Intellgence

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Galton,binet,piaget and wechsler's intelligence theories explained
Factor-Analytic Theories: Spearman, Gardner, Cattell-Horn-Carrol
Information Processing View

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Intellgence

  1. 1. Intelligence •Information Defined : Galton, Binet, Piaget, Wechsler •Factor-Analytic •Information Theories: Spearman, Gardner, Cattell-Horn-Carrol Processing View
  2. 2. What is Intelligence ?
  3. 3.  Intelligence includes : 1. Acquire and apply knowledge 2. Reason logically 3. Plan effectively 4. Infer perceptively 5. Make sound judgements and solve problems 6. Grasp and visualize concepts 7. Pay attention 8. Be intuitive 9. Find the right words and thoughts with facility 10. Cope with, adjust to, and make the most of new situations
  4. 4. Intelligence defined: views of the Lay Public  Research by Sternberg and his associates on how laypeople and psychologists defined intelligence  Study of 476 people (randomly selected) asked to list behaviours related to – intelligence, academic intelligence, everyday intelligence and unintelligence  In general intelligence conceived to be a practical, problem solving, verbal ability and social competence.  The Similarity in conceptions !
  5. 5. Intelligence Defined: Views of Scholars & Test Professional
  6. 6.  In symposium published in the Journal of Educational Psychology (1921), leading psychologist addressed following questions: 1. What is Intelligence? 2. How can it be measured? 3. What can be the next step in the research? Later years, Spearmen reflected: “In truth, intelligence has become…a word with many meanings that finally it has none” On the other, Edwin Boring: “intelligences is what the tests test”, which was unsatisfactory, incomplete and circular definition.
  7. 7. Francis Galton (1822-1911) 1. First to note the importance of individual differences. 2. Created the first tests of mental ability. 3. The first to use questionnaires. 4. Created several statistical procedures to analyze his data, including techniques still in use today.
  8. 8. 5. First person to publish on the Heritability of Intelligence framing contemporary nature-nurture debate. 6. Galton (1883) believed that most intelligent persons were those with the best sensory abilities. 7. He observed that “the only information that reaches us concerning outward events appears to pass through the avenues of our senses, upon which our judgment and intelligence can act.” 8. Attempted to measure intelligence in sensorimotor and other perceptionrelated test.
  9. 9. Alfred Binet (1857-1911) 1. Most influential contributions to the field of psychology were in the area of intelligence testing. 2. The first intelligence test was developed by Alfred Binet in 1905. 3. Binet did not coin the term I.Q. 4. Didn’t provide explicit definition and wrote about the components of intelligence.
  10. 10. 5. Components: reasoning, judgment, memory, and abstraction. 6. Argued that solving a particular problem and the abilities used cannot be separated.
  11. 11. DAVID WECHSLER Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
  12. 12. History of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales  One interesting thing to note is that Alfred Binet, the developer of the world's first intelligence test, also believed that intelligence was far too complex a subject to be sufficiently described by a single number. The goal of his original test was to help identify children who needed specialized help in school and he felt that a variety of individual factors, including a child's level of motivation, could influence test scores
  13. 13. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) is an intelligence test that was first published in 1955 and designed to measure intelligence in adults and older adolescents. The test was designed by psychologist David Wechsler who believed that intelligence was made up a number of different mental abilities rather than a single general intelligence factor.  In a sense, Wechsler's test was a return to many of the ideas that Binet had also espoused. Instead of giving a single overall score, the WAIS provided a profile of the test taker's overall strengths and weaknesses. One benefit of this approach is that the pattern of scores can also provide useful information. For example, scoring high in certain areas but low in others might indicate the presence of a specific learning disability. 
  14. 14. JEAN PIAGET COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
  15. 15. An Overview of Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development  Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development suggests that children move through four different stages of mental development. His theory focuses not only on understanding how children acquire knowledge, but also on understanding the nature of intelligence.
  16. 16. Piaget’s 4 stages of cognitive development 1.Sensori-motor period (from birth until age 2) --Behavior is organized around its sensory or motor effects --Culminates in attaining the concept of object permanence. --Object permanence: understanding that objects have a continued existence when they disappear from view. 2.Pre-operational stage (from 2-6) --Characterized by egocentric thought. --Children cannot adopt alternative viewpoints; they cannot think from another person’s perspective. 3.Concrete operational stage (6-12) --Children are able to adopt alternative viewpoints. --Conservation task: pour water from short, wide glass into tall, thin one --Concrete operational child understands the amount of water stays the same. 4.Formal operational stage (12 and up) --Child is not limited to concrete thinking. --Child can reason abstractly and logically.
  17. 17. Gardner’s EIGHT INTELLIGENCES
  18. 18. Intelligence “The capacity to solve problems or to fashion products that are valued in one or more cultural setting.” -Howard Gardner  The ability to create an effective product or offer a service that is valued in a culture  A set of skills that make it possible for a person to solve problems  The potential for finding or creating solutions for problems which involves gathering new knowledge Eight Intelligences -Gardner’s theory supports distinct intelligences, rather than one general ability to think and learn. -Gardner asserts that the eight intelligences are very thinly connected, and do not rely on or occur as a direct consequence of one another, but can complement each other as individuals evolve  Linguistic Intelligence - A heightened understanding or sensitivity to spoken and written word. Attributes -Strong reader, writer, story-teller -Ability to memorize words, dates, times -Easily learns foreign languages  Spatial Intelligence - Potential to understand and use wide space and small areas Attributes -Ability to understand and solve puzzles -Recognizes patterns in spaces -Heightened spatial judgment
