Chapter 20


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Chapter 20

  1. 1. Today’s Issues: Africa European colonialism of the 1800s has left most of today’s independent African nations with economic, health, educational, and political problems. NEXT
  2. 2. SECTION 1 Economic Development SECTION 2 Health Care Today’s Issues: Africa Case Study Effects of Colonialism NEXT
  3. 3. Section 1 Economic Development • Africa’s history of colonization has had long-term effects on its economy. • Barriers to African economic development include illiteracy, foreign debt, and a lack of manufacturing industries. NEXT
  4. 4. Africa’s Economy Today A History of Problems • Most countries do little manufacturing - sell raw materials to industrialized countries • European colonizers exploited Africa’s resources, people - millions sold into slavery or died from harsh working conditions • Land was mined, drilled; environment was ignored • All this has limited Africa’s economic growth, political stability SECTION 1 Economic Development Continued . . . NEXT
  5. 5. SECTION 1 continued Africa’s Economy Today Africa’s Economic Status • Most African countries are worse off today than in 1960 - average incomes have decreased - worldwide: accounts for 1% of total GNP, 1.5% of exports • Lack crucial infrastructure (roads, airports, railroads, ports) • Little access to computers or high technology NEXT
  6. 6. On the Road to Development Reducing Debt and Increasing Cooperation • Newly independent countries borrowed money to build economies - total debt of sub-Saharan governments was $227 billion by 1997 - many Western leaders push to forgive Africa’s debts • Trying to improve economies through regional cooperation - Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) - Southern African Development Community (SADC) - groups promote trade, improvement of infrastructure SECTION 1 NEXT Continued . . .
  7. 7. SECTION 1 continued On the Road to Development Building Industries • “One-commodity” countries rely on export of one or two commodities - commodity—agricultural or mining product that can be sold - value varies daily based on worldwide supply and demand - this makes “one-commodity” nations’ economies unstable • Economists want Africans to diversify—create variety in economies - promote manufacturing to achieve economic growth and stabilty • East Africa’s Djibouti established shipping center on Gulf of Aden NEXT
  8. 8. Educating Workers Improving Education • Uneducated populace is a large barrier to economic development • Average schooling time for women up only 1.2 years in last 40 years • In Angola and Somalia, civil wars have destroyed school systems • But in Algeria, 94% get a formal education - 83% of Mauritians over 15 are literate SECTION 1 NEXT Reversing the Brain Drain • Many professionals migrate to Western nations - International Organization for Migration urges return
  9. 9. Section 2 Health Care • Epidemic diseases are killing Africa’s people in huge numbers. • African nations and countries around the world are using a variety of methods, including education, to eradicate disease. NEXT
  10. 10. Disease and Despair Serious Diseases • Cholera—sometimes fatal infection - spread by poor sanitation, lack of clean water • Malaria—often-fatal infectious disease marked by chills, fever - carried by mosquitoes; resistant to drugs due to overuse • Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)— caused by HIV virus - 70% of adult, 80% of child AIDS cases are in Africa - often paired with tuberculosis—infectious respiratory infection SECTION 2 Health Care NEXT
  11. 11. AIDS Stalks the Continent Africa Bears the Brunt • 3 million died from AIDS worldwide in 2000 - 2.4 million lived in sub-Saharan Africa • In Swaziland, 3 of 4 deaths were from AIDS - life expectancy has fallen from 58 years to 39 • In 2000, 26 million people in Africa had HIV or AIDS SECTION 2 NEXT Continued . . .
  12. 12. SECTION 2 continued AIDS Stalks the Continent A High Price to Pay • Widespread disease has economic consequences - sick people work less or not at all, earn less, slip into poverty • AIDS is lowering South Africa’s GDP - by 2010, it could be 17% lower compared to without AIDS • Medical care for AIDS patients is expensive - UNAIDS estimates $4.63 billion needed to fight AIDS in Africa - UNAIDS—United Nations program studying AIDS epidemic NEXT
  13. 13. Nations Respond A Variety of Answers • Since 1930s, spraying programs used to reduce insect numbers - fight malaria, other insect-borne diseases • In 2000, the Global Fund for Children’s Vaccines pledged money - $250 million over next 5 years for worldwide immunizations • Gabon using oil revenues to upgrade its health care system • African Development Fund loaned Mozambique $12.3 million dollars - money to be used to upgrade public health facilities SECTION 2 NEXT Continued . . .
  14. 14. SECTION 2 continued Nations Respond Strategies Against AIDS • South Africa, Brazil work together on AIDS prevention, care - Brazil has public health policies to fight AIDS, other diseases - Brazil’s policies are considered a model for developing nations NEXT Continued . . .
  15. 15. SECTION 2 continued Nations Respond Success Stories • Uganda and Senegal have reduced spread of HIV - in 1997, Uganda offers same-day HIV tests, education programs - infection rates among 15 to 24 year olds have dropped 50% • Senegal controls spread of AIDS with intensive education program - infection rates have been below 2% since mid- 1980s • UNAIDS says HIV infection rates in sub-Saharan Africa are down - 1999–2000: dropped by 200,000 cases, but figure may be misleading NEXT
  16. 16. Case Study How can African nations bring peace and stability to their people? NEXT Effects of Colonialism BACKGROUND • Early 19th century Africa was home to great empires, rich cultures • By the end of the 19th century—poverty and violence • Many of Africa’s problems stem from European colonialism
  17. 17. Case Study Colonizing Africa Europeans in Africa • Portuguese establish coastal trading stations in the 1400s • By mid-1800s, Europeans seek Africa’s rich natural resources - need raw materials for industrial economies, markets to sell goods • Berlin Conference (1884-85) sets rules for dividing up Africa NEXT Effects of Colonialism Continued . . .
  18. 18. Case Study NEXT continued Colonizing Africa Europeans in Africa • European control begins to fade in 20th century - most countries gain independence in 1960s • Long-term damage to cultural and ethnic boundaries, economy
  19. 19. Case Study Challenges of Independence Colonial Transition • Departing Europeans did not leave Africa with stable governments - newly established nations suffered dictators and civil wars • Europeans did not understand Africa’s ethnic diversity - drew country boundaries combining historical enemies NEXT Continued . . .
  20. 20. Case Study NEXT continued Challenges of Independence Continued . . . Colonial Transition • Germany and Belgium aggravated historically tense ethnic relations - Rwanda, Burundi include Hutu, Tutsi groups; war erupts in 1990s - this ethnic conflict took the lives of hundreds of thousands
  21. 21. Case Study Colonial Transition • Colonial boundaries create problems for many African governments - difficult to get different ethnic groups to cooperate • Dictators like Mobutu Sese Seko became common - Mobutu ruled what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo • Many Africans have no experience living in democratic governments NEXT continued Challenges of Independence Continued . . .
  22. 22. Case Study Cause for Hope • Primary goal is to establish democratic traditions - political stability needed for peace and prosperity • Some progress is being made, for example in South Africa - white minority government yielded power to black majority in 1994 - ended decades of government-sanctioned racial discrimination NEXT continued Challenges of Independence Continued . . .
  23. 23. Case Study NEXT continued Challenges of Independence Cause for Hope • In 2001, Ghana peacefully elected a new president - a change from the coups, assassinations of previous governments
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