Grammar -TranslationBy: Myrna C. EgosA.B. English-3
The Grammar-Translation Method"a method of foreign or secondlanguage teaching which makesuse of translation and grammarstudy as the main teaching andlearning activities."---Richards, J. C., & Schmidt, R. (2002). Longman Dictionaryof Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics. Pearson EducationLimited. pp.231.
History Dates back to Erasmus 1466-1536 Originally used to teach Latin andGreek in the late 19thand early 20thcenturies Earlier in 20th century, this methodwas used for the purpose of helpingstudents read and appreciate foreignlanguage literature.
Background Traditional method of second languageteaching in schools Most common language teaching method Stressed the literacy development Teacher centered
Introduction Original purposes Helping students read andappreciate foreign languageliterature Students can become more familiarwith the grammar of their nativelanguage also write and speak theirnative language better Helpful for mental exercise
Prator and Celce-Murcia in Teaching English as a Second ForeignLanguage (1979:3), Classes are taught in the mother tongue, with littleactive use of the target language. Much vocabulary is taught in the form of lists ofisolated words. Long elaborate explanations of the intricacies ofgrammar are given. Grammar provides the rules for putting wordstogether, and instruction often focuses on the formand inflection of words. Key Features
Reading of difficult classical texts is begunearly. Little attention is paid to the content of texts,which are treated as exercises in grammaticalanalysis. Often the only drills are exercises intranslating disconnected sentences from thetarget language into the mother tongue.
Principles and Techniques Translation of a literary passage Students will be asked to read aliterary passage and then translate thetarget language into their nativelanguage Translation may be written or spoken Translation made by the students canshow that they understand theirmeaning
Advantages Easiest for teachers to use Does not require teachers to speak goodEnglish or make good lessonpreparations. Only uses the textbook Least stressful for students-teaching occursin the first language Students learn the new language withoutcontact with native speakers.
Disadvantages Students lack comprehension-onlytranslating word-for-word Does not allow students to createmeaning in English Students do not learn to read. Extensive memorization Very little student/teacher andstudent/student interaction
Principles and Techniques The ability of communicating in thetarget language is not a goal The students ask questions in theirnative language and are also answeredby the teacher also in their nativelanguage The teacher asks students in theirnative language
Principles and Techniques Deductive application of rules It is important for students tolearn about the forms(grammarrules) of the target language Grammar rules are presented withexamples Students are asked to apply therules to examples they are given
Principles and Techniques Reading comprehension questions Students answer these questions in thetarget language Answers to the questions may be in thereading text, or based on theunderstanding of the students orstudents’ own experiences related tothe text
Principles and Techniques Teacher as the authority Teacher decides whether the students’answers are correct It is important for students to get thecorrect answers If students answer incorrectly, theteacher will provide the correct answer
Principles and Techniques Memorization Students are asked to memorize newwords, grammatical rules, and verbconjugation
Principles and Techniques Fill-in-the-blanks Teacher give students sentences withword missing Students should fill in the blankswith the new vocabulary or with aparticular grammar type
Principles and Techniques Use words in sentences Students are asked to make up sentenceswith the new words they learn in thetext This technique can show whetherstudents really understand the newwords
Principles and Techniques Composition Students are asked to write acomposition in the target language The topic is based on some aspect ofthe reading passage
ConclusionTeaching involves any instructionaltechnique that draws learners attentionto some specific grammatical form in sucha way that it helps them either tounderstand it metalinguistically and/orprocess it in comprehension and/orproduction so that they can internalize it.