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Chapter9 East Asia


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Notes from class lecture from The World Today for NMC students in World Regional Geography/

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Chapter9 East Asia

  1. 3. MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES OF EAST ASIA <ul><ul><li>Physical Geography dominated by extremes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the world’s earliest culture hearths; China’s long coherent history. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid Economic Growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence of ideas from traditional Chinese Thought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>World’s most populace realm : Population Concentration on Coasts and Lowlands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental Stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban-Rural disparities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing energy demands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC FORCES CONTINUE TO TRANSFORM TRADITIONAL CULTURAL LANDSCAPES. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flashpoints: Taiwan-China, North & South Korea, disputed islands in the South China Sea </li></ul></ul>
  2. 4. Regions of the Realm <ul><li>China Proper — eastern half; the core </li></ul><ul><li>Xizang (Tibet) — tall mountains and high plateaus; sparsely populated </li></ul><ul><li>Xinjiang — vast desert basin and mountain rims; a cultural contact zone </li></ul><ul><li>Mongolia — a desert, buffer state </li></ul><ul><li>The JaKoTa triangle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Japan, South Korea, Taiwan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid economic development </li></ul></ul>
  3. 6. Physiography <ul><li>Total area is about 9.3 million sq. km (3.6 million sq. mi.) </li></ul><ul><li>Longitudinal extent is comparable to the United States; Latitudinal range from northern Quebec to central Caribbean </li></ul><ul><li>Mainland bordered (surrounded) by ocean, high mountains, steppe country, and desert </li></ul><ul><li>Vast and varied topography: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High plateaus and mountains in the west </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower mountains and plains in the east </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vulnerable to earthquakes </li></ul></ul>
  4. 8. Regions of the Realm: China <ul><li>China Proper </li></ul><ul><li>Xizang (Tibet) </li></ul><ul><li>Xinjiang ( Chinese Turkestan) </li></ul>
  5. 10. Warm Cold Wet Dry Climatic Gradients
  7. 15. One-Child Policy <ul><li>Policy implemented in 1979 </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural preference for male children </li></ul><ul><li>Severe gender imbalance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>118 males born for every 100 females on average; some provinces >125:100 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The One-Child Policy has disrupted natural population growth </li></ul><ul><li>Major implications for lack of women </li></ul><ul><li>to marry—female kidnapping and </li></ul><ul><li>smuggling </li></ul><ul><li>Small younger generation to care for </li></ul><ul><li>large elderly generation </li></ul>Elizabeth J. Leppman
  8. 16. Population Pyramid, 2008 Percentage of total population Age Data source: U.S. Bureau of the Census Famine of the Great Leap Forward Post-famine rebound One-child policy begins Children of post- famine rebound generation One-child families Women outliving men
  9. 17. <ul><li>In its 2000 census, China found the proportion of boys through age 4 was more than 120 to every 100 girls at those ages. </li></ul><ul><li>There are over 30 million more males than females. </li></ul><ul><li>In most societies, the normal sex ratio for this age group is only 105 to 100 or less. </li></ul><ul><li>What are some of the social, cultural impacts? </li></ul>
  10. 18. Average life expectancy at birth in 2000 and increase in life expectancy 1990 - 2000 by province (in years)
  11. 20. HOMEWORK: Watch the following Hans Rosling Video titled “What Stops Population Growth.” What are the top 3 points that Rosling’s data visualization expresses? Explain each and then formulate three questions to apply this information to China. You can find the video at or on the Gapminder site.
