Austria </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Imports: machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, food </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Partners: Croatia, Germany, Slovenia, Italy, Austria, Hungary </li></ul></ul>
    42. 42. Culture <ul><li>Food: The food is influenced by its Balkan neighbors. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bread, soups, stews, kebabs, cevapcici-minced meat sausages, and stuffed peppers. Side dishes, such as sour cabbage, tomato and onion salad and yogurt, are often served. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sarajevski sahan: vegetables stuffed with meat and rice. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bosnian pot: thick stew-like soup made of veal and vegetables flavored spices like cardamom, cloves and cinnamon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desserts eaten are fruit, pancakes, cakes and pastries. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Language: Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian </li></ul><ul><li>Religion: about 40% Muslim, a little over 30% Orthodox Church, about 15% Roman Catholic. </li></ul><ul><li>the end of Ramadan is celebrated with a large family meal and sweets and pastries </li></ul>
    43. 43. Culture (cont) <ul><li>Bosnia has a patriarchal tradition in which women are expected to be subservient to men </li></ul><ul><li>Women are responsible for all domestic tasks, including cooking, cleaning, and child rearing </li></ul><ul><li>inheritance follows a system of primogeniture </li></ul><ul><li>It is traditional to remove one's shoes and put on a pair of slippers. </li></ul><ul><li>Kissing is a common form of greeting for both men and women, three kisses on the cheeks </li></ul>
    44. 44. Conclusion <ul><li>Bosnia and Herzegovina is influenced greatly by its surrounding nations. Its economy is not doing very well, it is one of the poorest of the former Yugoslavia lands. There is also difficulty forming a central government. </li></ul><ul><li>There are many places to visit and many species of fish and birds all around. It is a patriarchal and most women work in the homes </li></ul>
    45. 45. French Guiana
    46. 46. Maps of French Guiana
    47. 47. Description <ul><li>Capital: Cayenne </li></ul><ul><li>Location: northeast coast of South America, north of Brazil, east of Suriname </li></ul><ul><li>Total Area: 35,135 sq mi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water:714 sq mi. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Population: 203,321 (2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Climate: Tropical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry season is August to December; rainy season is December, January and April to July. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average temperature is 85°F year round </li></ul></ul>
    48. 48. Flag of French Guiana <ul><li>French Guiana uses the French flag because it is French territory so their official flag is the tricolor. </li></ul><ul><li>But lately some independent parties who want freedom from the French have started using independent flags like the second one seen here. </li></ul>
    49. 49. Geography <ul><li>Lowland moist forest, swamp forest, low summit forest </li></ul><ul><li>Amazon, Negro and Orinoco rivers </li></ul><ul><li>It has twenty-six different regions </li></ul><ul><li>Cayenne River, Wanapi River, Inini River, and the Mana River are a few of the rivers in French Guiana </li></ul><ul><li>It is a French territory </li></ul><ul><li>Opossum, armadillo, sloth, anteater, rabbit, crocodile, iguana, snake, stork, parrot, shark, ray and bat are all found here </li></ul>
    50. 50. Places of Interest <ul><li>Iles du Salut </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Devil’s Island – where political prisoners were held </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kourou - The main French Space Center </li></ul><ul><li>Emerald Jungle Village </li></ul><ul><li>Fort Diamant </li></ul><ul><li>Salvation Islands </li></ul>
    51. 51. History <ul><li>1498 French Guiana was first visited by Christopher Columbus on his third voyage and </li></ul><ul><li>In 1604 France tried to settle there, but had to abandon it because of the Portuguese, who said it violated the Treaty of Tordesillas. </li></ul><ul><li>French settlers returned, however, in 1643 and managed to establish a settlement at Cayenne </li></ul><ul><li>French Guiana became an overseas department of France in 1946. </li></ul><ul><li>The penal colonies, including Devil's Island, were phased out and then formally closed in 1951. </li></ul><ul><li>At first, only those freed prisoners who could raise the fare for their return passage to France were able to go home, so French Guiana was haunted after the official closing of the prisons by freed convicts </li></ul>
