Baroque Revision


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Baroque Art revision, including architecture, sculpture and painting.

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Baroque Revision

  1. 1. BAROQUE ART Revision
  2. 2. Cronology and geography <ul><li>From the end of 16th century until 1750. </li></ul><ul><li>Geography: whole Europe+ America. </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of the period: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious and political conflicts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographical colonization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientific development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New astrological discoveries  Sun centre of Universe </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Baroque Style <ul><li>The word means imperfection </li></ul><ul><li>New naturalism that reflects the scientific advances </li></ul><ul><li>Taste for dramatic action and emotion: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Colour and light contrasted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rich textures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asymmetrical spaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diagonal plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New subjects: landscape, genre, still-life </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Baroque Style <ul><li>Variety within the style </li></ul><ul><li>Art at the service of power </li></ul><ul><li>Two main centres: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rome: Pope’s authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>France: powerful monarchy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Influence of the Counter-Reform </li></ul><ul><li>Worry about plastic values </li></ul>
  5. 5. Architecture: Characteristics <ul><li>Long narrow naves replaced by broader or circular forms </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic use of light </li></ul><ul><li>Opulent use of ornaments </li></ul><ul><li>Large-scale ceiling frescoes </li></ul><ul><li>External façade with dramatic central projection </li></ul><ul><li>Interior a shell for painting and sculpture </li></ul><ul><li>Illusory effects </li></ul><ul><li>Onion domes in Eastern Europe </li></ul>
  6. 6. Architecture: Italy <ul><li>They evolved from the Renaissance forms </li></ul><ul><li>Movement toward grand structures with flowing, curving shapes </li></ul><ul><li>Landscape was frequently incorporated </li></ul><ul><li>New elements as gardens, squares , courtyards and fountains. </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of the rebuilding of Saint Peter, in which classical forms integrated with the city. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Architecture: Italy <ul><li>Maderno </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He made the Vatican’s façade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>His work destroyed partially Michelangelo’s design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>His work combined the dome with the creation of an space where the Pope could appear publicaly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other works: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Santa maria della Vittoria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Palazzo Barberini </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Architecture: Italy <ul><li>Longhena </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He worked mainly in Venice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>His design was selected for building Santa Maria della Salute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is building of central plan with a great dome that became the symbol of Venice. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Architecture: Italy <ul><li>Bernini </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He created a fusion of architecture, painting and sculpture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He used false perspective and trompe-l’ oeil to impact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He used a palace façade that became a model with massive pilasters above a rusticated base. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Saint Peter’s square </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Baldaquin </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Architecture: Italy <ul><li>Borromini </li></ul><ul><ul><li>His works spring from the contrast between convention and freedom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He used tradition as a basis, but not as a law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>San Carlo Borromeo </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oratorio degli Fillipenses </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Architecture: France <ul><li>It was elegant, ordered, rational and restraided </li></ul><ul><li>It is a rectilinear model, closer to classicism </li></ul><ul><li>It aimed at showing the power of Louis XIV monarchy. </li></ul><ul><li>The main works are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Louvre: Le Vay and Perrault </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Versailles: Le Brun, Le Vau, Le Notre </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Architecture: Central Europe <ul><li>It began later due to the Thirty Years’ War </li></ul><ul><li>Austria developed the Imperial style with Fischer von Erlach and Hildebrandt </li></ul><ul><li>In Germany, in the Catholic South Jesuit models were followed while in the Protestant North works were less important </li></ul><ul><li>Palace architecture was important in the whole area </li></ul>
  13. 13. Architecture: England and Russia <ul><li>In England is important Wren </li></ul><ul><li>Baroque was the style used to design town planning </li></ul><ul><li>In Russia it is very decorative, in quite traditional churches sometimes made of brick; later it was imported from the Low Countries and finally it became an extravagant art. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Architecture: Spain <ul><li>At the beginning it continued the pattern of the Escorial </li></ul><ul><li>Decoration tends to concentrate just in the façade </li></ul><ul><li>The Rococo was the time of the development of the Churrigueresque style, with exaggerated decoration around the door </li></ul><ul><li>The Plateresque (last Renaissance that imitates the work on silver) and the Churrigueresque were exported to America, mainly to Mexico. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Sculpture <ul><li>It is one of the most popular arts. </li></ul><ul><li>The clients are the church and the nobility. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the way of expression of different religious believes. </li></ul><ul><li>It was used as a way of advertising power </li></ul><ul><li>Works are located in public places, such as courtyards and fountains. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Sculpture: Characteristics <ul><li>Creation of images that can be seen from different points of view. </li></ul><ul><li>Tendency to open structures. </li></ul><ul><li>Complicated lines, being the diagonal the most used. </li></ul><ul><li>Interest for the effects of light: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>different treatment of surfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource to breaking wall to get the ideal illumination </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Sculpture: Characteristics <ul><li>Combination of different materials in the same work </li></ul><ul><li>Grandiloquence of the gestures </li></ul><ul><li>Human treatment of the depicted characters </li></ul><ul><li>Mythological and religious images frull of humanities and passions </li></ul><ul><li>Perfect organisation of the volumes to obtain the desired effect </li></ul>
