Psychology 102: Intelligence & intelligence assessment


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Overview of the psychology, history, and application of intelligence and intelligence testing.

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Psychology 102: Intelligence & intelligence assessment

  1. 1. Psychology 102: Intelligence & Intelligence Assessment Dr James Neill Centre for Applied Psychology University of Canberra 2009
  2. 2. Reading Gerrig et al. (Chapter 9): Intelligence and Intelligence Assessment
  3. 3. <ul><li>What is intelligence?
  4. 4. History of intelligence testing
  5. 5. Features of good or bad tests (psychometrics)
  6. 6. Cultural and social background on intelligence test performance </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence, creativity and mental illness </li></ul>Overview
  7. 7. What is intelligence?
  8. 8. What is cognition? The process and content of “knowing”, including thinking, remembering, and communicating.
  9. 9. Cognitive Psychology
  10. 10. Intelligence as an “individual difference” Intelligence and personality are the most ubiquitous individual differences (e.g., commonly measured) Individual differences = stable human psychological characteristics which vary between people
  11. 11. Abstract thinking ability (Terman, 1921) Capacity for knowledge and knowledge possessed (Henmon, 1921) Capacity to learn from experience (Dearborn, 1921) Many definitions of intelligence
  12. 12. &quot;The capacity to acquire capacity.&quot; (Woodrow, 1921) Ability to adapt to the environment. (Colvin, cited in Sternberg, 1982) “ a general factor that runs through all types of performance.&quot; (Jensen) Many definitions of intelligence
  13. 13. &quot;A global concept that involves an individual's ability to act purposefully, think rationally, and deal effectively with the environment.&quot; (Wechsler, 1958) Many definitions of intelligence
  14. 14. &quot;ability to solve problems, or to create products, that are valued within one or more cultural settings ( Gardner, 1983/2003, p. x)&quot; Many definitions of intelligence
  15. 15. &quot; The global capacity to profit from experience and to go beyond given information about the environment” (Gerrig et al., 2008) Many definitions of intelligence
  16. 16. History of intelligence assessment
  17. 17. <ul><li>Differences are quantifiable
  18. 18. Differences form a normal distribution
  19. 19. Measured by objective tests
  20. 20. Statistically determined by correlations </li></ul>Galton’s ideas of intelligence
  21. 21. <ul><li>Galton’s controversially postulated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic superiority and inferiority
  22. 22. Started Eugenics movement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Galtonian view </li></ul>Galton’s ideas of intelligence
  23. 23. <ul><li>Alfred Binet & Théophile Simon </li><ul><li>Mental age (MA)
  24. 24. Chronological age (CA) </li></ul><li>Lewis Terman </li><ul><li>Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale
  25. 25. Intelligence Quotient (IQ) </li></ul></ul>The origins of intelligence testing
  26. 26. Alfred Binet and his colleague Théodore Simon practiced a more modern form of intelligence testing by developing questions that would predict children’s future progress in the Paris school system. Alfred Binet
  27. 27. <ul><li>In the US, Terman adapted Binet’s test -> the Stanford-Binet Test.
  28. 28. Terman used Stern’s formula for Intelligence Quotient (IQ): </li></ul>Assessing intelligence: Lewis Terman
  29. 29. <ul><li>Intelligence Quotient
  30. 30. Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test
  31. 31. Wechsler Intelligence Scales </li><ul><li>Verbal subtests
  32. 32. Performance subtests </li><ul><li>WAIS -3, WISC-4, WPPSI - 3 </li></ul></ul></ul>IQ and IQ Tests
  33. 33. Interpreting scores: The normal curve
  34. 34. Intelligence scores become stable after about seven years of age. In numerous studies, stability of intelligence scores have been determined (Angoff, 1988; Deary et al., 2004). Stability or Change?
  35. 35. Recent studies indicate some correlation (~ .40) between brain size and intelligence. As brain size decreases with age, scores on verbal intelligence tests also decrease. Is intelligence neurologically measurable?
  36. 36. Features of Formal Assessment of Intelligence
  37. 37. <ul><li>Use of specified procedures to evaluate abilities, behaviours, and personal qualities
  38. 38. Referred to as the ‘measurement of individual difference' </li></ul>Psychological assessment: What is it?
  39. 39. <ul><li>Systematic procedures and measurement used to assess individuals functioning, aptitudes, abilities and mental states.