    52. 52. Government <ul><li>chief of state: President of France: Jacques CHIRAC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a territory of France </li></ul></ul><ul><li>President of the General Council Stephan PHINERA </li></ul><ul><li>General Council-19 seats, members are elected by popular vote, serve six-year terms </li></ul><ul><li>Regional Council-31 seats, members are elected by popular vote, serve six-year terms </li></ul>
    53. 53. Economy <ul><li>Exports: shrimp, timber, gold, rum, rosewood essence, clothing, fish </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Partners: France, Switzerland, US </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Imports: food machinery and transport equipment, fuels and chemicals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Partners: France, US, Trinidad and Tobago, Italy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is dependent on importing </li></ul><ul><li>Main industry: construction, shrimp processing, forestry products, rum, gold mining </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture products: corn, rice, sugar, cocoa, vegetables, bananas; cattle, poultry </li></ul>
    54. 54. Culture <ul><li>languages: French (official), Creole </li></ul><ul><li>religion: Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>Life expectancy: 72 years (men), 78 years (women) </li></ul><ul><li>Food: a lot of fish, fruits and vegetables, many spices, hot peppers, curry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roti is a popular dish its made with meat and vegetables, cooked with curry and wrapped in bread. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>83% literacy rate </li></ul><ul><li>20.5% internet usage (2007) </li></ul>
    55. 55. Conclusion <ul><li>French Guiana is a territory of France so it has many things in common with France. The people rely on importing items very much. The warm temperature is good for many animals that live there as well as for items to export </li></ul>
    56. 56. Mongolia
    57. 57. Maps of Mongolia
    58. 58. Description <ul><li>Capital: Ulaanbaatar </li></ul><ul><li>Total area:1,564,116 sq km </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water : 10,560 sq km </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Location: Northern Asia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>between China and Russia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>46 00 N, 105 00 E </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Climate: extreme continental climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>with long, cold winters and short summers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>averages 257 cloudless days a year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precipitation in the north averages 20 to 35 centimeters a year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in the south it receives 10 to 20 centimeters a year </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Population: 3,133,318 </li></ul>
    59. 59. Flag of Mongolia <ul><li>blue represents the sky, red symbolizes progress and prosperity </li></ul><ul><li>the national emblem is on the left, it is an arrangement of abstract and geometric representations for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang symbol </li></ul>
    60. 60. Geography <ul><li>semi-desert and desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in south-central </li></ul><ul><li>lowest point: Hoh Nuur 560 m </li></ul><ul><li>highest point: Nayramadlin Orgil 4,374 m </li></ul><ul><li>Landlocked, some areas have limited fresh water </li></ul><ul><li>Lakes and rivers: Lake Khövsgöl, many salt lakes, Beltes River, Khogorog River, Selenge River </li></ul><ul><li>Wildlife: 136 mammal species,400 types of birds, 76 species of fish. Wolves, snow leopards, wild boar, elk, brown bears, marmot, muskrat, fox, steppe fox, wild horses and sable are just a few . </li></ul>
    61. 61. History <ul><li>1206-1263 after the unification of the Mongol tribes, Genghis Khan launches create the world's biggest land empire. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1636 - The Manchu (Qing) empire conquers the southern Mongols, creating Inner Mongolia. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1691 - The Qing empire offers protection to the northern Mongols, creating Outer Mongolia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1919 - The Chinese army occupies Outer Mongolia </li></ul><ul><li>Mongolian People's Republic is proclaimed </li></ul><ul><li>1992 - new constitution gives human rights and freedoms. </li></ul>
