American History - Chapter 6


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American History - Chapter 6

  1. 1. The New Nation Chapter 6
  2. 2. Washington Takes the Lead <ul><li>How the U.S. formed a new government </li></ul><ul><li>How the political ideas of Hamilton and Jefferson differed </li></ul><ul><li>How political differences evolved into a two-party system </li></ul>
  3. 3. Washington Takes the Lead <ul><li>America was a “ bold experiment ” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First to be based on republican rule and individual rights </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Issues to tackle: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Judicial Branch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive Branch </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Washington Takes the Lead <ul><li>Judicial Branch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to work out the details </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Judiciary Act of 1789: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set up the court system and made it possible to appeal a ruling to a federal court </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Washington Takes the Lead <ul><li>Executive Branch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Washington chose men to fill new executive departments, his “ Cabinet ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secretary of State : Thomas Jefferson </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secretary of Treasury : Alexander Hamilton </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secretary of War : Henry Knox </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attorney General : Edmund Randolph </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Washington Takes the Lead <ul><li>Why do you think it is important for the president to have a cabinet? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Jefferson vs. Hamilton <ul><li>Views of government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hamilton: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strong central govt. led by prosperous elite </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Urban, industrial U.S. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Jefferson: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strong state/local govts. with the participation of the people </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rural, Agricultural U.S. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Jefferson vs. Hamilton <ul><li>Hamilton’s plan for the economy: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pay off foreign debt and buy state debt </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bank of the United States : funded by federal government and private investors, would issue paper money and other government funds </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Jefferson vs. Hamilton <ul><li>Controversy over the Bank: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strict interpretation  reading the Constitution word for word </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loose interpretation  reading between the lines (elastic clause) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The First Political Parties <ul><li>Federalists </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agreed with Hamilton’s view of a strong central government </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Democratic-Republicans </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supported Jefferson’s view of strong state governments </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. The First Political Parties <ul><li>Are political parties a danger to national unity? </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Nation’s First Test <ul><li>Whiskey Rebellion : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excise tax on whiskey caused farmer uprising on the frontier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hamilton and Washington believed it was an opportunity to show the strength of the national govt. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. ASSIGNMENT <ul><li>Page 187 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>#3 and 4 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Pages 188-189 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What was the difference between a country and a city education? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How did schooling for girls differ from that of boys? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What types of work did young boys and young girls do? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How did many young people spend their leisure time? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What types of physical hardships were young people exposed to during this period in history? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Foreign Troubles <ul><li>Summarize nation’s developing foreign policy </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how America dealt with Native Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Identify divisions between Federalists and Democratic-Republicans </li></ul>
  15. 15. Foreign Troubles <ul><li>The French Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Americans were divided on whether to support the Revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Washington declared neutrality : supporting neither side </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Foreign Troubles <ul><li>Pinckney’s Treaty (1795): </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spain gave up all land east of the Mississippi River and allowed U.S. citizens and traders to use the river and its port </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Native Americans Resist <ul><li>Battle of Fallen Timbers: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>American settlers clashed with remaining British troops and Native American tribes west of the Appalachians </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In 1794, American troops defeated the Miami tribe in Ohio </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They built a fort close to a nearby British fort in defiance </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Ousting the British <ul><li>Jay’s Treaty: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>John Jay negotiated a treaty with Britain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>British agreed to let America control western territory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>British could continue fur trade in America </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Looming War with France <ul><li>X,Y,Z Affair </li></ul><ul><li>Alien and Sedition Acts </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>nullification </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. ASSIGNMENT <ul><li>Read pg. 195 about the Alien and Sedition Acts. Write a ¾ page editorial about the Acts by choosing to write from one of these positions: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Federalist </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An immigrant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Democratic-Republican </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss whether the Acts are good or bad and why. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Jefferson’s Presidency <ul><li>Significant changes during the early years of Jefferson’s presidency </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of the declining power of the Federalists </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of Louisiana Purchase and Lewis and Clark expedition </li></ul>
  22. 22. Jefferson’s Presidency <ul><li>Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr (1800) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>12 th Amendment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cast separate ballots for president and vice-president </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Jefferson’s Presidency <ul><li>How did Thomas Jefferson simplify the presidency and decentralize power? (p.198) </li></ul>
  24. 24. Jefferson’s Presidency <ul><li>Federalists (and the North) lose power </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Southern Presidents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Refused to participate in political campaigns </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Settlers in new states voted for D-R, who supported farmers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Jefferson’s Presidency <ul><li>John Marshall (Federalist) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased power of the Supreme Court </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Judiciary Act of 1801 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased number of Sup. Crt. Judges by 16 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adams filled with Federalists, midnight judges </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Jefferson’s Presidency <ul><li>Marbury v. Madison </li></ul><ul><ul><li>found that a provision of the Judiciary Act of 1789 was unconstitutional ( judicial review ) </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Jefferson’s Presidency <ul><li>The Louisiana Purchase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>James Monroe and Robert Livingston doubled the size of the U.S. by buying the LA territory for $15 million </li></ul></ul>I don’t know if this is constitutional…..
  28. 28. Jefferson’s Presidency <ul><li>Lewis and Clark expedition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From St. Louis to Pacific Coast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collect information about plants and animals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learn about Native American tribes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. War of 1812 <ul><li>Four Causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British blockade of French ports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>America can’t trade with France </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British policy of impressment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tecumseh and Native Confederacies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attempt to wipe “white” influence out of America </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some asked for British help </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ War hawks” ask Congress to declare war on Britain </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. War of 1812 <ul><li>Events of the War: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British burn the White House </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Andrew Jackson “Old Hickory” saves the Port of New Orleans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treaty of Ghent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peace agreement declaring an armistice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Re-confirmed American independence </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. ASSIGNMENT <ul><li>Lewis and Clark map worksheet </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In-class </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Section 4 worksheet </li></ul>