  40. 40. Three requirements </li><ul><li>Reliability
  41. 41. Validity
  42. 42. Standardisation </li></ul></ul>Features of formal assessment
  43. 43. <ul><li>Reliability is the stability or consistency of scores produced by an instrument
  44. 44. Measured over time and space </li></ul>Concept of reliability
  45. 45. Types of reliability <ul><li>Test-retest Reliability </li><ul><li>Test on two occasions
  46. 46. Measured by a correlation </li></ul><li>Parallel Forms </li><ul><li>Different versions of a test </li></ul><li>Internal Consistency </li><ul><li>Similar scores across different parts </li></ul><li>Split-half Reliability </li><ul><li>Odd vs even numbers on test </li></ul></ul>Time 1 Time 2 Form A Form B 1, 3, 5, 7 = 2, 4, 6, 8 =
  47. 47. Concept of validity <ul><li>Extent to which a test measures what it was intended to measure
  48. 48. Face validity: Surface content matches
  49. 49. Criterion/Predictive Validity: A standard e.g. your uni entry score
  50. 50. Construct Validity: Measures the construct (e.g., depression) </li></ul>
  51. 51. <ul><li>Norms </li><ul><li>Standards based on measurements of a large group of people
  52. 52. Used to compare </li></ul><li>Standardisation </li><ul><li>Uniform procedures for treating each participant in a test, interview or in research </li></ul></ul>Norms and standardisation
  53. 53. Extremes of intelligence?
  54. 54. Normal curve Standardized tests establish a normal distribution of scores on a tested population in a bell-shaped pattern called the normal curve.
  55. 55. Extremes of intelligence A valid intelligence test divides two groups of people into two extremes: the mentally retarded (IQ 70) and individuals with high intelligence (IQ 135). These two groups are significantly different.
  56. 56. <ul><li>Intellectual disability </li><ul><li>Onset before 18 years old
  57. 57. IQ of below 70 to 75
  58. 58. Limitations in 2+ adaptive life skills </li></ul><li>Learning disorders </li><ul><li>Large discrepancy between an individual's measured IQ and achievement </li></ul></ul>Extremes of intelligence
  59. 59. Intellectual disability
  60. 60. Intellectually disabled people required constant supervision a few decades ago, but with a supportive family environment and special education they are more able to care for themselves. Intellectual disability
  61. 61. <ul><li>IQ score above 130 </li><ul><li>Joseph Renzulli </li><ul><li>Three-ring conception </li><ul><li>Ability
  62. 62. Creativity
  63. 63. Task commitment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Intellectual giftedness
  64. 64. Contrary to popular belief, people with high intelligence test scores tend to be healthy, well adjusted, and unusually successful academically. High intelligence
  65. 65. Theories of intelligence
  66. 66. <ul><li>Psychometrics = science of mental testing
  67. 67. Statistical relationships (factor analysis)
  68. 68. Charles Spearman </li><ul><li>Spearman’s “g” </li></ul><li>Raymond Cattell </li><ul><li>Crystallised and Fluid Intelligence </li></ul></ul>Psychometric theories of intelligence
  69. 69. Spearman proposed that general intelligence (g) is linked to many clusters that can be analyzed by factor analysis. e.g., people who do well on vocabulary examinations do well on paragraph comprehension examinations, a cluster that helps define verbal intelligence. Other factors include a spatial ability factor, or a reasoning ability factor. General Intelligence
  70. 70. General intelligence Thurstone, a critic of Spearman’s g, suggested seven clusters of PRIMARY MENTAL ABILITIES: <ul><ul><ul><li>Word Fluency
  71. 71. Verbal Comprehension
  72. 72. Spatial Ability
  73. 73. Perceptual Speed
  74. 74. Numerical Ability
  75. 75. Inductive Reasoning
  76. 76. Memory </li></ul></ul></ul>
  77. 77. <ul><li>Content
  78. 78. Product
  79. 79. Operation </li></ul>Guilford's structure of the intellect
  80. 80. Wechsler developed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and later the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC), an intelligence test for preschoolers. David Wechsler
  81. 81. WAIS measures overall intelligence and 11 related aspects to assess clinical and educational problems. David Wechsler
  82. 82. <ul><li>Analytical intelligence </li><ul><li>Basic information processing skills </li></ul><li>Creative intelligence </li><ul><li>Ability to deal with novel versus routine problems </li></ul><li>Practical intelligence </li><ul><li>Ability to adapt to different contexts, and to select and shape contexts </li></ul></ul>Robert Sternberg's Triarchic Theory
  83. 83. <ul><li>Gardner (1983, 1999) supports Thurstone’s idea that intelligence comes in multiple forms.
  84. 84. Gardner noted that brain damage may diminish one type of ability but not others e.g., savants. </li></ul>Howard Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences
  85. 85. <ul><li>8 types of intelligence - speculates about a 9th – existential intelligence = ability to think about the question of life, death and existence.
  86. 86. Logical-mathematical, linguistic, naturalist, musical, spatial, bodily kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal (emotional) </li></ul>Howard Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences
  87. 87. Howard Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences
  88. 88. Theories of intelligence
  89. 90. What does intelligence influence?
  90. 91. Brain function Studies of brain functions show that people who score high on intelligence tests perceive stimuli faster, retrieve information from memory quicker, and show faster brain response times.
