There is a change in the sculptural conception in the evolution from the Romanesque
Images are naturalistic and related to the time they represent in opposition to the lack of temporality and geometric shapes of the former period.
It is inspired in the nature with sensitive forms that can be easily understood
Approximation to physical beauty from the spiritual dimension of their iconography
Depiction of the space
Volume of the images (anatomy)
Relation of light and colour
It is an attempt to present the world as it is. Nature loses idealization.
Characters’ gestures and attitudes are human. The character represents emotions and natural features.
Naturalism affected the two main images depicted:
The Virgin is not any longer a throne for her son but a mother who plays with him
Christ is a human person who suffers in the cross or who is death.
The characters are full of humanism, they abandon verticality, symmetry and hieratic positions to adopt mannered gestures with realistic movement.
They tend to depict emotions such as joy or sadness. A good example are the gestures of the Virgin and Saint John in the Calvarias or Pieties.
Evolution 13th century: classicist. They look for an idealised naturalism. 14th century: Mannerism in stylization, longer images and with bends. 15th century: Sculptures of kings, bourgeoises and aristocracy
The most important part is the tympanum where the Pantocrator and the Tetramorph group appear.
The Virgin may appear in the centre.
Sometimes, in lower positions there is the narration of Christ or the Virgin life.
In the archivolts other characters such as saints and kings appear.
In the trumeau it appears the image of Christ or the Virgin. They are friendly images in a door that is considered the access to paradise.
The jambs are reserved for the Apostles
Other profane characters can appear in secondary places.
It is one of the new locations for sculpture.
It can be of two types:
Adjacent: below an arch
Exempt: a funerary bed
The characteristics are:
Death person depicted on the bed, laying or praying
Symbolic animal images
They were commanded by nobility or bourgeoisie
They appear in the chapels.
Other places for sculptures are:
It is mainly religious:
Christ in majesty
Saints lives (hagiography)
Fantastic animals (gargoyles)
They appear in façades, cloisters or in form of exempt images
Christ may appear as judge or in the images about his life.
Other common depiction is that of the Crucifixion, with some new characteristics:
Sufferance elements (blood, injury, crown)
Death or almost death
Wearing a short piece of clothe
The Virgin acquired an special
The image changes:
She is young
She plays with her son
The clothes are elegant
The image is stylised
Hagiographies: there are saints’ lives. Martyrdoms are frequently depicted
Fantastic animals are common as gargoyles.
Polychrome effects were used to make the images more realistic
Characters communicate to each other.
It can be seen in characters in daily activities or in animals and plants
He is the best representative of the sculpture of the late Gothic
His images are realistic, with great volume
He created the character of the hooded person
Romanesque style lasted for a long time
The images made by Mathew master in Santiago’s Glory portal advanced the naturalism.
The development came with the arrival of French masters to work in the cathedrals of Burgos, Leon and Toledo.
The best examples are the façades.
Gothic sepulchres are commonly realised
The type with an arch appears on the wall
The buried person’s portrait lays on the funerary bed
Polychrome effects were used.
The sepulchre of funerary bed could be:
In some cases the person appears in a normal attitude, as is they were alive.