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INTRODUCTION TO
DOSAGE FORMS
By
Suryakant Verma
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmaceutics
DR. K. N. MODI INSTITUTE OF PHARMACEUTICAL
EDUCATION AND RESEARCH, MODINAGAR
Mob. No. 9760989460
Contents
1. Introduction
2. Classification of dosage forms
 Solid dosage forms
 Liquid dosage forms
 Semi solid dosage forms
3. New drug delivery system
DOSAGE FORM OF DRUGS
Dosage forms are the means by which drug
molecules/APIs are delivered to sites of action within
the body to produce optimum desired effects and
minimum adverse effect.
Need of Dosage
Forms
Drug
Safety/Benefit
Patient
Safety/Benefit
Introduction
Dosage form (Medicines) = API + Excipients
The means (or the form) by which drug molecules are delivered to sites
ofaction within the body.
Drug (Active pharmaceutical ingredients )
Chemical compound intended for used in diagnosis, treatment
prevention, of disease.
OR
The Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) is the part of any drug that
produces its effects.
Excipients
o Do not increase or affect the therapeutic action of the active ingredient.
o Inactive ingredients may also be referred to as inert ingredients or
excipients, and generally have no pharmacological effect.
o Examples of inactive ingredients include binding materials, dyes,
preservatives, and flavoring agents,sweetening agents,coloring agents
etc.
Direct clinical use of the active drug substances is rare:
Why??
 API handling and Accurate dosing can be difficult or
impossible (e.g., potent drugs: low mg and µg doses).
 API administration can be impractical/unfeasible because of
size, shape, smell/odour, taste and low activity.
 Some API are chemically unstable in light, moisture,O2
 API can be degraded at the site of administration (e.g., low pH
in stomach).
 API may cause local irritations or injury when they are present
at high concentrations at the site of administration.
 Administration of active substance would mean to have no
chance for modification (improvement) of its PK profile.
NEED OF DOSAGE FORMS
 Provide safe and convenient delivery of accurate dosage.
Example – Tablets, capsules, syrups
 Protection of a drug substances from atmospheric
oxygen or moisture. Example – Coated capsules,
sealed ampules
 Protection of a drug substances from gastric acid after
oral administration. Example – Enteric coated tablets
 Conceal bitter taste, or odor of a drug substances.
Example – Capsules, coated tablets, flavored syrups
 Provide liquid preparation of drug that insoluble or
unstable in the desired vehicle. Example – Suspension
 Provide liquid dosage forms of substances soluble in
desired vehicle. Example – Solution.
 Provide optional drug action from topical administration
sites. Example – Ointment, cream, ear and nasal
preparations.
 Provide for insertion of a drug into one of the body’s
orifices. Example – Rectal and vaginal suppositories.
 Provide extended drug action through controlled release
mechanisms. Example – Controlled release tablets,
capsules, suspensions.
 Provide for the placement of drugs within body tissues.
Example – Implants.
 Provide for the optimal drug action through inhalation
therapy. Example – Inhalants.
CLASSIFICATION OF DOSAGE FORMS
Based on Route of
Administration
Oral
Parenteral
Topical
Transdermal
Respiratory/Inhaled
Ophthalmic
Rectal
Veginal
Otic
Based on Physical Form
Solid
Semi-solid
Liquid
Gases
Based on Route ofAdministration
Enteral Route
Oral
Tablets, Capsules, Syrups, Suspension, Emulsionetc.