    62. 62. Government <ul><li>Government type: parliamentary </li></ul><ul><li>It has 21 provinces </li></ul><ul><li>Government leaders: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>President- Tsakhia Elbegdorj </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prime Minister- Sukhbaatar Batbold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deputy Prime- Minister Miegombyn ENKHBOLD </li></ul></ul>
    63. 63. Economy <ul><li>herding and agriculture, construction and construction materials; mining (coal, copper, molybdenum, fluorspar, tin, tungsten, and gold); oil; food and beverages; processing of animal products, cashmere and natural fiber manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>wheat, barley, vegetables, forage crops; sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses </li></ul><ul><li>Exports: copper, apparel, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, coal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Partners: China, Canada, Russia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Imports: machinery and equipment, fuel, cars, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Partners: China, Russia, South Korea, Japan </li></ul></ul>
    64. 64. Culture <ul><li>Culture has been shaped by the extreme climate, the Mongol peoples nomadic way, their ability to adapt, and the vision of Genghis Khan </li></ul><ul><li>Music:  conveys a deep appreciation for their country, its beauty and vast landscape. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>songs are often about beloved horses and the Mongolian countryside. Herders sing while riding  their horses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Food: meat is a big part of Mongolian diet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The main meats are mutton and beef </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fried pancakes made from mutton and flour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Butter, yogurt, cheese and milk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fish is sometimes available </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Religion: Buddhist Lamaist 50%, Shamanist and Christian 6%, Muslim 4%, 40% no religion </li></ul>
    65. 65. Culture (cont) <ul><li>Language: Khalkha Mongol 90%, Turkic, Russian </li></ul><ul><li>12.5% of Mongolians use the internet </li></ul><ul><li>98.4% literacy rate </li></ul><ul><li>Clothing: The del is the traditional clothing. typically it is made of wool and worn by both men and women. Dels look like knee-length togas. They have a silk sash around the waist. They’re more functional than beautiful because of nomadic people living in the northern climes. </li></ul>
    66. 66. Conclusion <ul><li>Mongolia is a country with very important traditions. They follow traditions from the nomadic Mongols very much. They appreciate there land and country very much. They have many different animals living their even though the climate is cold most of the year. </li></ul>
    67. 67. Anguilla
    68. 68. Maps of Anguilla
    69. 69. Description <ul><li>Location: between the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean, east of Puerto Rico </li></ul><ul><ul><li>18 15 N, 63 10 W </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Total area:91 sq km </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water 0 sq km </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Climate: tropical humid; climate depends on Northeast Trade Winds. </li></ul><ul><li>average rainfall 900-1000 mm </li></ul><ul><li>June to November are hurricane months </li></ul><ul><li>Capital: The Valley </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 15,094 </li></ul><ul><li>It is a British overseas territory </li></ul>
    70. 70. Flag of Anguilla <ul><li>the flag of the UK is in the upper left corner and the Anguillan coat of arms is centered on the other half. </li></ul><ul><li>the coat of arms is three orange dolphins in a circular design on a white background with a light blue below </li></ul><ul><li>the white in the background represents peace; the blue base symbolizes the surrounding sea, as well as faith, youth, and hope; the three dolphins stand for endurance, unity, and strength </li></ul>
    71. 71. Geography <ul><li>lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m </li></ul><ul><li>highest point: Crocus Hill 65 m </li></ul><ul><li>Anguilla is a coral and limestone island </li></ul><ul><li>It is covered with sparse vegetation, </li></ul><ul><li>no rivers; several salt ponds, used for the production of salt. </li></ul><ul><li>Wildlife: flamingos, island goats, scorpion, craps, tortoises, cows, lizards and birds, these animals have adapted to Anguillas harsh climate to survive </li></ul>
