Intelligence testing


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  • History
    Developed originally by Florence Goodenough in 1926, this test was first known as the Goodenough Draw-A-Man test. It is detailed in her book titled Measurement of Intelligence by Drawings. Dr. Dale B. Harris later revised and extended the test and it is now known as the Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test. The revision and extension is detailed in his book Children's Drawings as Measures of Intellectual Maturity (1963). Psychologist Julian Jaynes, in the 1976 book, The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind wrote that the test is "routinely administered as an indicator of schizophrenia," and that while not all schizophrenic patients have trouble drawing a person, when they do, it is very clear evidence of a disorder. And that such signs might be a patient's neglect to include "obvious anatomical parts like hands and eyes," with "blurred and unconnected lines," ambiguous sexuality and general distortion.
  • History
    Developed originally by Florence Goodenough in 1926, this test was first known as the Goodenough Draw-A-Man test. It is detailed in her book titled Measurement of Intelligence by Drawings. Dr. Dale B. Harris later revised and extended the test and it is now known as the Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test. The revision and extension is detailed in his book Children's Drawings as Measures of Intellectual Maturity (1963). Psychologist Julian Jaynes, in the 1976 book, The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind wrote that the test is "routinely administered as an indicator of schizophrenia," and that while not all schizophrenic patients have trouble drawing a person, when they do, it is very clear evidence of a disorder. And that such signs might be a patient's neglect to include "obvious anatomical parts like hands and eyes," with "blurred and unconnected lines," ambiguous sexuality and general distortion.
  • Intelligence testing

    1. 1. INTELLIGENCE TESTING Dr.V.Veera Balaji Kumar
    2. 2. What is Intelligence     ? Hard to define… Even psychologists differ ! One group  Organization of mental ability – identifying the factors which constitute intelligence. The theories of this group  Factor theories Second group  Focus on the process involved in intellectual activity (eg. Problem solving, remembering). Process oriented theories
    3. 3. What is Intelligence?  Intelligence  ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations
    4. 4. THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE    Is intelligence a single characteristic or is it a collaboration of specific distinguishable abilities. Statistical technique - Factor analysis FACTOR THEORIES     Charles spearman (1927) Louis L. Thurstone (1938) Hierarchical theory of Intelligence – Vernon (1950) Howard Gardner - Multiple Intelligences
    5. 5. Factor analysis     A technique for identifying groups of abilities or behaviours or traits that are related to one another. Technique is applied to subtests that are designed to measure a particular specific cognitive ability. Eg. Memory factor, language factor, reasoning factor etc. Factor analysis can help from coherent groups os subtests, but it cannot tell us what subtests to include in the first place.
    6. 6. Charles Spearman - General Intelligence Found that schoolchildren's grades across seemingly unrelated subjects were positively correlated, and proposed that these correlations reflected the influence of a dominant factor, which he termed g for "general" intelligence.
    7. 7. Charles Spearman - General Intelligence      TW [G-S] FACTOR THEORY O Most influential and earliest factor theories by British psychologist. Developed a model where all variation in intelligence test scores can be explained by two factors. The first is the factor specific, s to an individual mental task: the individual abilities that would make a person more skilled at one cognitive task than another.
    8. 8. Charles Spearman - General Intelligence The accumulation of cognitive testing data and improvements in analytical techniques have preserved g 's central role and led to the modern conception of g . An illustration of Spearman's twofactor intelligence theory. Each small oval is a hypothetical mental test. The blue areas show the variance attributed to s , and the purple areas the variance attributed to g .
    9. 9. An analogy    Irregular objects, such as the human body, are said to vary in "size". Yet no single measurement of a human body is obviously preferred to measure its "size". Instead, many and various measurements, such as those taken by a tailor, may be made. All of these measurements will be positively correlated with each other, and if one were to "add up" or combine all of the measurements, the aggregate would give a better description of an individual's size than any single
    10. 10. Challenges to g   researchers in artificial intelligence have argued that the science of mental ability can be thought of as "computationalism" and is "either silly or pointless," noting, "Mental ability tests measure differences in tasks that will soon be performed for all of us by computational agents."[ intelligence theorist Howard Gardner also has written that he does not believe "that there is a single general talent, whether it be called intelligence, creativity or 'g'."