  19. 19.  Logical Intelligence - A heightened sensitivity to numbers, logic and patterns Attributes -Ability to analyze problems logically -Mastery of mathematics -Proficient at deductive reasoning  Musical Intelligence - Sensitivity to sound, skill in performance, composition and appreciation of music and rhythm Attributes -Recognizes musical pitch and tone -Understands musical patterns  Bodily Intelligence -Tendency to use one’s body to solve problems Attributes  -Handles objects confidently and skillfully  -Clear understanding of outcomes of physical action  -Ability to anticipate and learn through muscle memory  Interpersonal Intelligence- Sensitivity to interaction with others Attributes  -Concerned with other people’s moods, feelings, motivations, desires and temperaments  -Works well and communicates effectively with others
  20. 20. Intrapersonal Intelligence -Heightened understanding of oneself Attributes -Introspective and reflective on emotions, feelings and sensitivities -Understanding of personal strengths and weaknesses -Ability to recognize and act on personal motivation Additional Intelligences Gardner has explored two additional intelligences, but maintains evidence of these is not sufficient based upon his criteria denoting intelligence. •Naturalistic •Existential Intelligence - Sensitivity to natural surroundings Intelligence - Sensitivity to spirituality or religion Pros •The model broadens our view of the nature of intelligence by adding such factors as those related to social judgement (the evaluation of others' behaviour) and creativity(divergent thinking). •All students will be seen as successful. •All different talents of students will be appreciated. •Meets individual needs better. Cons •Not standardized •More time is needed for evaluating. •Assessing •It’s persons abilities could be cumbersome. not very conclusive
  21. 21. Other theories of Intelligence Guillford(1967) – In Guilford's Structure of Intellect (SI) theory, intelligence is viewed as comprising operations, contents, and products. There are 5 kinds of operations (cognition, memory, divergent production, convergent production, evaluation), 6 kinds of products (units, classes, relations, systems, transformations, and implications), and 5 kinds of Contents (visual ,auditory, symbolic, semantic, behavioral). Since each of these dimensions is independent, there are theoretically 150 different components of intelligence.  Thurstone(1938) – Louis L. Thurstone’s Group-factor theory - Instead of viewing intelligence as a single, general ability, Thurstone's theory focused on seven different "primary mental abilities." Thurstone reified his factors as Primary Mental Abilities (PMAs). His basic model of multiple intelligences included seven PMAs.  V - verbal comprehension  W - word fluency  N - number computation  S - spatial visualization  M - associative memory  P - perceptual speed  R – reasoning
  22. 22. THE CHC MODEL Cattell-Horn-Carroll Model
  23. 23. Cattell–Horn–Carroll theory, or CHC theory ,is a theory of human cognitive abilities that takes its name from Raymond Cattell, John L. Horn and John Bissell Carroll. • CHC theory of cognitive abilities is an amalgamation of two similar theories about the content and structure of human cognitive abilities. •The first of these two theories is Gf-Gc theory(Raymond Cattell, 1941; Horn 1965), and the second is John Carrolls (1993) Three-Stratum theory. • These research involved the use of the mathematical technique known as factor analysis. • In comparison to other well-known theories of intelligence and cognitive abilities, CHC theory is the most comprehensive and empirically supported psychometric theory of the structure of cognitive and academic abilities.
  24. 24. Crystallized Intelligence (Gc): includes the breadth and depth of a person's acquired knowledge, the ability to communicate one's knowledge, and the ability to reason using previously learned experiences or procedures. Fluid Intelligence (Gf): includes the broad ability to reason, form concepts, and solve problems using unfamiliar information or novel procedures.  Quantitative Reasoning (Gq): is the ability to comprehend quantitative concepts and relationships and to manipulate numerical symbols. Reading & Writing Ability (Grw): includes basic reading and writing skills.
  25. 25.  Short-Term Memory (Gsm): is the ability to apprehend and hold information in immediate awareness and then use it within a few seconds.  Long-Term Storage and Retrieval (Glr): is the ability to store information and fluently retrieve it later in the process of thinking.  Visual Processing (Gv): is the ability to perceive, analyze, synthesize, and think with visual patterns, including the ability to store and recall visual representations.  Auditory Processing (Ga): is the ability to analyze, synthesize, and discriminate auditory stimuli, including the ability to process and discriminate speech sounds that may be presented under distorted conditions.
  26. 26.  Processing Speed (Gs): is the ability to perform automatic cognitive tasks, particularly when measured under pressure to maintain focused attention.  Auditory Processing (Ga): is the ability to analyze, synthesize, and discriminate auditory stimuli, including the ability to process and discriminate speech sounds that may be presented under distorted conditions.  Processing Speed (Gs): is the ability to perform automatic cognitive tasks, particularly when measured under pressure to maintain focused attention. Decision/Reaction Time/Speed (Gt): reflect the immediacy with which an individual can react to stimuli or a task (typically measured in seconds or fractions of seconds; not to be confused with Gs, which typically is measured in intervals of 2–3 minutes).
  27. 27. The Information-Processing View  Derived from work of Russian neuropsychologist Aleksandr Luria  Focus on HOW information is processed than WHAT is processed  2 basic styles of Information-processing styles Simultaneous processing (parallel) Successive processing (sequential)
  28. 28.  Strong influence of Das, who developed the PASS model of intellectual functionaing  PASS = Planning, Attention, Simultaneous and Successive  Naglieri and Das developed the CAS (Cognitive Assessment System) to tap PASS factors  Sternberg proposed a triarchic theory of intelligence
  29. 29. Thank you!

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