Dry Powder Inhaler (DPI), pressurized Metered DoseInhaler
(pMDI) – Nebulizer,Vaporizer
Sub-lingual & Buccal Orally Disintegrating Tablet (ODT), Lozenges , Chewingtablets,
Mouthwash, Toothpaste, Ointment, Oralspray
Rectal & Vaginal Ointment, Suppository, Enema, Nutrient enema
Parenteral (injections &infusions)
Intravenous, Intramuscular, Intracardiac, Intraosseous, Intraperitoneal, Intracerebral, Intrathecal,
Intradermal, Subcutaneous
Topical Route
Dermal Ointment, Liniment, Paste, Cream, Lotion, Lip balm, Medicated
shampoo, Dermal patch
Mucosal Ear drops, Eye drops, Nasal spray, Ointment, Hydrogel,
Nanosphere suspension, Mucoadhesive microdisc(microsphere
tablet)
Percutaneous Transdermal patch etc
Solid Dosage Forms
Shaped Tablets, Capsules, Implants, Transdermalpatches
Unshaped Powders for external/internaluse
Semi-solid Dosage Forms
Shaped Suppositories (for rectal administration)
Pessaries (vaginal suppositories)
Unshaped Gels, Creams, Ointments, Pastes
Liquid Dosage Forms
Monophasic Solutions (syrups, spirits, elixirs, tinctures)
Biphasic Emulsions, Suspension
External Solutions Lotions, Liniments, Collodions etc
Gaseous Dosage Forms
Medicinal Gases Aerosols: Inhalation/volatile anesthetics
Aerodispersions Antiasthmatics sprays
Based on Physical Form
Classification
Soliddosage
forms Liquiddosage
forms
Semisoliddosage
forms
Unitdosage
forms
Tablets
Capsule
Bulk
Powders
Pills
Internal
Fine
powders&
granules
External
Dustingpowders
Insufflations
Dentifrice
Snuffs
Earpowders
Biphasic Monophasic
Emulsion
Suspension
Internal External
Ointment
Creams
pastes
Jellies
Suppositories
Pessaries
Liniments
Lotions
Gargles
Throat paints
Mouth washes
Sprays
Eye lotions
Eye drops
Nasal drops
ExternalInternal
Syrups
Elixirs
Linctus
Drops
CLASSIFICATION OF SOLIDS
SOLID ORAL DOSAGE FORMS
Tablets Capsules Powder Granules
Monophasic Liquid Dosage Forms
Liquid forExternal
administration
Liquidsused
in Mouth
Liquid
appliedto
the skin
Liquidsinstilled
into Body
Cavities
Liquid forInternal
administration
- Syrups
- Mixtures
- Elixirs
- Linctuses
- Gargles
- Mouthwashes
- Throat paints
- Lotions
- Liniments
- Collodions
- Paints
- EyeDrops
- EarDrops
- Nasal Drops
- Douches
- Enemas
CLASSIFICATION OF LIQUIDS
Biphasic Liquid Dosage Forms
Solids in Liquid
Oral Parenteral External
Liquid inLiquid
Oral External
SUSPENSION LOTION EMULSION LINIMENTS
SEMI-SOLID DOSAGE FORMS
SEMI-SOLID
Cream
Gel
Ointment
Paste
NoseLung
Inhalation
Gases Liquids Aerosols Solids
Liquids Aerosols Semi-
solids
Solids
Vapors
Medical gases
Solution
Suspension
Emulsion
MDIs
DPIs
Other pressure systems
DPIs
Solution
Suspension
Emulsion
MDIs
Gels
Powdersfor
inhalation
INHALED DOSAGE FORMS
RECTAL & VAGINAL DOSAGE FORMS
RECTAL&
VAGINAL
Suppository
EnemaPessaries
SOLID DOSAGE FORMS
1 -TABLET
 A tablet is unit dose of one or more medicament. Prepare by compression ormould
method.
 Common excipients used in tablet are:
 Diluents – Provide bulkiness of tablet.
 Disintegrants – To ensure that the tablet breaks up in the digestive tract.
 Binder – Important for granulation ofpowder.
 Glidants and Lubricants – Provide good flow and ensure efficient tabletting.
 Sweeteners and Flavors – Tomask the taste ofAPIs.
 Pigments – Tomask uncoated tablets visually attractive.
 A coating may be applied to mask taste, smooth tablet for easyswallow, expending
shelf life, and prevent gastric degradation of drug.
2 - BUCCAL AND SUBLINGUALTABLET
Buccal tablets placing between the gum and the cheek.
Sublingual tablets placing under the tongue.
Medicaments of both systems rapidly dissolve in mouth and absorbed throughthe
mucous membrane of mouth.
Drug reaches in systemic circulation without affecting by gastric juicesand
metabolizing enzymes of the liver.
Examples – Vasodilators, Steroidal hormones.
3 - EFFERVESCENT TABLET
 Effervescent tablets are uncoated and generally contain acid substances(citric
and tartaric acids) and carbonates or bicarbonates , which react rapidly in
presence of water and release carbon dioxide.
 They are intended to be dissolved or dispersed in water before use, it provide :
 Tablet immediately dissolve or dispersed
 Pleasant taste of carbonated drink
4 - CHEWABLETABLET
 They are tablets that chewed prior to swallowing.
 They are designed for administration to children e.g. vitamin products.