    11. 11. condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill     Computation Drawing Music Language
    12. 12. Louis L. Thurstone - Primary Mental Abilities Psychologist Louis L. Thurstone (1887-1955) Instead of viewing intelligence as a single, general ability offered a differing theory of intelligence. He began with a set of 56 tests from the patterns of correlation he identified factors he called Primary mental abilities
    13. 13. Louis L. Thurstone - Primary Mental Abilities   Thurstone's theory focused on seven different "primary mental abilities" (Thurstone, 1938). The abilities that he described were:        Verbal comprehension Reasoning Perceptual speed Numerical ability Word fluency Associative memory Spatial visualization
    14. 14. Guilford’s multifactor theory Rejected Charles Spearman's view that intelligence could be characterized in a single numerical parameter and proposed that three dimensions were necessary for accurate description: content,  operations, and  productions. Guilford researched and developed a wide variety of psychometric tests to measure the specific abilities predicted by SI theory. These tests provide an  
    15. 15. Guilford's Structure of Intellect (SI) theory     an individual's performance on intelligence tests can be traced back to the underlying mental abilities or factors of intelligence. Developed Thurstone’s theory SI theory comprises up to 180 different intellectual abilities organized along three dimensions—Operations, Content, and Products. He discovered the important distinction between convergent and divergent thinking. a major impetus for Guilford's theory was his interest in creativity (Guilford, 1950). The divergent production
    16. 16. Guilford's Structure of Intellect (SI) theory  Operations dimension - six operations or general intellectual processes:       Cognition—The ability to understand, comprehend, discover, and become aware of information. Memory recording—The ability to encode information. Memory retention--The ability to recall information. Divergent production—The ability to generate multiple solutions to a problem; creativity. Convergent production—The ability to deduce a single solution to a problem; rule-following or problem-solving. Evaluation—The ability to judge whether or not
    17. 17. Guilford's Structure of Intellect (SI) theory  Content dimension - includes five broad areas of information to which the human intellect applies the six operations:  Visual—Information perceived through seeing.  Auditory--Information perceived through hearing.  Kinesthetic - Information perceived through touch.  Symbolic—Information perceived as symbols or signs that have no meaning by themselves; e.g., Arabic numerals or the letters of an alphabet.  Semantic—Information perceived in words or sentences, whether oral, written, or silently in one's mind.  Behavioral—Information perceived as acts of an individual or individuals.
    18. 18. Guilford's Structure of Intellect (SI) theory  Product dimension - this dimension contains results of applying particular operations to specific contents. The SI model includes six products, in increasing complexity:  Units—Single items of knowledge.  Classes—Sets of units sharing common attributes.  Relations—Units linked as opposites or in associations, sequences, or analogies.  Systems—Multiple relations interrelated to comprise structures or networks.  Transformations—Changes, perspectives, conversions, or mutations to knowledge.  Implications—Predictions, inferences, consequences, or anticipations of knowledge.
    19. 19. Guilford's Structure of Intellect According to Guilford there are 6 x 5 x 6 = 180 intellectual abilities or factors. Each ability stands for a particular operation in a particular content area and results in a specific product, such as Comprehension of Figural Units or Evaluation of Semantic Implications.
    20. 20. Vernon’s Hierarchical Theory of Intelligence    (1950) g is the highest level Next are verbal-educational skills and spatialmechanical skills Lower levels have smaller subdivisions, which are further divided into more specialized skills
    21. 21. Howard Gardner   Multiple Intelligences One of the more recent ideas to emerge describes eight distinct intelligences that are based on skills and abilities         Visual-spatial Intelligence Verbal-linguistic Intelligence Bodily-kinesthetic Intelligence Logical-mathematical Intelligence Interpersonal Intelligence Musical Intelligence Intra personal Intelligence Naturalistic Intelligence
    22. 22. Visual-Spatial Intelligence    Strengths: Visual and Spatial Judgment People who are strong in visual-spatial intelligence are good a visualizing things. These individuals are often good with directions as well as maps, charts, videos and pictures. Characteristics of Visual-Spatial Intelligence  Enjoys reading and writing  Good at putting puzzles together  Good at interpreting pictures, graphs and charts  Enjoys drawing, painting and the visual arts  Recognizes patterns easily  Potential Career Choices  Architect  Artist  Engineer
    23. 23. Linguistic-Verbal Intelligence  Strengths: Words, Language and Writing   use words well, both when writing and speaking. good writing stories, memorizing information and reading. Characteristics of Linguistic-Verbal Intelligence  Good at remembering written and spoken information  Enjoys reading and writing  Good at debating or giving persuasive speeches  Able to explain things well  Often uses humor when telling stories  Potential Career Choices  Writer / Journalist  Lawyer  Teacher
