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Myers' Psychology AP Chapter 11

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  1. 1. Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) <ul><li>Chapter 11 </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>James A. McCubbin, PhD </li></ul><ul><li>Clemson University </li></ul><ul><li>Worth Publishers </li></ul>
  2. 2. Origins of Intelligence Testing <ul><li>Intelligence Test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a method of assessing an individual’s mental aptitudes and comparing them to those of others, using numerical scores </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Origins of Intelligence Testing <ul><li>Mental Age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8 </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Origins of Intelligence Testing <ul><li>Stanford-Binet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the widely used American revision of Binet’s original intelligence test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>revised by Terman at Stanford University </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Origins of Intelligence Testing <ul><li>Intelligence Quotient (IQ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>defined originally the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IQ = ma/ca x 100) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>on contemporary tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100 </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. What is Intelligence? <ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. What is Intelligence? <ul><li>Factor Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one’s total score </li></ul></ul><ul><li>General Intelligence (g) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>factor that Spearman and others believed underlies specific mental abilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>measured by every task on an intelligence test </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Are There Multiple Intelligences? <ul><li>Savant Syndrome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>computation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>drawing </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Are There Multiple Intelligences? <ul><li>Social Intelligence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the know-how involved in comprehending social situations and managing oneself successfully </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emotional Intelligence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Intelligence and Creativity <ul><li>Creativity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>expertise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>imaginative thinking skills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>venturesome personality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>intrinsic motivation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>creative environment </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Brain Function and Intelligence <ul><li>People who can perceive the stimulus very quickly tend to score somewhat higher on intelligence tests </li></ul>Stimulus Mask Question: Long side on left or right?
  12. 12. Assessing Intelligence <ul><li>Aptitude Test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a test designed to predict a person’s future performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>aptitude is the capacity to learn </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Achievement Test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a test designed to assess what a person has learned </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Assessing Intelligence <ul><li>Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>most widely used intelligence test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>subtests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>verbal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>performance (nonverbal) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Assessing Intelligence: Sample Items from the WAIS From Thorndike and Hagen, 1977 VERBAL General Information Similarities Arithmetic Reasoning Vocabulary Comprehension Digit Span PERFORMANCE Picture Completion Picture Arrangement Block Design Object Assembly Digit-Symbol Substitution
  15. 15. Assessing Intelligence <ul><li>Standardization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested “standardization group” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Normal Curve </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The Normal Curve
  17. 17. Getting Smarter?
  18. 18. Assessing Intelligence <ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the extent to which a test yields consistent results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>assessed by consistency of scores on: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>two halves of the test </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>alternate forms of the test </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>retesting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Validity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Assessing Intelligence <ul><li>Content Validity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>driving test that samples driving tasks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Criterion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>behavior (such as college grades) that a test (such as the SAT) is designed to predict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the measure used in defining whether the test has predictive validity </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Assessing Intelligence <ul><li>Predictive Validity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>also called criterion-related validity </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Assessing Intelligence <ul><li>As the range of data under consideration narrows, its predictive power diminishes </li></ul>Greater correlation over broad range of body weights 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Little corre- lation within restricted range Football linemen’s success Body weight in pounds 180 250 290
  22. 22. The Dynamics of Intelligence <ul><li>Mental Retardation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a condition of limited mental ability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>indicated by an intelligence score below 70 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>produces difficulty in adapting to the demands of life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>varies from mild to profound </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Down Syndrome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>retardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra chromosome in one’s genetic makeup </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. The Dynamics of Intelligence
  24. 24. Genetic Influences <ul><li>The most genetically similar people have the most similar scores </li></ul>
  25. 25. Genetic Influences <ul><li>Heritability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>variability depends on range of populations and environments studied </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Genetic Influences
  27. 27. Environmental Influences <ul><li>The Schooling Effect </li></ul>
  28. 28. Group Differences <ul><li>Group differences and environmental impact </li></ul>Variation within group Variation within group Difference within group Poor soil Fertile soil Seeds
  29. 29. Group Differences <ul><li>The Mental Rotation Test </li></ul>Which two of the other circles contain a configuration of blocks identical to the one in the circle at the left? Standard Responses
  30. 30. Group Differences <ul><li>Stereotype Threat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype </li></ul></ul>