  12. 21. Historical Development of China: Relative Location <ul><li>Isolation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural protective barriers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inward looking (“central kingdom”) with minor incidences of cultural diffusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effects of one ocean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A history of emperors who restricted use of the coastline, except in local circumstances </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Today the ocean is playing a major role in the economic (and cultural) transformation of coastal China. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 22. <ul><li>中國 </li></ul><ul><li>Zhōngguó= Middle Kingdom </li></ul>
  14. 23. Chinese Perspectives <ul><li>One of the world’s great culture hearths </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous civilization for over 4,000 years </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese view of China as the center of the civilized world </li></ul><ul><li>Inward looking and closed society, </li></ul><ul><li>especially at certain periods </li></ul><ul><li>History of cycles of unity vs. </li></ul><ul><li>disunity </li></ul>A. WinklerPrins
  15. 24. Kong Fuzi (Confucius) <ul><li>551– 479 B.C. (Spring and Autumn Period—time of disunity) </li></ul><ul><li>China’s most influential philosopher and teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Focused on the suffering of ordinary people </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasized that human virtues, rather than godly connections, should determine a person’s place in society </li></ul><ul><li>Teachings have dominated Chinese life and thought for more than 20 centuries </li></ul><ul><li>Teachings took on spiritual aspects after his death — Confucianism </li></ul>
  16. 26. Colonial Spheres of Influence
  17. 27. Extraterritoriality <ul><li>A doctrine of European international law </li></ul><ul><li>Employed in China during the late 1800s </li></ul><ul><li>Afforded immunity from local jurisdiction </li></ul><ul><li>Constituted an erosion of Chinese sovereignty </li></ul><ul><li>Distinct enclaves evolved </li></ul>Qingdao, Shandong Province, was the German treaty port. German architecture is still visible in the cultural landscape. A. WinklerPrins
  18. 28. Revolutions <ul><li>End of the Qing (Manchu) Dynasty, founding of Republic of China (1911) </li></ul><ul><li>Communist Revolution: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Founding of Chinese Communist Party in Shanghai, 1921 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil war and Long March </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>War against the Japanese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(World War II) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resumed civil war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communist victory under </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mao Zedong (1949) </li></ul></ul>Elizabeth J. Leppman
  19. 31. Economic Initiatives <ul><li>Special Economic Zones (SEZ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7 SEZ’s established; 3 in Guangdong Province </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investment incentives: low taxes, import/export regulations eased, land leases simplified, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Open cities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First 4 coastal cities, increased to 15 cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National investment focused on Shanghai </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Open coastal areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also designed to attract foreign investments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentrated along pacific coast deltas and peninsulas </li></ul></ul>
  20. 32. Current Political Divisions
  21. 33. China’s Political Map <ul><li>Central-government-administered municipalities ( shi ’s): 4 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beijing (capital); Tianjin (port city); Shanghai (largest city); Chongqing (interior river port) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Autonomous regions: 5 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nei Mongol (Inner Mongolia); Ningxia Hui; Xinjiang Uygur (Chinese Turkestan); Guangxi Zhuang (South); Xizang (Tibet) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provinces: 22 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grow in size from east to west </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Special Administrative Regions: 2 </li></ul>
  22. 34. Note Autonomous Regions where ethnic minorities dominate.
