Special stains

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Special stains

  1. 1. PRESENTATION Thanks to my PG Trainee for the preparation of this presentation Dr. BabarYasin PGR II Histopathology FMH
  2. 2. SPECIAL STAINS
  3. 3. Histopathology involves detailed microscopic study of diseased tissue after use of special techniques for preparation of the specimen.
  4. 4.  For us every specimen is a patient, which we have to make talk and tell about itself.
  5. 5. Routine (H&E) staining  Corner stone of tissue-based diagnosis.  Haematoxylin dye stains cell nuclei blue.  Eosin dye stains other structures pink or red.  This technique provides exceptional detail of tissue structure and the makeup of the cells.
  6. 6.  Special stains use a variety of dyes and techniques to stain particular tissues, structures or pathogens to assist pathologists with tissue-based diagnosis.
  7. 7. MORPHOLOGIC DD OF HOMOGENOUS ACELLUAR GLOMERULAR MATERIAL: STAIN HYALINOSIS SCLEROSIS AMYLOID FIBROSIS FIBRIN THROMBUS H&E +++ +++ ++ ++ +++ PAS +++ +++ + ++ + MS - +++ - + - TRICHROM E RED/BLUE BLUE BLUE BLUE DARK RED CONGO RED - - +++ - -
  8. 8. PAS (Periodic Acid-Schiff)  Stains basement membrane (normal and in tumors), glycogen, some mucins and mucopolysaccharides.  Kidney: recommended for routine evaluation of renal biopsies due to basement membrane staining; also useful to diagnose renal cell carcinoma.
  9. 9. PAS STAINING OF A NORMAL GLOMERULOUS. PAS highlights basement membranes of glomerular capillaries and tubular epithelium. Thin capillary loops with endothelial cells. Normal size mesangium. Podocytes forming viseral epithelium Bowman space along with Parietal epithelial cells.
  10. 10. PAS STAINING IN MEMBRANOUS GN:
  11. 11. PAS STAINING IN FSGS
  12. 12. PAS STAINING IN NODULAR GLOMERULOSCLEROSIS.
  13. 13. Kimmelstiel-Wilson Nodules highlight with PAS stain
  14. 14. PAS STAINING IN LIGHT CHAIN DISEASE DISEASE:
  15. 15. AMYLOIDOSIS:
  16. 16. MPGN: GLOBAL CRESENTS
  17. 17. THROMBOTIC MICROANGIOPATHY:
  18. 18. SILVER STAIN:  Special stain for detecting fungi.  Stains Basement membranes.  There are several silver stains, including: 1) Grocott's methenamine silver stain, used widely as a screen for fungal organisms. 2) Jones' stain, a methenamine silver-Periodic acid-Schiff that stains for basement membrane.
  19. 19. SILVER STAINING IN MEMBRANOUS GN: Highlights the membrane in black.The spikes of basement membrane are easily seen.
  20. 20. Black material completely surrounds the immune deposits forming rings.
  21. 21. SILVER STAINING IN MPGN: Double contour or the “tram tracking” of the membranes because of reduplication.
  22. 22. SILVER STAINING IN DIABETIC GLOMERULOPATHY
  23. 23. CRESENT FPRMATION:
  24. 24. COLLASPING GLOMERULOPATHY
  25. 25. TRICHROME STAINING:  Trichrome is a three colour staining protocol used in histology.  The following staining is achieved: 1) Nuclei - blue/black. 2) Muscle, erythrocytes, cytoplasm – red 3) Connective tissue, in particular collagen - blue/green.
  26. 26. TRICHROME STAINING IN FSGS: Demonstrate blue collagen deposition
  27. 27. TRICHROME STAINING IN MEMBRANOUS GN: The immune deposits with a characteristic red color.
  28. 28. In stage 1, deposits are not accompanied by spikes. In stage II, the reaction in outer GBM produces spikes. In stage III, the GBM has completely surrounded the deposits. Stage IV, GBM is thickened. Deposits are disappearing
  29. 29. BRAIN STORMING
  30. 30. Arteriolar Hyalinosis Capsular Drops Micro- Aneurisms
  31. 31. TRICHROME STAINING IN AYMLOIDOSIS:
  32. 32. TUBULO-INTERSTITIAL DISEASE:
  33. 33. CONCLUSION:

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