  18. 18. Sculpture: Characteristics <ul><li>Tension and drama: moment of maximum tension </li></ul><ul><li>Violent contrast of light and shadows </li></ul><ul><li>Types of sculptures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relief </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portrait </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equestrian portrait </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allegories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mythological stories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easter sculptures (Spain) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fountains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pantheons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regional differences </li></ul>
  19. 19. Sculpture: Italy <ul><li>Bernini </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He created a new style in sculpture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sources of inspiration were the paintings of his contemporaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense of drama and naturalism (following Caravaggio) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Captured in stone frozen moment of human bodies in motion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Apollo and Daphne </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sainte Therese Ecstasy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fountain of the Four Rivers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fountain of the Triton </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Sculpture: France <ul><li>Girardon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quite classical conception </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He worked for Louis XIV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Author of fountains (Apollo Tended by Nymphs), pantheons (Richelieu) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Puget </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impassioned work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formed in Italy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expressed physical vigour and emotional intensity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work: Milon of Crotona </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Sculpture: Spain <ul><li>Religious sculpture had an important development </li></ul><ul><li>It is realised for the Easter parades. </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humanity (passions, mainly sufferance) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbols of sufferance: blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual or group images </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wood is the most used material (polychrome) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional elements: real clothes, glazed eyes, hair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common images: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Painful Virgin (Dolorosa) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ecce Homo (Christ tied up to a column) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Death Christ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Calvary </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Sculpture: Spain <ul><li>Castilian School: Gregorio Fernandez </li></ul><ul><ul><li>His style evolved from the refinement and elegance of Court Mannerism to Baroque naturalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Master in depicting the human body with anatomical detail, tension in muscles, strength of bones and softness of flesh and skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clothing heavy and flat, with rigid and angular folders, producing contrast of light and shadows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dramatic expressions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple polychromes (flat colours) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works: Virgin with the Dead Christ, Road to the Calvary, Saint Theresa </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Sculpture: Spain <ul><li>Andalusian School: </li></ul><ul><li>Greater classical tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Artist maintained the aesthetic of latter Mannerism (athletic figures, elegant composition, and idealised beauty) </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporation of the effects of naturalism in emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Artists: Martinez Montañes, Alonso Cano, Pedro de Mena, Jose de Mora </li></ul>
  24. 24. Sculpture: Spain <ul><li>Andalusian School: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Martinez Montañes: “ The God of Wood” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Combined love of beauty and serenity of the Mannerism with the naturalism of the Baroque </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elegant figures in restful poses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Human and contained emotions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Saint John the Evangelist </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alonso Cano </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Combines classicism and Baroque </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Purity of form, delicacy and contaiment of expression </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Careful anatomy and slender outline </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oval faces, eyes with melancholic and pensive gaze </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Saint John the Baptists </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Sculpture: Spain <ul><li>Andalusian School: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pedro de Mena: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greater simplification of form </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spiritual content </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pure sentiments or states of mind: ecstasy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Saint Peter of Alcántara, Ecce Homo </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jose de Mora: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simplicity and expression </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Realistic pain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Faces with expression of introspection and sad gazes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Impossibility of consolation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Virgin of Solitude </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Sculpture: Spain <ul><li>Pasos or processional scenes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made of light but fragile materials at the beginning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wooden carvings popular since 17th century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polychrome and with fake additions: glass eyes and tears, ivory teeth, hair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Viewpoints should be taken into account </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different work in characters: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Goodies: meticolous, pretty to look, dressed in timeless clothing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Baddies: less detail, no additions, ugly and unpleasant, clothing from the time they were made </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Sculpture: Spain <ul><ul><li>Mounted in wooden platforms: scenes seemed almost alive with the movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Main images desmounted and put in altars and baddies packed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There were famous those of Valladolid, made by Gregorio Fernandez </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decadence during the 18th century </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Sculpture: Spain <ul><li>In the late Baroque there were French and Italian influences </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of a new classicism </li></ul><ul><li>Murcia took relevance: Salcillo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced by the Neapolitan school (Belen tradition) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement, delicacy and tender beauty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perfection of form, serch of elegance and refinement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great dynamism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Added materials and polychrome </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Luisa Roldan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger sife sized an small terra-cotta compositions </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Painting <ul><li>Subjects: religious and profane (mythological, allegorical, historical or portraits) </li></ul><ul><li>Composition: complicated; taste for big groups, with different centres of attention. Portraits are just essential </li></ul><ul><li>Lines: dynamic and complicate. Diagonal is the most used or combinations of horizontal and vertical </li></ul><ul><li>Colour: rich, with great effects due to the use of oil and contrast depending on the areas </li></ul><ul><li>Strange elements: secondary plans, mirrors </li></ul>