5 - CAPSULES
 Solid unit dosage form that contain a solid, semi-solid, and liquid fill and agelatin
shell.
 Common excipients used in capsules are :
 Gelatin – Commonly used as gelling agent.
 Plasticizers – Toensure elasticity or mechanical stability.
 AdditionalAdditives – Preservative, coloring and opacifying agents .
 They are mainly two types are :
 Hard gelatin capsules used for dry powder ingredients.
 Soft gelatin capsules used for semi-solid and for active ingredients that are
dissolved or suspended in oil.
6 - LOZENGE
 It is a solid preparation that used to medicate the mouth and throat for the slow
administration of indigestion or cough remedies.
 It consisting of sugar and gum, the latter giving strength and cohesiveness tothe
lozenge and facilitating slow release of the medicament.
7 - PASTILLES
 It is a solid medicated pill or candy preparation that design to dissolve slowlyin
the mouth.
 They are softer than lozenge and their base are glycerol, gelatin, acacia andsugar.
8 - DENTALCONES
 Atablet from intended to be placed in the empty socket following a toothextraction,
for preventing the local multiplication of pathogenic bacteria associated with tooth
extractions.
 These tablets contain an excipients like – lactose, sodium bicarbonate, andsodium
chloride etc.
 Cones may contain an antibiotic or antiseptic.
9 - PILLS
 It is a solid oral dosage form which consists of spherical masses prepared from
one or more APIs with inertexcipients.
 Pills are now rarely used.
10 – ORALGRANULES
 They are consisting of solid, dry aggregates of powder particles withirregular
shape often supplied in single-dose sachets.
 Some granules are placed under the tongue and swallowed with water and other
are intended to be dissolved in water before taking.
 Effervescent granules evolve carbon dioxide when added to water.
11 – ORALPOWDER
 Bulk Powders are multi dose preparations consisting of solid, loose, dry particlesof
varying degrees of fineness.
 Contain one or more active ingredients, with or without excipients and, if necessary,
coloring matter and flavoring substances.
 Usually contain non-potent medicaments such as antacids since the patient measures
a dose by volume using a 5 ml medicine spoon.
LIQUID DOSAGE FORMS
1 – ORALSOLUTION
 Oral solutions are clear Liquid preparations for oral use containing one or
more active ingredients dissolved in a suitable vehicle.
2 – ORALEMULSION
 Oral emulsions are stabilized oil-in-water dispersions, either or both phases of which
may contain dissolved solids either oil is dispersed in finely divided form in water or
vice versa.
3 – ORALSUSPENSION
 Biphasic liquid preparations for oral use containing one or more active ingredients
suspended in a suitable vehicle. It sediment which is readily dispersed on shaking to
give a uniform suspension which remains sufficiently stable to enable the correct
dose to be delivered.
4 – SYRUP
 It is a concentrated aqueous solution of a sugar, usually sucrose towhich
medicaments are added.
 Flavored syrups are a convenient form of masking disagreeabletastes.
5 – ELIXIR
 It is pleasantly flavored clear liquid oral preparation of potent or nauseousdrugs.
 The vehicle may contain a high proportion of ethanol or sucrose togetherwith
antimicrobial preservatives which confers the stability of the preparation.
6 – MOUTHWASHES
 These are similar to gargles but are used for oral hygiene and to treatinfections
of the mouth.
7 – LINCTUSES
 It is viscous, liquid oral preparations that are usually prescribed for the relief of
cough. It contain high proportion of syrup and glycerol which have a demulcent
effect on the membranes of the throat.
 The dose volume is small (5ml) and, to prolong the demulcent action, they
should be taken undiluted.
8 – ORALDROPS
 Oral drops are liquid preparations for oral use that are intended to be
administered in small volumes with the aid of a suitable measuringdevice.
 They may be solutions, suspensions or emulsions.
9 – GARGLES
 They are prepared in a concentrated solution with directions for thepatient
to dilute with warm water before use.
 They are aqueous solutions used in the prevention or treatment of throatinfections.
10 – LOTIONS
 It is mono-phasic liquid preparations (aqueous) for external application without
friction either dabbed on the skin or applied on a suitable dressing and covered
with a water proof dressing to reduce evaporation.
11 – NASAL DROPS & SPRAYS
 Drugs in aqueous solution may be instilled into the nose from a dropper or froma
plastic squeeze bottle.
 Used for local effect, e.g. antihistamine, decongestant.