    72. 72. History <ul><li>Anguilla is administered by the British Government through Antigua from 1667 to 1824 </li></ul><ul><li>Placed under control of St. Kitts and suffer for years </li></ul><ul><li>They expel St. Kitts-directed police force and demand direct links with Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>Britain invades Anguilla, the military force is met by a few children and journalists, not a shot was fired. world press heaps scorn on Britain(1969) </li></ul><ul><li>1980: Britain agrees to allows Anguilla to become a British Dependent Territory </li></ul>
    73. 73. Government <ul><li>Queen Elizabeth II, represented by Governor Alistair Harrison </li></ul><ul><li>head of government: Chief Minister Hubert Hughes </li></ul><ul><li>overseas territory of the UK </li></ul>
    74. 74. Economy <ul><li>Anguilla is not industrialized </li></ul><ul><li>few natural resources; the economy depends tourism, offshore banking, lobster fishing, and remittances from emigrants </li></ul><ul><li>Exports: lobster, fish, livestock, salt, concrete blocks, rum </li></ul><ul><li>Imports: fuels, foodstuffs, manufactures, chemicals, trucks, textiles </li></ul><ul><li>Great Britain and its neighboring islands are Anguilla's major trade partners </li></ul>
    75. 75. Culture <ul><li>men make up the majority of the workforce. But women own shops or work in the tourist business, in hotels, restaurants, or markets. Women are also employed in agricultural work </li></ul><ul><li>Politeness and manners are considered important </li></ul><ul><li>Religion: Protestant mainly Anglican and Methodist, Roman Catholic is second-largest religious group, Obeah, which is similar to voodoo is practiced by some. </li></ul><ul><li>Language: English, Creole language- a mixture of English and African languages. </li></ul><ul><li>46.3% of Anguilla’s population uses the internet </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy rate: 95% </li></ul>
    76. 76. Conclusion <ul><li>Although Anguilla is not industrialized it seems to be doing pretty well and may be in the process of industrialization. They have a 95% literacy rate. Men make up most of the work force but women can work as well. Their economy depends heavily on tourism and their tropical climate makes tourism very successful. </li></ul>
    77. 77. Belize
    78. 78. Maps of Belize
    79. 79. Description <ul><li>Capital: Belmopan </li></ul><ul><li>Location: Central America, between Guatemala and Mexico </li></ul><ul><ul><li>17 15 N, 88 45 W </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Total Area: 22,966 sq km </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water: 160 sq. km. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>slightly smaller than Massachusetts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Climate: tropical; hot and humid; May to November is the rainy season; February to May is the dry season; temperature usually ranges from 50 °F to 95 °F </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 321,115 </li></ul>
    80. 80. Flag of Belize <ul><li>In the center is a white circle with the coat of arms, which is a shield with two workers in front of a mahogany tree with the motto SUB UMBRA FLOREO - I Flourish in the Shade - on a scroll at the bottom, all surrounded by 50 mahogany leaves </li></ul><ul><li>the colors represent the two main political parties: blue-PUP, red-UDP; the figures, the tools, the mahogany tree, and the garland of leaves in the coat of arms recall the logging industry that led to British settlement of Belize </li></ul>
    81. 81. Geography <ul><li>The land is a flat, swampy coastal plain; low mountains in south, it has a lot of forests </li></ul><ul><li>lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m </li></ul><ul><li>highest point: Victoria Peak at 1120 m </li></ul><ul><li>The Belize River is the main river. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Golden Stream, Middle River, Deep River, Freshwater Creek , Mango Creek, Anacleto River, Brian Chan River and Israel Pond are just a few more rivers and lakes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>6 districts: Belize, Cayo, Corozal, Orange Walk, Stann Creek, Toledo </li></ul>
    82. 82. Places of Interest <ul><li>St. John's Cathedral- the oldest building in Belize </li></ul><ul><li>Bliss Institute for the Performing Arts, House of Culture Museum and Baron Bliss Lighthouse Monument </li></ul><ul><li>Swing Bridge- the only functional manually operated swing bridge in the world today </li></ul>