    24. 24. Logical - Mathematical Intelligence Problems and Mathematical Operations Strengths: Analyzing   good at reasoning, recognize patterns and logically analyze problems. These individuals tend to think conceptually about numbers, relationships and patterns.  Characteristics of Logical-Mathematical Intelligence  Excellent problem-solving skills  Enjoys thinking about abstract ideas  Likes conducting scientific experiments  Good and solving complex computations  Potential Career Choices  Scientist  Accountant Engineer Computer programmer
    25. 25. Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence     Strengths: Physical Movement, Motor Control Those who have high bodily-kinesthetic intelligence are said to be good at body movement, performing actions and physical control. People who are strong in this area tend to have excellent hand-eye coordination and dexterity. Characteristics of Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence Good at dancing and sports; Enjoy creating things with their hands ; Excellent physical coordination; Tends to remember by doing,
    26. 26. Musical Intelligence        Strengths: Rhythm and Music People who have strong musical intelligence are good and thinking in patterns, rhythms and sounds. They have a strong appreciation for music and are often good at musical composition and performance. Characteristics of Musical Intelligence Enjoy singing and playing musical instruments Recognizes musical patterns and tones easily Good at remembering songs and melodies Rich understanding of musical structure, rhythm
    27. 27. Interpersonal Intelligence   Strengths: Understanding and Relating to Other People -- Those who have strong interpersonal intelligence are good understanding and interacting with other people. skilled at assessing the emotions, motivations, desires and intentions of those around Characteristics of Interpersonal Intelligence Good at communicating verbally; Skilled nonverbal communicators ;See situations from different perspectives ;Create positive relationships with others ;Good at resolving conflict in groups
    28. 28. Intrapersonal Intelligence  Strengths: Introspection and Self-Reflection   aware of their own emotional states, feelings and motivations. enjoy self-reflection and analysis, including day-dreaming, exploring relationships Characteristics of Intrapersonal Intelligence  Good at analyzing their strengths and weaknesses  Enjoys analyzing theories and ideas  Excellent self-awareness  Clearly understands the basis for their own motivations and feelings Potential Career Choices • Philosopher • Writer • Theorist • Scientist 
    29. 29. Naturalistic Intelligence   Strengths: Finding Patters and Relationships to Nature  more in tune with nature and are often interesting in nurturing, exploring the environment and learning about other species. These individuals are said to be highly aware of even subtle changes to their environments. Characteristics of Naturalistic Intelligence  Interested in subjects such as botany, biology and zoology  Good at categorizing and cataloguing information easily  May enjoy camping, gardening, hiking and exploring the outdoors  Doesn’t enjoy learning topics that have no connection to nature  Potential Career Choices
    30. 30. PROCESS ORIENTED THEORIES     PIAGET’S THEORY BRUNER’S THEORY Robert Sternberg - Triarchic Theory of Intelligence Neo-Piagetian theoroes – Juan Ascaul-Leone (1983)
    31. 31. PIAGET’S THEORY    Prominent process theorist. Intelligence is an adaptive process that involves an interplay of biological maturations and interaction with the environment. Intellectual development as an evolution of cognitive processes such as understanding of laws of nature, principles of grammar and mathematical rules.
    32. 32. BRUNER’S THEORY    Jerome Bruner (1973) sees intellectual development as a growing reliance on internal representation. Interested to know how these growing abilities are influenced by environment – rewards and punishments for using intellectual skills in a particular way. Babies – highly action-oriented intelligence. They know an object only to the extent they can act on it. Young children know by vivid perceptual characteristics of objects and events
    33. 33. Robert Sternberg - Triarchic Theory of Intelligence   defined intelligence as "mental activity directed toward purposive adaptation to, selection and shaping of, real-world environments relevant to one’s life“ proposed what he refers to as 'successful intelligence,' which is comprised of three different factors:    Analytical intelligence Creative intelligence Practical intelligence
    34. 34. Triarchic Theory of Intelligence    Analytical intelligence: This component refers to problem-solving abilities. Creative intelligence: This aspect of intelligence involves the ability to deal with new situations using past experiences and current skills. Practical intelligence: This element refers to the ability to adapt to a changing environment.
    35. 35. INFORMATION PROCESSING THEORIES    Robert Sternberg (1984) distinguishes between information processing “components” and “metacomponents” Components are the steps one goes through to solve a problem. Meta components are the kinds of knowledge required to solve the problem. They somewhat relate to the general; intelligence proposed by Spearman.