11 – COLLODION
 Collodion is a solution of nitro cellulose in ether or acetone, some timeswith
the addition of alcohols.
 As the solvent evaporates, it dries to a celluloid-likefilm.
 It is highly flammable.
 Compound Wart Remover consists of acetic acid and salicylic acid inan
acetone collodion base used in treatment of warts by Keratolysis.
12 – PAINTS
 Paints are mono-phasic liquids for application to the skin or mucous membranes.
 Skin paints contain volatile solvent that evaporates quickly to leave adry
resinous
film of medicament.
 Throat paints are more viscous due to a high content of glycerol that designed
to prolong contact of the medicament with the affectedsite.
PARENTERAL DOSAGE FORMS
An injection is an infusion method of putting liquid in to the body, usually witha
hollow needle and a syringe which is pierced through the skin.
Intravenous Injection
• It is a liquid administered directly into the bloodstream via a vein.
• It is advantages when a rapid onset of action is needed.
Intramuscular Injection
• It is the injection of aAPIs directly into a muscle.
• Intramuscular injections are often given in the deltoid,vastus
lateralis, ventrogluteal and dorsogluteal muscles.
Subcutaneous Injection
• It is injecting into the subcutis, the layer of skin directly below the
dermis and epidermis.
• It is highly effective in administering vaccines and insulin.
SEMI-SOLID DOSAGE FORMS
1 – OINTMENTS
 Ointments are semi-solid, greasy preparations for application to the skin, rectum or
nasal mucosa.
 Base is usually anhydrous and immiscible with skin secretions.
 Ointments may be used as emollients or dissolved medicaments to the skin.
2 – GELS
 In gel a liquid phase is constrained with in a 3-D polymeric matrix (consistingof
natural or synthetic gum) having a high degree of physical or chemical cross-
linking.
 It is used for medication, lubrication and some miscellaneous applicationslike
carrier for spermicidal agents to be used intra vaginally.
3 – CREAMS
Oil-in-water (O/W)
• It composed of small dropletsof
oil dispersed in a continuous
aqueous phase.
• Less greasy and more easily
washed off using water.
Water-in-oil (W/O)
• It composed of small droplets of
water dispersed in a continuous
oily phase.
• More difficult to handle butused
for hydrophobic drugpreparation.
• Reduces water loss fromthe
stratum corneum maintain
moisture of skin.
4 – PASTES
 Pastes are basically ointments into which a high percentage of insoluble solidhas
been added.
 The extra ordinary amount of particulate matter stiffens the system.
 It provide less heating and penetration than ointment.
 It make good protective barrier when placed on the skin, the solid theycontain
can absorb and thereby neutralize certain noxious chemicals before they ever
reach the skin.
GreasyPastes
• Leaser’spaste
Non-greasyPaste
• Bassorinpaste
INHALED DOSAGE FORMS
1 – INHALER
 Inhalers are solutions, suspensions or emulsion of drugs in a mixture of inert
propellants.
 Release of a dose of the medicament under pressure in an aerosol dispenser in the form
of droplets of 50 um diameter or less from the container through a spring loaded valve
incorporating a metering device.
 It is commonly used in the treatment of asthma and other respiratory problems.
2 – NEBULIZER OR ATOMIZER
It is commonly used in treating asthma, and other respiratory diseases.
It is a device used to administer medication in forms of a liquid mist to the air ways.
It pumps air or oxygen through a liquid medicine to turn it into a vapor, which isthen
inhaled by the patient.
Generally prefer to inhalers for patients, due to advantages suchas:
1- Cheaper
2 More portable
3 Less risk of side effects.
 For that reason, are usually reserved only for serious cases of respiratory disease or
severe attacks.
RECTAL & VAGINAL DOSAGE FORMS
1 – SUPPOSITORY
 It is a semi solid medicated mass, usually cone shaped, that isinserted
either into the rectum, vagina where it melts at body temperature.
2 – ENEMA
 An enema is the procedure of introducing liquids into the rectumand
colon via the anus.
Evacuant Enema
• Used as a bowel stimulant to treat
constipation.
• Their volume up to 2 liters.
• Warmed to body temperature.
• Example - soft soap enema&
Magnesium sulphate enema
Retention Enema
• Their volume does not exceed100
ml.
• No warming needed.
• Example – barium enema &
nutrient enema.
3 – PESSARY
 Pessaries are solid medicated preparations designed for insertion
into the vagina where they melt or dissolve.