  23. 35. China’s Population Distribution
  24. 36. Xizang (Tibet) <ul><li>A harsh physical environment </li></ul><ul><li>Sparsely populated </li></ul><ul><li>Came under Chinese control during the Manchu dynasty in 1720 </li></ul><ul><li>Gained separate status in the late 19 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Chinas’ communist regime </li></ul><ul><li>took control in the 1950’s </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhism , the Dalai Lama, </li></ul><ul><li>and monasteries </li></ul><ul><li>Formally annexed in 1965 </li></ul><ul><li>and administered as an </li></ul><ul><li>autonomous region </li></ul>Train to Lhasa
  25. 37. Xinjiang <ul><li>Comprises one-sixth of China’s total land area </li></ul><ul><li>A dry region of high mountains and basins </li></ul><ul><li>Han Chinese are a minority here, now about 40% of the population, but control all aspects of life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hanification (Sinicization) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Muslim Uyghurs account for half of the population </li></ul><ul><li>Boasts extensive reserves of oil and natural gas </li></ul>A. WinklerPrins
  26. 38. <ul><li>西藏 </li></ul><ul><li>Xīzàng =Western Treasure Chest </li></ul><ul><li>新疆 </li></ul><ul><li>Xīnjiāng= New Territory </li></ul>
  27. 40. Booming Pacific Rim
  28. 42. Hong Kong <ul><li>Means “ fragrant harbor”: an excellent deep water port </li></ul><ul><li>Boomed during the Korean war </li></ul><ul><li>7 million people within 1,036 sq. km (400 sq. mi.) </li></ul><ul><li>Economy is larger than half of the world’s countries </li></ul><ul><li>July 1, 1997: British transferred control to China </li></ul><ul><li>Hong Kong renamed Xianggang (same meaning but in Mandarin pronunciation) </li></ul><ul><li>Acquired a new status as special administrative region (SAR) , with Macau following suit in 1999 </li></ul>
  29. 44. China Today <ul><li>Booming economy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the world’s fastest growing #2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large, low-wage labor pool </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rapid urbanization </li></ul><ul><li>Radical social change, especially in coastal areas </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental concerns on all fronts </li></ul>
  30. 45. The Jakota Triangle <ul><li>Ja pan, Ko rea, Ta iwan </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Great cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enormous consumption of raw materials, many imported </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State-of-the-art industries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluminous exports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global links </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade surpluses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political uncertainties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vulnerabilities </li></ul></ul>
  31. 46. GEOPOLITICAL RISKS (ISSUES AND CONCERNS) <ul><li>Taiwan’s political status </li></ul><ul><li>China’s rising power </li></ul><ul><li>Japan’s waning power </li></ul><ul><li>The Korea issue </li></ul><ul><li>US role and relations in the realm </li></ul>
  32. 47. JaKoTa Triangle
  33. 48. China and Taiwan
  34. 49. Taiwan & China
  35. 50. Taiwan <ul><li>Also known as Formosa </li></ul><ul><li>Very mountainous </li></ul><ul><li>Approximate area: 36,260 sq. km (14,000 sq. mi.) </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 22.9 million </li></ul><ul><li>78% urbanized </li></ul><ul><li>Per capita income: >$16,250 </li></ul><ul><li>Strong and diverse economy </li></ul><ul><li>Free market democracy </li></ul>
  36. 51. TAIWAN Eastern two-thirds is mostly rugged mountains running north-south In the west, the Chianan Plains are where the vast majority of the Taiwan's population live. Taiwan's highest point is Yu Shan at nearly 13,000 feet.
  37. 52. TAIWAN <ul><li>Historical background: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Chinese province for centuries ????? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonized by Japan in 1895 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Returned to China (Nationalists) after WWII </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1949 – Chinese Nationalists (supported by the US) fled from the mainland and established the Republic of China (ROC) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Future of Taiwan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regarded by China as a “wayward” province </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possible flashpoint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade as integrating force </li></ul></ul>
  38. 53. <ul><li>Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Cities </li></ul>Japan A. WinklerPrins
  39. 54. OUTLINE OF JAPANESE HISTORY <ul><li>600 - 800 Chinese cultural influence </li></ul><ul><li>1000 -1300 War, Medieval society arises, shoguns evolve </li></ul><ul><li>1600 -1867 Tokugawa Shogunate: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>isolation, foreigners and Christianity expelled, individualistic culture, emphasis on Shinto belief system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1853 - Commodore Perry acquires new treaties with the outside </li></ul>
  40. 55. MEIJI RESTORATION <ul><li>1868 Rebellion brought in reformers </li></ul><ul><li>Reinstated the emperor and began to transform Japan from a Feudal society with pre-machine age technology to an industrial power </li></ul><ul><li>Adopted aspects of the British model </li></ul><ul><li>Launched a systematic study of the industrialized world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very different approach than China during the same period. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Focus was on industrialization and education system </li></ul>
  41. 56. EXPANSIONIST JAPAN <ul><li>Taiwan 1895 </li></ul><ul><li>Korea 1910 </li></ul><ul><li>Pacific Islands post WWI </li></ul><ul><li>Manchuria 1931 </li></ul><ul><li>China 1937 </li></ul><ul><li>Hong Kong 1939 </li></ul><ul><li>Southeast Asia 1941 </li></ul>
  42. 57. JAPAN’S POST WWII TRANSFORMATION <ul><li>1945 –1952: Allied Occupation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic reshaping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labor legislation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land reform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. “Helping hand” policy </li></ul></ul>
  43. 58. Japan’s Core Area Note most agriculture and manufacturing in coastal areas.
