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Gothic Sculpture


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Revision on Gothic Sculpture

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Gothic Sculpture

  1. 1. GOTHIC SCULPTURE Revision
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>There is a change in the sculptural conception in the evolution from the Romanesque </li></ul><ul><li>Images are naturalistic and related to the time they represent in opposition to the lack of temporality and geometric shapes of the former period. </li></ul>
  3. 3. General Characteristics <ul><li>It is inspired in the nature with sensitive forms that can be easily understood </li></ul><ul><li>Approximation to physical beauty from the spiritual dimension of their iconography </li></ul><ul><li>New problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depiction of the space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume of the images (anatomy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relation of light and colour </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. General Characteristics <ul><li>It is an attempt to present the world as it is. Nature loses idealization. </li></ul><ul><li>Characters’ gestures and attitudes are human. The character represents emotions and natural features. </li></ul>
  5. 5. General Characteristics <ul><li>Naturalism affected the two main images depicted: </li></ul><ul><li>The Virgin is not any longer a throne for her son but a mother who plays with him </li></ul><ul><li>Christ is a human person who suffers in the cross or who is death. </li></ul>
  6. 6. General Characteristics <ul><li>The characters are full of humanism, they abandon verticality, symmetry and hieratic positions to adopt mannered gestures with realistic movement. </li></ul><ul><li>They tend to depict emotions such as joy or sadness. A good example are the gestures of the Virgin and Saint John in the Calvarias or Pieties. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Evolution 13th century: classicist. They look for an idealised naturalism. 14th century: Mannerism in stylization, longer images and with bends. 15th century: Sculptures of kings, bourgeoises and aristocracy
  8. 8. Façades <ul><li>The most important part is the tympanum where the Pantocrator and the Tetramorph group appear. </li></ul><ul><li>The Virgin may appear in the centre. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes, in lower positions there is the narration of Christ or the Virgin life. </li></ul><ul><li>In the archivolts other characters such as saints and kings appear. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Façades <ul><li>In the trumeau it appears the image of Christ or the Virgin. They are friendly images in a door that is considered the access to paradise. </li></ul><ul><li>The jambs are reserved for the Apostles </li></ul><ul><li>Other profane characters can appear in secondary places. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Sepulchres <ul><li>It is one of the new locations for sculpture. </li></ul><ul><li>It can be of two types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjacent: below an arch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exempt: a funerary bed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The characteristics are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Death person depicted on the bed, laying or praying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbolic animal images </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They were commanded by nobility or bourgeoisie </li></ul><ul><li>They appear in the chapels. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Other locations <ul><li>Other places for sculptures are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Choir chairs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulpits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Altar pieces </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Iconography <ul><li>It is mainly religious: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Last Judgement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christ in majesty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virgin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saints lives (hagiography) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fantastic animals (gargoyles) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They appear in façades, cloisters or in form of exempt images </li></ul>
  13. 13. Iconography <ul><li>Christ may appear as judge or in the images about his life. </li></ul><ul><li>Other common depiction is that of the Crucifixion, with some new characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Four nails </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sufferance elements (blood, injury, crown) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Death or almost death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wearing a short piece of clothe </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Iconography <ul><li>The Virgin acquired an special </li></ul><ul><li>status </li></ul><ul><li>The image changes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>She is young </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very human </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She plays with her son </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She smiles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The clothes are elegant </li></ul><ul><li>The image is stylised </li></ul>
  15. 15. Iconography <ul><li>Hagiographies: there are saints’ lives. Martyrdoms are frequently depicted </li></ul><ul><li>Fantastic animals are common as gargoyles. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Colour <ul><li>Polychrome effects were used to make the images more realistic </li></ul><ul><li>Characters communicate to each other. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Naturalism <ul><li>It can be seen in characters in daily activities or in animals and plants </li></ul>
  18. 18. Sluter <ul><li>He is the best representative of the sculpture of the late Gothic </li></ul><ul><li>His images are realistic, with great volume </li></ul><ul><li>He created the character of the hooded person </li></ul>
  19. 20. Spain <ul><li>Romanesque style lasted for a long time </li></ul><ul><li>The images made by Mathew master in Santiago’s Glory portal advanced the naturalism. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Spain <ul><li>The development came with the arrival of French masters to work in the cathedrals of Burgos, Leon and Toledo. </li></ul><ul><li>The best examples are the façades. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Spain <ul><li>Gothic sepulchres are commonly realised </li></ul><ul><li>The type with an arch appears on the wall </li></ul><ul><li>The buried person’s portrait lays on the funerary bed </li></ul><ul><li>Polychrome effects were used. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  22. 23. Spain <ul><li>The sepulchre of funerary bed could be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Double </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Spain <ul><li>In some cases the person appears in a normal attitude, as is they were alive. </li></ul>