Moulded
Pessaries
• Cone shape and
prepared by
molded method.
Compressed Pessaries
• Prepare by compression
as similar manner to oral
tablets.
• Available indifferent
shape.
Vaginal
Capsules
• Prepare sameas
soft gelatin
capsules and
various sizeand
shape.
THANK YOU

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Introduction to Dosage Forms Classification

  • 1. INTRODUCTION TO DOSAGE FORMS By Suryakant Verma Assistant Professor Department of Pharmaceutics DR. K. N. MODI INSTITUTE OF PHARMACEUTICAL EDUCATION AND RESEARCH, MODINAGAR Mob. No. 9760989460
  • 2. Contents 1. Introduction 2. Classification of dosage forms  Solid dosage forms  Liquid dosage forms  Semi solid dosage forms 3. New drug delivery system
  • 3. DOSAGE FORM OF DRUGS Dosage forms are the means by which drug molecules/APIs are delivered to sites of action within the body to produce optimum desired effects and minimum adverse effect. Need of Dosage Forms Drug Safety/Benefit Patient Safety/Benefit
  • 4. Introduction Dosage form (Medicines) = API + Excipients The means (or the form) by which drug molecules are delivered to sites ofaction within the body. Drug (Active pharmaceutical ingredients ) Chemical compound intended for used in diagnosis, treatment prevention, of disease. OR The Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) is the part of any drug that produces its effects. Excipients o Do not increase or affect the therapeutic action of the active ingredient. o Inactive ingredients may also be referred to as inert ingredients or excipients, and generally have no pharmacological effect. o Examples of inactive ingredients include binding materials, dyes, preservatives, and flavoring agents,sweetening agents,coloring agents etc.
  • 5. Direct clinical use of the active drug substances is rare: Why??  API handling and Accurate dosing can be difficult or impossible (e.g., potent drugs: low mg and µg doses).  API administration can be impractical/unfeasible because of size, shape, smell/odour, taste and low activity.  Some API are chemically unstable in light, moisture,O2  API can be degraded at the site of administration (e.g., low pH in stomach).  API may cause local irritations or injury when they are present at high concentrations at the site of administration.  Administration of active substance would mean to have no chance for modification (improvement) of its PK profile.
  • 6. NEED OF DOSAGE FORMS  Provide safe and convenient delivery of accurate dosage. Example – Tablets, capsules, syrups  Protection of a drug substances from atmospheric oxygen or moisture. Example – Coated capsules, sealed ampules  Protection of a drug substances from gastric acid after oral administration. Example – Enteric coated tablets  Conceal bitter taste, or odor of a drug substances. Example – Capsules, coated tablets, flavored syrups  Provide liquid preparation of drug that insoluble or unstable in the desired vehicle. Example – Suspension  Provide liquid dosage forms of substances soluble in desired vehicle. Example – Solution.
  • 7.  Provide optional drug action from topical administration sites. Example – Ointment, cream, ear and nasal preparations.  Provide for insertion of a drug into one of the body’s orifices. Example – Rectal and vaginal suppositories.  Provide extended drug action through controlled release mechanisms. Example – Controlled release tablets, capsules, suspensions.  Provide for the placement of drugs within body tissues. Example – Implants.  Provide for the optimal drug action through inhalation therapy. Example – Inhalants.