  30. 30. Painting <ul><li>Kinds of depiction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious: martyrdoms, sufferance and blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mythological: generally developed with contemporary characters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allegorical: virtues and sins portrayed as humans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portraits: royal, bourgeois (doelen), beggars, handicapped </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customs: every day’s life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical: bear witness of historical events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landscapes: never quiet sceneries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Still-life: food and vegetables, flowers, animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vanities or vanitas: remainders of the egalitarian role of death </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Painting: Italy <ul><li>Caravaggio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very naturalist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theologically incorrect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enormous contrasts of light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult compositions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Known as the creator of tenebrism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works: Supper at Emmaus, the Death of the Virgin, Saint Mathew’s Conversion </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Painting: Italy <ul><li>Carracci </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He received Caravaggio’s influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Naturalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perfect and idealised world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>His works are completely different from those of Caravaggio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works: Cerasi Chapel </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Painting: Flanders <ul><li>Rubens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He was a complete artist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gifted with organization and a sense for realism and idealism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He enjoyed harmony’s enviable balance of opposites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Romantic but rooted in classical tradition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works: The Three Graces, The Garden of Love, Catalina of Medici’s Portrait </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Painting: Flanders <ul><li>Van Dyck </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He was Rubens’ s student </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In his works there in a languid melancholic mood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portraits of the aristocracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works: Charles I </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jordaens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized in genre and banquet scenes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong contrasts of light and shade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Realistic images </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works: The King Drinks </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Painting: Netherlands <ul><li>Rembrant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thunderous use of light and shade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dramatic figures filling the picture surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluid and vigorous brushwork </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He substituted the exact imitation of form by the suggestion of it: painting looked to be unfinished </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited palette but able to depict colours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He worked in complex layers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great care to the physical qualities of the medium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works: The Night’s Ronda, Saskia having a Bath, The Jew Bridegroom, The Philosopher </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Painting: Netherlands <ul><li>Hals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He brought life to groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portraits as a snapshot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unconventional work for his moment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quick depictions with a few touches of light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works: The Gipsy Girl </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vermeer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Domestic interiors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serene sense of compositional balance and spatial order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mundane, domestic or recreational activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He used the camera obscura to exaggerate perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works: Girl with the Pearl Earring, View of Delft, the Procuress, The Geographer </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Painting: France <ul><li>Poussin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Founder of the classical school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Myths, essential subject and sensuality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works: Et in Arcadia Ego </li></ul></ul><ul><li>La Tour </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preocupation with the realistic rendering of light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effects of chiaroscuro and diffusion of artificial illumination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works: Marie Magdalene </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Le Nain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common life, peasants and poor people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grave presences, not comic or gallant, neither picaresque or satirical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works: Peasant’s Family </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Painting: Spain <ul><li>Zurbarán </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He was a portrait painter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Main subjects: religious (saints, monastic orders’ members) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Austere, harsh, hard edged style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Still-lives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works: Paintings of the Guadalupe Monastery, Sainte Casilde, Still-life with lemons </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Painting: Spain <ul><li>Velázquez </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He painted any kind of subjects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He was Court Painter and travelled to Italy to buy art works and he knew classical masters’ works </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portraits: include royal family and nobility, some of them equestrian, but also normal people of the court or even beggars (Olivares, Juan de Pareja, Esopo, Meninas) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious paintings are treated as common subjects, with great importance given to daily life objects (Christ in Martha and Mary’s house) </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Painting: Spain <ul><ul><li>Mythological work appear normally in a secondary plan or represented by normal people (Spinners, Drunks) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical scenes (Breda’s Surrender) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nudes (Venus of the mirror) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landscapes (Villa Medicci) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genre scenes: same importance given to the tools or to people (Old Woman Cooking Eggs, Sevilla’s Water-Seller) </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Painting: Spain <ul><ul><li>Characteristics: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Great detail when wanted </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aerial perspective </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-Impressioniss (few matter and impression of unfinished work) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Special conception of the space (no divisions of it) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resource to very baroque elements such as mirrors that create an illusionist space </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Richness of colours </li></ul></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Painting: Spain <ul><li>Murillo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>His work is not strong but his images are convincing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Realism but a bit idealistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He is reputed as children painter, works in which beggars and poor children are depicted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He created a model of Immaculate, moved by the wind and with a lot of putti </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works: Children Eating Fruit, Two Women at a Window, the Holy Family of the Bird, Immaculate </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Rococo <ul><li>French style for interior decoration </li></ul><ul><li>It developped mainly at the end of 1720 </li></ul><ul><li>It was used in other countries as a French Style </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Galante: luxurious things </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contraste: asymmety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinoiserie: exotic character imitating Chinese arts </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Rococo Architecture <ul><li>It caught the public taste </li></ul><ul><li>Small and curious buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Elegant parlours, dainty sitting-rooms and boudoirs </li></ul><ul><li>Walls, ceiling, furniture and works of metal as decoration </li></ul><ul><li>Ensemble of sportive, fantastic and sculptured forms </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal lines almost completely supressed </li></ul><ul><li>Shell-like curves </li></ul><ul><li>Walls covered by stucco </li></ul><ul><li>White and bright colours. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Rococo Sculpture <ul><li>There is not a breaking with the former </li></ul><ul><li>The tune was set by courts and it is decorative </li></ul><ul><li>Staircases, columns with atlantes become common </li></ul><ul><li>Gardens and parks were adorned more than ever before with statues. These isolated and groups were placed on fountains </li></ul><ul><li>The social role of sculpture increased to show the power of dynasties and nobility, mainly when cities expanded </li></ul>
  46. 46. Rococo Sculpture <ul><li>Taste for technical virtuosity, sheer brilliance of manner </li></ul><ul><li>Allegory was used because it had an elaborate system of symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Religion was a bit less used during the Enlightement </li></ul><ul><li>Portraits give importance to reallity with psychological quirks </li></ul><ul><li>Female portrait were less austere </li></ul><ul><li>Cult of great men </li></ul><ul><li>Increase of the number of equestrian statues </li></ul><ul><li>Funeral monuments </li></ul>
  47. 47. Rococo Sculpture <ul><li>Bouchardon: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean forms, can and harmonious rhythms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precursor of the Neoclassicism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works: Louis XIV </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Houdon: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charming images a bit ambiguous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Works: Voltaire, La Frileuse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Pigalle: The Negro Paul, Tombe of Marshl Saxony </li></ul><ul><li>Falconet: Equestrian statue of Peter the Great </li></ul>
  48. 48. Rococo Painting <ul><li>Instead of portraying the moral depression of the time, they protrait high society and gallant festivals </li></ul><ul><li>Beautiful sensuality is masterly depicted through the colour </li></ul><ul><li>Conversations, rural pleasures, character as the Italian and French Commendians indicates the spirit of this art </li></ul><ul><li>Slim images, in unaffected pose, in rural sceneries and painted with the finest colours </li></ul>
  49. 49. Rococo Painting <ul><li>France </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wateau </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He depicted mankind as the most interesting natural element: affinity toward them </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elegant characters in vibrant colours </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Works: Embarkation to Citera, Gilles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fragonard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid an spontaneous painter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He depicted the sense of human folly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Works: The Swing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chardin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Master of the still life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paintings in brown colours with mids, but loyal to reallity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Rococo Painting <ul><li>England </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hogart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Caricature in his morality paintings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fluent and vigorous brushwork </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Works: Shrimp Girl </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gainsborough </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Artist of the landscape and the portrait </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to regard all creatures with sympathy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Works: Landscape with Gypsies, Sunset </li></ul></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Rococo Painting <ul><li>Italy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tiepolo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Master of the decorative painting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He used the fresco </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Works: Wurzburg Palace, Allegory of the Spanish Monarchy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canaletto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Townscapes painter (vedute) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He apparently painted directly from nature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He used the camera obscura </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Works: Architectural Capriccio, The Bucintoro Returning to the Molo on Ascension Day </li></ul></ul></ul>