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Gothic Sculpture
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  • 1. GOTHIC SCULPTURE Revision
  • 2. Introduction
    • There is a change in the sculptural conception in the evolution from the Romanesque
    • Images are naturalistic and related to the time they represent in opposition to the lack of temporality and geometric shapes of the former period.
  • 3. General Characteristics
    • It is inspired in the nature with sensitive forms that can be easily understood
    • Approximation to physical beauty from the spiritual dimension of their iconography
    • New problems:
      • Depiction of the space
      • Volume of the images (anatomy)
      • Relation of light and colour
  • 4. General Characteristics
    • It is an attempt to present the world as it is. Nature loses idealization.
    • Characters’ gestures and attitudes are human. The character represents emotions and natural features.
  • 5. General Characteristics
    • Naturalism affected the two main images depicted:
    • The Virgin is not any longer a throne for her son but a mother who plays with him
    • Christ is a human person who suffers in the cross or who is death.
  • 6. General Characteristics
    • The characters are full of humanism, they abandon verticality, symmetry and hieratic positions to adopt mannered gestures with realistic movement.
    • They tend to depict emotions such as joy or sadness. A good example are the gestures of the Virgin and Saint John in the Calvarias or Pieties.
  • 7. Evolution 13th century: classicist. They look for an idealised naturalism. 14th century: Mannerism in stylization, longer images and with bends. 15th century: Sculptures of kings, bourgeoises and aristocracy
  • 8. Façades
    • The most important part is the tympanum where the Pantocrator and the Tetramorph group appear.
    • The Virgin may appear in the centre.
    • Sometimes, in lower positions there is the narration of Christ or the Virgin life.
    • In the archivolts other characters such as saints and kings appear.
  • 9. Façades
    • In the trumeau it appears the image of Christ or the Virgin. They are friendly images in a door that is considered the access to paradise.
    • The jambs are reserved for the Apostles
    • Other profane characters can appear in secondary places.
  • 10. Sepulchres
    • It is one of the new locations for sculpture.
    • It can be of two types:
      • Adjacent: below an arch
      • Exempt: a funerary bed
    • The characteristics are:
      • Death person depicted on the bed, laying or praying
      • Symbolic animal images
    • They were commanded by nobility or bourgeoisie
    • They appear in the chapels.
  • 11. Other locations
    • Other places for sculptures are:
      • Choir chairs
      • Pulpits
      • Altar pieces
  • 12. Iconography
    • It is mainly religious:
      • Last Judgement
      • Christ in majesty
      • Virgin
      • Saints lives (hagiography)
      • Fantastic animals (gargoyles)
    • They appear in façades, cloisters or in form of exempt images
  • 13. Iconography
    • Christ may appear as judge or in the images about his life.
    • Other common depiction is that of the Crucifixion, with some new characteristics:
      • Four nails
      • Sufferance elements (blood, injury, crown)
      • Death or almost death
      • Wearing a short piece of clothe
  • 14. Iconography
    • The Virgin acquired an special
    • status
    • The image changes:
      • She is young
      • Very human
      • She plays with her son
      • She smiles
    • The clothes are elegant
    • The image is stylised
  • 15. Iconography
    • Hagiographies: there are saints’ lives. Martyrdoms are frequently depicted
    • Fantastic animals are common as gargoyles.
  • 16. Colour
    • Polychrome effects were used to make the images more realistic
    • Characters communicate to each other.
  • 17. Naturalism
    • It can be seen in characters in daily activities or in animals and plants
  • 18. Sluter
    • He is the best representative of the sculpture of the late Gothic
    • His images are realistic, with great volume
    • He created the character of the hooded person
  • 19.  
  • 20. Spain
    • Romanesque style lasted for a long time
    • The images made by Mathew master in Santiago’s Glory portal advanced the naturalism.
  • 21. Spain
    • The development came with the arrival of French masters to work in the cathedrals of Burgos, Leon and Toledo.
    • The best examples are the façades.
  • 22. Spain
    • Gothic sepulchres are commonly realised
    • The type with an arch appears on the wall
    • The buried person’s portrait lays on the funerary bed
    • Polychrome effects were used.
  • 23. Spain
    • The sepulchre of funerary bed could be:
      • Double
      • Single
  • 24. Spain
    • In some cases the person appears in a normal attitude, as is they were alive.