  • 8. CLASSIFICATION OF DOSAGE FORMS Based on Route of Administration Oral Parenteral Topical Transdermal Respiratory/Inhaled Ophthalmic Rectal Veginal Otic Based on Physical Form Solid Semi-solid Liquid Gases
  • 9. Based on Route ofAdministration Enteral Route Oral Tablets, Capsules, Syrups, Suspension, Emulsionetc. Dry Powder Inhaler (DPI), pressurized Metered DoseInhaler (pMDI) – Nebulizer,Vaporizer Sub-lingual & Buccal Orally Disintegrating Tablet (ODT), Lozenges , Chewingtablets, Mouthwash, Toothpaste, Ointment, Oralspray Rectal & Vaginal Ointment, Suppository, Enema, Nutrient enema Parenteral (injections &infusions) Intravenous, Intramuscular, Intracardiac, Intraosseous, Intraperitoneal, Intracerebral, Intrathecal, Intradermal, Subcutaneous Topical Route Dermal Ointment, Liniment, Paste, Cream, Lotion, Lip balm, Medicated shampoo, Dermal patch Mucosal Ear drops, Eye drops, Nasal spray, Ointment, Hydrogel, Nanosphere suspension, Mucoadhesive microdisc(microsphere tablet) Percutaneous Transdermal patch etc
  • 10. Solid Dosage Forms Shaped Tablets, Capsules, Implants, Transdermalpatches Unshaped Powders for external/internaluse Semi-solid Dosage Forms Shaped Suppositories (for rectal administration) Pessaries (vaginal suppositories) Unshaped Gels, Creams, Ointments, Pastes Liquid Dosage Forms Monophasic Solutions (syrups, spirits, elixirs, tinctures) Biphasic Emulsions, Suspension External Solutions Lotions, Liniments, Collodions etc Gaseous Dosage Forms Medicinal Gases Aerosols: Inhalation/volatile anesthetics Aerodispersions Antiasthmatics sprays Based on Physical Form
  • 11. Classification Soliddosage forms Liquiddosage forms Semisoliddosage forms Unitdosage forms Tablets Capsule Bulk Powders Pills Internal Fine powders& granules External Dustingpowders Insufflations Dentifrice Snuffs Earpowders Biphasic Monophasic Emulsion Suspension Internal External Ointment Creams pastes Jellies Suppositories Pessaries Liniments Lotions Gargles Throat paints Mouth washes Sprays Eye lotions Eye drops Nasal drops ExternalInternal Syrups Elixirs Linctus Drops
  • 12. CLASSIFICATION OF SOLIDS SOLID ORAL DOSAGE FORMS Tablets Capsules Powder Granules
  • 13. Monophasic Liquid Dosage Forms Liquid forExternal administration Liquidsused in Mouth Liquid appliedto the skin Liquidsinstilled into Body Cavities Liquid forInternal administration - Syrups - Mixtures - Elixirs - Linctuses - Gargles - Mouthwashes - Throat paints - Lotions - Liniments - Collodions - Paints - EyeDrops - EarDrops - Nasal Drops - Douches - Enemas CLASSIFICATION OF LIQUIDS
  • 14. Biphasic Liquid Dosage Forms Solids in Liquid Oral Parenteral External Liquid inLiquid Oral External SUSPENSION LOTION EMULSION LINIMENTS
  • 16. NoseLung Inhalation Gases Liquids Aerosols Solids Liquids Aerosols Semi- solids Solids Vapors Medical gases Solution Suspension Emulsion MDIs DPIs Other pressure systems DPIs Solution Suspension Emulsion MDIs Gels Powdersfor inhalation INHALED DOSAGE FORMS
  • 17. RECTAL & VAGINAL DOSAGE FORMS RECTAL& VAGINAL Suppository EnemaPessaries
  • 18. SOLID DOSAGE FORMS 1 -TABLET  A tablet is unit dose of one or more medicament. Prepare by compression ormould method.  Common excipients used in tablet are:  Diluents – Provide bulkiness of tablet.  Disintegrants – To ensure that the tablet breaks up in the digestive tract.  Binder – Important for granulation ofpowder.  Glidants and Lubricants – Provide good flow and ensure efficient tabletting.  Sweeteners and Flavors – Tomask the taste ofAPIs.  Pigments – Tomask uncoated tablets visually attractive.  A coating may be applied to mask taste, smooth tablet for easyswallow, expending shelf life, and prevent gastric degradation of drug.
  • 19. 2 - BUCCAL AND SUBLINGUALTABLET Buccal tablets placing between the gum and the cheek. Sublingual tablets placing under the tongue. Medicaments of both systems rapidly dissolve in mouth and absorbed throughthe mucous membrane of mouth. Drug reaches in systemic circulation without affecting by gastric juicesand metabolizing enzymes of the liver. Examples – Vasodilators, Steroidal hormones.
  • 20. 3 - EFFERVESCENT TABLET  Effervescent tablets are uncoated and generally contain acid substances(citric and tartaric acids) and carbonates or bicarbonates , which react rapidly in presence of water and release carbon dioxide.  They are intended to be dissolved or dispersed in water before use, it provide :  Tablet immediately dissolve or dispersed  Pleasant taste of carbonated drink 4 - CHEWABLETABLET  They are tablets that chewed prior to swallowing.  They are designed for administration to children e.g. vitamin products.