  44. 59. Declining Japanese Population <ul><li>Population: 128 million* </li></ul><ul><li>Birth rate: 9 births/1,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Increase: 0 % </li></ul><ul><li>Life expectancy: 79 (M), 86 (F) </li></ul><ul><li>Urbanization: 79% </li></ul><ul><li>* Predicted to decline to 121 million by 2025 </li></ul>
  45. 61. Korea: North and South Superimposed boundary along cease-fire line in Korean War
  46. 63. KOREA <ul><li>The size of “Idaho” but with a population of 72 million ( Idaho, 1.5 million ) </li></ul><ul><li>Turbulent political history : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A dependency of China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A colony of Japan’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divided along the 38 th parallel by Allied Powers > WWII (1945) Korean Demilitarized Zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cease-fire line established in1953 </li></ul></ul>
  47. 64. Demilitarized Zone View from the North & view from the South
  48. 65. North Korea’s Border with China and N. Korean Defectors <ul><li>There are over 3 million North Koreans in Northern China </li></ul><ul><li>About 300,000 are refugees </li></ul><ul><li>Many North Korean refugees are there to attempt to get to South Korea </li></ul>
  49. 66. North Korea’s Border with China View from the North & view from the South
  50. 67. The Koreas <ul><li>Population 25,500,000 48,900,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Life expectancy 68 (M)/73 (F) 74 (M)/81 (F) </li></ul><ul><li>GNI/capita ~$ 1,000 $ 21,850 </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture restrictive good </li></ul><ul><li>% Urban 60 82 </li></ul>
  51. 68. North-South Contrasts <ul><li>North Korea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antiquated state enterprises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inefficient, non-productive agriculture, much hunger, even famines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited trade – former Soviet Union and China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear power – “axis of evil” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional threat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>South Korea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modern factories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensive, increasingly mechanized agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensive trade – U.S., Japan, and Western Europe </li></ul></ul>
  52. 69. Land Use Patterns Rugged Mountains Industrial Area Main Rice Producing Secondary Rice Producing Free Trade Zone Note more rice-producing land in South.
  53. 70. SEOUL <ul><li>Capital of Korea (late 1300s - early 1900s) </li></ul><ul><li>10 million people </li></ul><ul><li>Located in the northwest corner of South Korea – just south of the DMZ </li></ul><ul><li>The urban-industrial center ! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Textiles, clothing, footwear, electronic goods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vulnerabilities ? </li></ul>
  54. 71. NORTH KOREA North Korean leader Kim Jong Il and his son Kim Jong Un attend the massive military parade in Pyongyang, North Korea on Sunday, Oct. 10, 2010.
  55. 72. Mongolia <ul><li>Steppe and desert physical environment </li></ul><ul><li>Sparsely populated with an estimated 2.7 million inhabitants </li></ul><ul><li>Part of the Chinese Empire from late 1600s until 1911 </li></ul><ul><li>Functions as a buffer state </li></ul><ul><li>Became a People’s Republic in the 1920s </li></ul><ul><li>Free elections in 1990 </li></ul><ul><li>Economy is focused on herding and animal products </li></ul>