  91. 92. Aptitude tests are intended to predict your ability to learn a new skill and achievement tests are intended to reflect what you have already learned. Aptitude and achievement tests
  92. 93. What influences intelligence?
  93. 94. In the past 60 years, intelligence scores have risen steadily by an average of 27 points. Flynn Effect
  94. 95. Schooling is an experience that pays dividends, which is reflected in intelligence scores. Increased schooling correlates with higher intelligence scores. Schooling effects
  95. 96. 5 minute break – have a stretch
  96. 97. Intelligence: Issues and Controversies
  97. 98. Despite general agreement among psychologists about the nature of intelligence, two controversies remain: <ul><li>Is intelligence a single overall ability or is it several specific abilities?
  98. 99. With modern neuroscience techniques, can we locate and measure intelligence within the brain? </li></ul>Controversies about intelligence
  99. 100. <ul><li>History of Group Comparisons
  100. 101. Heredity and IQ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heritability </li></ul></ul>The politics of intelligence
  101. 102. <ul><li>Environments and IQ </li><ul><li>Judith Kearins’ series of studies: No single explanation for behaviour </li></ul><li>Culture and the validity of IQ tests </li><ul><li>Graham Chaffey </li><ul><li>Invisible underachievers </li></ul><li>Claude Steele </li><ul><li>Stereotype threat (vulnerability) </li></ul><li>Harold Stevenson </li><ul><li>Hard work versus innate ability </li></ul></ul></ul>The politics of intelligence
  102. 103. <ul><li>No other topic in psychology is so passionately followed as the one that asks the question, “Is intelligence due to genetics or environment?” </li></ul>The politics of intelligence
  103. 104. Studies of twins, family members, and adopted children together support the idea that there is a significant genetic contribution to intelligence. The politics of intelligence
  104. 105. Two disturbing but agreed upon facts: <ul><li>Racial groups differ in their average intelligence scores.
  105. 106. High-scoring people (and groups) are more likely to attain high levels of education and income. </li></ul>Group differences in IQ scores
  106. 107. If we look at racial differences, white Americans score higher in average intelligence than black Americans (Avery et al., 1994). European New Zealanders score higher than native New Zealanders (Braden, 1994). Group differences in IQ scores White-Americans Black-Americans Average IQ = 100 Average IQ = 85
  107. 108. Differences in intelligence among these groups are largely environmental, as if one environment is more fertile in developing these abilities than another. Environmental effects
  108. 109. Adoption studies Adopted children show a marginal correlation in verbal ability to their adopted parents.
  109. 110. Adoption studies Studies of twins and adopted children also show the following: <ul><li>Fraternal twins raised together tend to show similarity in intelligence scores.
  110. 111. Identical twins raised apart show slightly less similarity in their intelligence scores. </li></ul>
  111. 112. Adoption studies Early neglect from caregivers leads children to develop a lack of personal control over the environment, and it impoverishes their intelligence. Romanian orphans with minimal human interaction are delayed in their development.
  112. 113. <ul><li>Goal of psychological assessment </li><ul><li>To make as accurate assessments as possible
  113. 114. Controversial area for psychology </li></ul><li>Three ethical concerns </li><ul><li>Fairness of test-based decisions
  114. 115. Utility of tests for evaluating education
  115. 116. Implications of using test scores to categorise people </li></ul></ul>Assessment and society
  116. 117. Intelligence and Creativity
  117. 118. <ul><li>Creativity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to generate ideas or products that are novel and useful to the circumstance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is creativity linked to intelligence? </li></ul>Creativity
  118. 119. Intelligence and Creativity <ul><li>Some correlation with intelligence.
  119. 120. Expertise: A well-developed knowledge base.
  120. 121. Imaginative Thinking: The ability to see things in novel ways.
  121. 122. Adventuresome Personality: Seeks new experiences rather than following the pack.
  122. 123. Intrinsic Motivation: A motivation to be creative from within.
  123. 124. A Creative Environment: A creative and supportive environment allows creativity to bloom. </li></ul>
  124. 125. <ul><li>Divergent Thinking defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to produce unusual but appropriate responses to problems
  125. 126. Fluid versus flexible thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Weak to moderate correlation between IQ and Divergent Thinking </li></ul>Assessing creativity and the link to intelligence
  126. 127. <ul><li>Exemplary Creator </li><ul><li>Extraordinary abilities (e.g. Pablo Picasso) </li></ul><li>Risk Taking </li><ul><li>Uncharted Waters </li></ul><li>Preparation </li><ul><li>Acquisition of expertise </li></ul><li>Intrinsic Motivation </li><ul><li>Enjoyment and satisfaction </li></ul></ul>Extremes of creativity
  127. 128. <ul><li>Gerrig, R. J., Zimbardo, P. G., Campbell, A. J., Cumming, S. R., & Wilkes, F. J. (2008). Psychology and life (Australian edition). Sydney: Pearson Education Australia. </li></ul>References