    36. 36. Neo-Piagetians      Neo-Piagetians have rewritten Piaget’s theory in information-processing terms. Juan Pascaul Leone has expanded Piaget’s notion of scheme into action schemes and executive schemes. Action schemes are similar to specific repeatable intellectual sequences Executive schemes are similar to plans and strategies. Such schemes are referred to as intellectual software. They grow more sophisticated as one
    37. 37. CLASSIFICATION OF INTELLIGENCE TESTS   Intelligence tests mostly include such problems as solving a maze, copying a design blocks and fitting jigsaw shapes together to form a design or picture. Individual & group tests a) b) c) d) Stanford-Binet intelligence scale Wechsler tests Standard progressive matrices Goodenough-Harris Draw-a-man test
    38. 38. W echsler Adult Intelligence Scale (W AIS)    is a general test of adult intelligence (i.e., an IQ test), first published in February 1955 by David Wechsler; the fourth and most recent edition of the test (WAIS-IV) was released in 2008 by Pearson. Wechsler definedc intelligence as "The global capacity of a person to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his/her environment.” The subtests can be grouped into two categroies:
    39. 39. W echsler Adult Intelligence Scale (W AIS) There are four index scores representing major components of intelligence:      Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI) Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI) Working Memory Index (WMI) Processing Speed Index (PSI) Two broad scores are also generated, which can be used to summarize general intellectual abilities: IQ (FSIQ), based on the total combined performance of the VCI, PRI, WMI, and PSI  General Ability Index (GAI), based only on the six subtests that comprise the VCI and PRI  Full Scale
    40. 40.   Raven Progressive Matrices test Progressive Matrices (often referred to Raven's simply as Raven's Matrices) are multiple choice tests of abstract reasoning, developed by Dr John C. Raven (1936) Raven's Progressive Matrices was designed primarily as a measure of Spearman's g.  There are no time limits and simple oral instructions. There are 3 different tests for different abilities:   Standard Progressive Matrices (average 6 to 80 year olds) Coloured Progressed Matrices (younger children and special groups)
    41. 41. Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM)    was designed to measure a person’s ability to form perceptual relations and to reason by analogy independent of language and formal schooling, and may be used with persons ranging in age from 6 years to adult consists of 60 items arranged in five sets (A, B, C, D, & E) of 12 items each. Each item contains a figure with a missing piece. Below the figure are either six (sets A & B) or eight (sets C through E) alternative pieces to complete the figure, only one of which is correct. Each set involves a different principle or "theme" for
    42. 42. Raven Progressive Matrices test   This is a widely used intelligence test in many research and applied settings. In each test item, one is asked to find the missing pattern in a series.  Each set of items gets progressively harder, requiring greater cognitive capacity to encode and analyze. Sample item from the Raven Progressive Matrices tests
    43. 43. Coloured Progressed Matrices    For younger children and special groups with learning difficulties. this test contains sets A and B from the standard matrices, with a further set of 12 items inserted between the two, as set Ab. Most items are presented on a colored background to make the test visually stimulating for participants. if participants exceed the tester's expectations, transition to sets C, D, and E of the standard matrices is eased.
    44. 44. Advanced Progressive Matrices    The advanced form of the matrices contains 48 items, presented as one set of 12 (set I), and another of 36 (set II). Items are again presented in black ink on a white background, and become increasingly difficult as progress is made through each set. These items are appropriate for adults and adolescents of above average intelligence.
    45. 45. Goodenough-Harris Draw-A-Man Test    is a psychological projective personality or cognitive test used to evaluate children and adolescents for a variety of purposes. Children are asked to draw a man, a woman, and themselves. No further instructions are given and the child is free to make the drawing in whichever way he/she would like. There is no right or wrong type of drawing, although the child must make a drawing of a whole person each time - i.e. head to feet, not just the face. The test has no time limit.
    46. 46. Goodenough-Harris Draw-A-Man Test    children rarely take longer than about 10 or 15 minutes to complete all three drawings. Harris's book (1963) provides scoring scales which are used to examine and score the child's drawings. The test is completely noninvasive and non-threatening to children which is part of its appeal. The purpose of the test is to assist professionals in inferring children's c o g nitive d e ve lo p m e nta l le ve ls with little or no influence of other factors such as language barriers or
    47. 47. Test of general mental ability   Group tests Perfromance tests
    48. 48. CULTURE FAIR INTELLIGENCE TESTS    Test items free of cultural influences. To provide equal opportunity for all individuals examined Cronbach (1960)  A symphony is to a composer as a book is to what ? • Paper • Sculptor • Author • Musician • Man  A baker goes with a bread like a carpenter goes with what ? • A saw • A spoon • A nail • A house • A man
    49. 49. CULTURE FAIR INTELLIGENCE TESTS Havighurst (1948) suggested three  Davis & important guidelines:     Choose a problem that are equally common and motivating to all socio-economic groups Sample a wider range of mental activities Find other ways of testing and validating the items that their relation to school work Culture free intelligence test developed by R.B.Cattell contains such problems as selecting a design which completes a series, making a geometrical figure that not belong with others and making a design that correctly completes a given pattern.
    50. 50. Assessing Intelligence  Standardization   defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested “standardization group” Normal Curve   the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes
    51. 51. The Normal Curve
    52. 52. Getting Smarter?
    53. 53. Assessing Intelligence  Reliability   the extent to which a test yields consistent results assessed by consistency of scores on:     two halves of the test alternate forms of the test retesting Validity  the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to
    54. 54. Assessing Intelligence  Content Validity  the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest   driving test that samples driving tasks Criterion   behavior (such as college grades) that a test (such as the SAT) is designed to predict the measure used in defining whether the test has predictive validity
    55. 55. Assessing Intelligence  Predictive Validity    success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior also called criterion-related validity