Sandel classification


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Sandel classification

  1. 1. Classification Chapter 18
  2. 2. The idea of classification <ul><li>Classification- is the grouping of objects or information based on similarities. </li></ul><ul><li>When things are classified they are separated in to large groups then those large groups are separated in to smaller groups or sub-groups </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists needed to develop this method in order to organize the over 2 million species on Earth </li></ul>
  3. 3. Taxonomy <ul><li>This is the branch of Biology that deals with the grouping and naming of organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Biologists who study taxonomy are called taxonomist… </li></ul>
  4. 4. A little about how this all got started <ul><li>Aristotle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greek philosopher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>350 BC- developed the first method of classification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>groups plants according to size and structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Groups animals according to where they live </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He did not show the natural relationships among organisms </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. A little on Linnaeus <ul><li>Swedish naturalist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed classification system that is used today </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyzed physical characteristics of organisms and classified them based on close relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><li>binomial nomenclature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>classifies each organism using two Latin names </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Binomial Nomenclature <ul><li>each organism is assigned two names </li></ul><ul><li>The first name identifies the Genus of the organism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A genus is a group of closely related species </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The second name identifies the species of the organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The species names usually describes the organisms </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Example <ul><ul><ul><li>Example– Canis familiaris = DOG </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Genus species </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>The two word name assigned to each species through binomial nomenclature is called the scientific name. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scientific name- Bellis perennis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>However, people usually refer to the common name </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Common name- Daisy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Common names do not tell how an organism is related to other organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is important that scientific names do not change, so they are assigned in Latin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scientific names are either italicized or underlined . The first letter of the genus is uppercase the first letter of the species is lower case. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Taxonomic Categories <ul><li>In taxonomy, organisms are grouped into a series of categories called taxa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When we are classifying an organism, biologists place the organism in a broad group know as a kingdom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The organism is then placed in a series of sub-groups (taxa) that become increasingly specific until it is uniquely identifiable </li></ul>
  10. 10. Taxonomical categories <ul><li>Kingdom (least specific) </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum </li></ul><ul><li>Class </li></ul><ul><li>Order </li></ul><ul><li>Family </li></ul><ul><li>Genus </li></ul><ul><li>Species (Most specific) </li></ul><ul><li>Bobcat Lynx </li></ul><ul><li>Animalia Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Chordata Chordata </li></ul><ul><li>Mammalia Mammalia </li></ul><ul><li>Carnivora Carnivora </li></ul><ul><li>Felidae Felidae </li></ul><ul><li>Lynx Lynx </li></ul><ul><li>rufus canadenis </li></ul>
  11. 11. Determining Relationships <ul><li>There are four main ways to determine relationships between organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolutionary History </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biochemical Relationships </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Evolutionary History <ul><ul><li>Taxonomists compare structures of modern-day life form with those found in fossils to determine evolutionary histories. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The evolutionary history of species is called phylogeny . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Development <ul><ul><li>Similarities in the developmental stages of animals help determine relationships, and can help determine if two animals have common origins. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Biochemical Relationships <ul><ul><li>Closely related species have similar DNA sequences and therefore, similar proteins. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The more amino acid sequences two species have in common, the more closely related they are to each other </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Human and Chimpanzees </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Behavior <ul><ul><li>Even though two species may look similar, distinct differences in their behaviors may identify them as different species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Mating calls of frogs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Cladogram
  17. 19. Kingdoms Section 18.3
  18. 20. History of it <ul><li>Classification for many years was based on 5 kingdoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteria was in one category (Moneria) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>After careful studies they found bacteria were very different in morphology and properties </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This led to the six kingdoms we now know </li></ul></ul>
  19. 21. 6 Kingdoms of life <ul><li>Archaebacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Eubacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Protista </li></ul><ul><li>Fungi </li></ul><ul><li>Plantae </li></ul><ul><li>Animalia </li></ul>
  20. 22. Kingdom Cell Type Number of cells Nutrition Archaebacteria Prokaryotic Unicellular Autotrophy & Heterotrophy Eubacteria Prokaryotic Unicellular Autotrophy & Heterotrophy Protista Eukaryotic Unicellular & multicellular Autotrophy & Heterotrophy Fungi Eukaryotic Unicellular & Multicellular Heterotrophy Plantae Eukaryotic Multicellular Autotrophy & (rare) Heterotrophy Animalia Eukaryotic Multicellular Heterotrophy
  21. 23. 6 kingdom system Vs 3 domain System <ul><li>A Six-Kingdom System </li></ul>Eubacteria Archaebacteria Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia <ul><li>A three Domain System </li></ul>Bacteria Archaea Eukarya (Eukaryotes)
  22. 24. A little on each Kingdom
  23. 25. Archaeabacteria <ul><li>Prokaryotes </li></ul><ul><li>One-celled organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Many of which do not require oxygen or sunlight to live </li></ul>
  24. 26. Archaeabacteria <ul><li>Often live in extreme conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some archaeabacteria live in deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Pacific Ocean. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Located at depths of 3 km (2 mi), the hot vents provide a dark environment with extremely high temperature and pressure where few creatures can survive. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use chemosynthesis to harvest energy from chemical reactions involving hydrogen sulfide and other inorganic compounds. . </li></ul>
  25. 27. Kingdom Eubacteria <ul><li>Unicellular Prokaryotes </li></ul><ul><li>Most use oxygen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Few can live without oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>True bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Where they show up </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cause tooth decay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turn milk in to yogurt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cause food poisoning </li></ul></ul>
  26. 29. Kingdom Protista <ul><li>Protista, group of comparatively simple organisms, called protists, that have characteristics of both plants and animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly single celled organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some are multicellular </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most look like plants </li></ul><ul><li>Lack specialized tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotes </li></ul>
  27. 31. Amoeba Engulfing a Paramecium
  28. 32. Dinoflagellate
  29. 33. Kingdom Fungi <ul><li>Heterotrophic </li></ul><ul><li>Multicellular </li></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic </li></ul><ul><li>Absorb nutrients from food </li></ul><ul><li>Over 100,000 species </li></ul>
  30. 34. Bread Mold
  31. 35. Sulfur Fungi Chanterelle mushroom
  32. 36. Bread Yeast
  33. 37. Kingdom Plantae <ul><li>Multicellular </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly autotrophic </li></ul><ul><li>Use photosynthesis for energy </li></ul><ul><li>Most live on land </li></ul><ul><li>Over 350, 000 species </li></ul><ul><li>Mosses, ferns, conifers, flowering plants </li></ul>
  34. 39. Kingdom Animalia <ul><li>Eukaryotic </li></ul><ul><li>Multicellular </li></ul><ul><li>Heterotrophic </li></ul><ul><li>Largest kingdom </li></ul>