  • 21. 5 - CAPSULES  Solid unit dosage form that contain a solid, semi-solid, and liquid fill and agelatin shell.  Common excipients used in capsules are :  Gelatin – Commonly used as gelling agent.  Plasticizers – Toensure elasticity or mechanical stability.  AdditionalAdditives – Preservative, coloring and opacifying agents .  They are mainly two types are :  Hard gelatin capsules used for dry powder ingredients.  Soft gelatin capsules used for semi-solid and for active ingredients that are dissolved or suspended in oil.
  • 22. 6 - LOZENGE  It is a solid preparation that used to medicate the mouth and throat for the slow administration of indigestion or cough remedies.  It consisting of sugar and gum, the latter giving strength and cohesiveness tothe lozenge and facilitating slow release of the medicament. 7 - PASTILLES  It is a solid medicated pill or candy preparation that design to dissolve slowlyin the mouth.  They are softer than lozenge and their base are glycerol, gelatin, acacia andsugar.
  • 23. 8 - DENTALCONES  Atablet from intended to be placed in the empty socket following a toothextraction, for preventing the local multiplication of pathogenic bacteria associated with tooth extractions.  These tablets contain an excipients like – lactose, sodium bicarbonate, andsodium chloride etc.  Cones may contain an antibiotic or antiseptic. 9 - PILLS  It is a solid oral dosage form which consists of spherical masses prepared from one or more APIs with inertexcipients.  Pills are now rarely used.
  • 24. 10 – ORALGRANULES  They are consisting of solid, dry aggregates of powder particles withirregular shape often supplied in single-dose sachets.  Some granules are placed under the tongue and swallowed with water and other are intended to be dissolved in water before taking.  Effervescent granules evolve carbon dioxide when added to water. 11 – ORALPOWDER  Bulk Powders are multi dose preparations consisting of solid, loose, dry particlesof varying degrees of fineness.  Contain one or more active ingredients, with or without excipients and, if necessary, coloring matter and flavoring substances.  Usually contain non-potent medicaments such as antacids since the patient measures a dose by volume using a 5 ml medicine spoon.
  • 25. LIQUID DOSAGE FORMS 1 – ORALSOLUTION  Oral solutions are clear Liquid preparations for oral use containing one or more active ingredients dissolved in a suitable vehicle. 2 – ORALEMULSION  Oral emulsions are stabilized oil-in-water dispersions, either or both phases of which may contain dissolved solids either oil is dispersed in finely divided form in water or vice versa. 3 – ORALSUSPENSION  Biphasic liquid preparations for oral use containing one or more active ingredients suspended in a suitable vehicle. It sediment which is readily dispersed on shaking to give a uniform suspension which remains sufficiently stable to enable the correct dose to be delivered.
  • 26. 4 – SYRUP  It is a concentrated aqueous solution of a sugar, usually sucrose towhich medicaments are added.  Flavored syrups are a convenient form of masking disagreeabletastes. 5 – ELIXIR  It is pleasantly flavored clear liquid oral preparation of potent or nauseousdrugs.  The vehicle may contain a high proportion of ethanol or sucrose togetherwith antimicrobial preservatives which confers the stability of the preparation. 6 – MOUTHWASHES  These are similar to gargles but are used for oral hygiene and to treatinfections of the mouth.
  • 27. 7 – LINCTUSES  It is viscous, liquid oral preparations that are usually prescribed for the relief of cough. It contain high proportion of syrup and glycerol which have a demulcent effect on the membranes of the throat.  The dose volume is small (5ml) and, to prolong the demulcent action, they should be taken undiluted. 8 – ORALDROPS  Oral drops are liquid preparations for oral use that are intended to be administered in small volumes with the aid of a suitable measuringdevice.  They may be solutions, suspensions or emulsions.
  • 28. 9 – GARGLES  They are prepared in a concentrated solution with directions for thepatient to dilute with warm water before use.  They are aqueous solutions used in the prevention or treatment of throatinfections. 10 – LOTIONS  It is mono-phasic liquid preparations (aqueous) for external application without friction either dabbed on the skin or applied on a suitable dressing and covered with a water proof dressing to reduce evaporation. 11 – NASAL DROPS & SPRAYS  Drugs in aqueous solution may be instilled into the nose from a dropper or froma plastic squeeze bottle.  Used for local effect, e.g. antihistamine, decongestant.