    83. 83. History <ul><li>That Mayan civilization flourished here for eons; great cities were formed, massive ceremonial buildings, palaces, temples and personal dwellings were constructed, and the people farmed the land very well. </li></ul><ul><li>The Spanish tried to take over the Mayans in Belize but could never succeed. </li></ul><ul><li>There was conflict between the Spanish and British over control of Belize. </li></ul><ul><li>The British had limited power while the Spanish had sovereignty over Belize until September 10, 1798 when there was a Spanish attack on the Settlement of Belize </li></ul><ul><li>The British won and the Spanish never tried to control Belize again </li></ul><ul><li>Caste War of Yucatán was the war of the Mayan people against those of European descent </li></ul>
    84. 84. Current Day <ul><li>The Central Bank of Belize and The Belize Bank are in a court battle. The Central Bank wants the Belize Bank to stop parallel banking. This was brought up because of the dept of the Luke Espat Group which is a total of 190 million Belize dollars. 150 million is being covered by the Turks and Cairos but the rest is for the Belize Bank. </li></ul><ul><li>They went to court because the Belize Bank doesn't think the Central Bank has the authority to tell them to stop parallel banking. The trial will begin on March 23. The outcome can have a great effect on how Belize's largest banks operate. </li></ul>
    85. 85. Government <ul><li>It is a parliamentary democracy and a Commonwealth realm </li></ul><ul><li>chief of state: Queen Elizabeth II, represented by Governor General Sir Colville Young, Sr. </li></ul><ul><li>Prime Minister Dean Oliver Barrow Deputy </li></ul><ul><li>Prime Minister Gaspar Vega </li></ul><ul><li>The Cabinet is appointed by the governor general with the advice of the prime minister. </li></ul><ul><li>National Assembly: Senate -12 seats-serve five-year terms and the House of Representatives -31 seats, members are elected by direct popular vote and serve five-year terms </li></ul>
    86. 86. Economy <ul><li>Tourism is the best industry followed by exports of marine products, citrus, cane sugar, bananas, and garments. </li></ul><ul><li>Exports : sugar, bananas, citrus, clothing, fish products, molasses, wood, crude oil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Partners: US, UK, Nigeria, Cote d'Ivoire </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Imports : machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, fuels, chemicals, pharmaceuticals; food, beverages, tobacco </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Partners: US, Mexico, Cuba, Guatemala, Spain, China </li></ul></ul>
    87. 87. Culture <ul><li>Belize’s culture is a unique mix of Mayans, Mennonites, Kriols, Garifuna, Mestizos, Spanish, English, Lebanese, East Indian and Chinese </li></ul><ul><li>The official language is English, but Spanish is used a lot too. The Mayans, Garifuna and Mennonites speak in their own languages. </li></ul><ul><li>Religion: Roman Catholic </li></ul><ul><li>Rice is part of their daily diet. They eat rice and beans, with fried chicken, or sweet beef. They use red beans instead of the black bean, which are used in other Latin American countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Some taditional foods are: relleno, tamales, escabeche, tacos, chimole and negro. Fruit and vegetable salad also are important parts of Belizean food. Corn is important for making tortillas, bollos and tamalitos . </li></ul>
    88. 88. Culture (cont) <ul><li>The people love festivals, like the San Pedro International Costa Maya Festival, Belize Carnival or International Film Festival Belize . </li></ul><ul><li>The Europeans brought instruments like polkas, schottisches, waltzes and quadrilles, while Africans brought instruments like the marimba. </li></ul><ul><li>The mix of Mestizo, African, Mayan and British influence give their music a unique sound </li></ul><ul><li>brukdown music, is famous in the interior logging camps and is played using a banjo, guitar, drums, dingaling bell, accordion and an ass' jawbone, is a tradition in Belize </li></ul>
    89. 89. Daily Life <ul><li>Literacy rate: total population: 76.9% male: 76.7% female: 77.1% </li></ul><ul><li>Clothing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women wear long dresses, normally plain, bright colors with lace around the collar and sleeves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Men wear Euro-American style clothing mostly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>10.6% of the population uses internet </li></ul>
    90. 90. Conclusion <ul><li>Belize’s tropical climate attracts many tourists. Tourism supports the economy the most. The culture is a mixture of many different cultures which makes it very unique </li></ul><ul><li>Random Facts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>only country in Central America without a coastline on the North Pacific Ocean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Belize's flag is the only national flag that shows human beings on it </li></ul></ul>
    91. 91. Works Cited <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>