  • 29. 11 – COLLODION  Collodion is a solution of nitro cellulose in ether or acetone, some timeswith the addition of alcohols.  As the solvent evaporates, it dries to a celluloid-likefilm.  It is highly flammable.  Compound Wart Remover consists of acetic acid and salicylic acid inan acetone collodion base used in treatment of warts by Keratolysis. 12 – PAINTS  Paints are mono-phasic liquids for application to the skin or mucous membranes.  Skin paints contain volatile solvent that evaporates quickly to leave adry resinous film of medicament.  Throat paints are more viscous due to a high content of glycerol that designed to prolong contact of the medicament with the affectedsite.
  • 30. PARENTERAL DOSAGE FORMS An injection is an infusion method of putting liquid in to the body, usually witha hollow needle and a syringe which is pierced through the skin. Intravenous Injection • It is a liquid administered directly into the bloodstream via a vein. • It is advantages when a rapid onset of action is needed. Intramuscular Injection • It is the injection of aAPIs directly into a muscle. • Intramuscular injections are often given in the deltoid,vastus lateralis, ventrogluteal and dorsogluteal muscles. Subcutaneous Injection • It is injecting into the subcutis, the layer of skin directly below the dermis and epidermis. • It is highly effective in administering vaccines and insulin.
  • 31. SEMI-SOLID DOSAGE FORMS 1 – OINTMENTS  Ointments are semi-solid, greasy preparations for application to the skin, rectum or nasal mucosa.  Base is usually anhydrous and immiscible with skin secretions.  Ointments may be used as emollients or dissolved medicaments to the skin. 2 – GELS  In gel a liquid phase is constrained with in a 3-D polymeric matrix (consistingof natural or synthetic gum) having a high degree of physical or chemical cross- linking.  It is used for medication, lubrication and some miscellaneous applicationslike carrier for spermicidal agents to be used intra vaginally.
  • 32. 3 – CREAMS Oil-in-water (O/W) • It composed of small dropletsof oil dispersed in a continuous aqueous phase. • Less greasy and more easily washed off using water. Water-in-oil (W/O) • It composed of small droplets of water dispersed in a continuous oily phase. • More difficult to handle butused for hydrophobic drugpreparation. • Reduces water loss fromthe stratum corneum maintain moisture of skin.
  • 33. 4 – PASTES  Pastes are basically ointments into which a high percentage of insoluble solidhas been added.  The extra ordinary amount of particulate matter stiffens the system.  It provide less heating and penetration than ointment.  It make good protective barrier when placed on the skin, the solid theycontain can absorb and thereby neutralize certain noxious chemicals before they ever reach the skin. GreasyPastes • Leaser’spaste Non-greasyPaste • Bassorinpaste
  • 34. INHALED DOSAGE FORMS 1 – INHALER  Inhalers are solutions, suspensions or emulsion of drugs in a mixture of inert propellants.  Release of a dose of the medicament under pressure in an aerosol dispenser in the form of droplets of 50 um diameter or less from the container through a spring loaded valve incorporating a metering device.  It is commonly used in the treatment of asthma and other respiratory problems.
  • 35. 2 – NEBULIZER OR ATOMIZER It is commonly used in treating asthma, and other respiratory diseases. It is a device used to administer medication in forms of a liquid mist to the air ways. It pumps air or oxygen through a liquid medicine to turn it into a vapor, which isthen inhaled by the patient. Generally prefer to inhalers for patients, due to advantages suchas: 1- Cheaper 2 More portable 3 Less risk of side effects.  For that reason, are usually reserved only for serious cases of respiratory disease or severe attacks.
  • 36. RECTAL & VAGINAL DOSAGE FORMS 1 – SUPPOSITORY  It is a semi solid medicated mass, usually cone shaped, that isinserted either into the rectum, vagina where it melts at body temperature. 2 – ENEMA  An enema is the procedure of introducing liquids into the rectumand colon via the anus. Evacuant Enema • Used as a bowel stimulant to treat constipation. • Their volume up to 2 liters. • Warmed to body temperature. • Example - soft soap enema& Magnesium sulphate enema Retention Enema • Their volume does not exceed100 ml. • No warming needed. • Example – barium enema & nutrient enema.
  • 37. 3 – PESSARY  Pessaries are solid medicated preparations designed for insertion into the vagina where they melt or dissolve. Moulded Pessaries • Cone shape and prepared by molded method. Compressed Pessaries • Prepare by compression as similar manner to oral tablets. • Available indifferent shape. Vaginal Capsules • Prepare sameas soft gelatin capsules and various sizeand shape.