Introduction To Intelligence


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Introduction To Intelligence

  1. 1. <ul><li>Assessing Intelligence </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Psychometrics: tests & measurements </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive approach </li></ul>
  3. 3. Defining intelligence <ul><li>Binet (1916) defined it as the capacity to judge well, to reason well, and to comprehend well </li></ul><ul><li>Terman (1916) defined it as the capacity to form concepts and grasp their significance </li></ul><ul><li>Pintner (1921) defined it as the ability of an individual to adapt well to new situations in life </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Thorndike (1921) defined it as the power of good responses from the point of view of truth or fact </li></ul><ul><li>Thurstone (1921) defined it as the capacity to inhibit instinctive response, imagine a different response, and realize the response modification into behavior </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Piaget (1972) defined it as referring to the superior forms of organization or equilibrium of cognitive structuring used for adaptation to the to the physical and social environment </li></ul><ul><li>Sternberg (1985) defined it as the mental capacity to automatize information processing and to emit contextually appropriate behavior in response to novelty </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>You can take your pick of definitions but most agree that intelligence has to do with the related capacities of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>i.) Learning from experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ii.) Adapting to ones environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Think of a person lacking either of these, and you pick out people who seem to lack intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Note however that very few formal tests of intelligence really demand subjects to do either of these! </li></ul>
  7. 7. Theories of Intelligence <ul><li>Psychometric theories </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental theories </li></ul><ul><li>Information processing theories </li></ul>
  8. 8. Psychometric theories <ul><li>Focuses on individual differences in cognitive abilities and causes </li></ul><ul><li>Based on Spearman two factor theory and Turnstone's multifactor theory </li></ul><ul><li>The most supported current theory of intelligence is Cattell-Horn-Carrol(1993) </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>It starts with narrow aspects like reaction time, spatial(non-verbal) scanning ,speech and hearing discrimination. </li></ul><ul><li>The second aspect is combination of first stratums like fluid, crystallized and visual thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>Third is combination of second stratums in a form of general intelligence </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>How do you define “Intelligence”? </li></ul><ul><li>Theorists use narrow, operational definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Psychometricians do not claim that what is measured by an intelligence test is a good representation of “real-world” intelligence which is a broader concept </li></ul><ul><li>Is it useful? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Does “g” exist? <ul><li>One of the longest-running debates in psychology: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>global intelligence, a general ability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>specific abilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… ..More a matter of emphasis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Intelligence is what intelligence tests measure ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Edward Boring </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Psychometric approach focuses on how well people perform on standardized mental tests and with what the scores correlate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Achievement tests - based on learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aptitude tests--measure the ability to acquire skills in the future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>---the difference is really one of degree and intended use since all are based to some extent on experience with words, objects, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Development theories <ul><li>Focuses on uniformities and interindividual similarities in cognitive growth </li></ul><ul><li>Actions of assimilation and accommodation on the external world. </li></ul><ul><li>Assimilation consists of fitting new experiences into preexisting cognitive structure(schemata) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Information-processing theories <ul><li>Focuses on attention and processing speed </li></ul><ul><li>Sternberg(1982) hypothesized five classes of component process by which brain operates on information and solve problems: metacomponents ,performance components, acquisition components, retention components and transfer components </li></ul>
  15. 15. Recent approach of Stemberg(1994) <ul><li>Proposed a triarchic theory </li></ul><ul><li>Componential sub theory – performance component and knowledge-acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Experiential sub theory – ability to formulate new ideas by combining unrelated factors or information </li></ul><ul><li>Contextual sub theory - ability to adapt changing envirnment and to shape the environment </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Research psychologists are interested in finding better ways to describe and understand the construct &quot;intelligence&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional tests tended to emphasize analytical reasoning and memory. </li></ul><ul><li>Sternberg argues that practical intelligence and creativity need to be included in the construct. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>The historical concept is too narrow. It needs to be expanded. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Cognitive psychologists want to know &quot;how&quot; people solve problems in addition to whether or not they get the right answer (the psychometric approach). </li></ul>
  18. 18. Application of intelligence testing <ul><li>Diagnosis of the presence and nature of brain damage </li></ul><ul><li>Selection, placement and classification of students in higher education, employees in business and industrial organizations, and personnel in military and government dept. </li></ul><ul><li>Vocational and educational counseling and rehabilitation </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Psycho diagnosis of children and adults in clinical and psychiatric contexts </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of the effectiveness of psychological treatments and environmental interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Research on cognitive abilities and personality </li></ul>
  20. 20. Individual intelligence test <ul><li>Editions of Standford-Binet test </li></ul><ul><li>Wechsler intelligence test focused on verbal comprehension, processing speed, working memory and perceptual reasoning </li></ul>
  21. 21. Assessing Intelligence <ul><li>Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>most widely used intelligence test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>subtests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>verbal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>performance (nonverbal) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Assessing Intelligence: Sample Items from the WAIS VERBAL General Information Similarities Arithmetic Reasoning Vocabulary Comprehension Digit Span PERFORMANCE Picture Completion Picture Arrangement Block Design Object Assembly Digit-Symbol Substitution
  23. 23. Group intelligence test <ul><li>Cognitive ability test – verbal, quantitative and spatial tests </li></ul><ul><li>Academic ability test – SAT </li></ul><ul><li>The ACT Assessment – 215 multiple choice questions based on English, mathematics, reading and science </li></ul>
  24. 24. Assessing Intelligence <ul><li>Standardization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested “standardization group” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Normal Curve </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. The Normal Curve
  26. 26. Assessing Intelligence <ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the extent to which a test yields consistent results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>assessed by consistency of scores on: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>two halves of the test </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>alternate forms of the test </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>retesting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Validity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Assessing Intelligence <ul><li>Content Validity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>driving test that samples driving tasks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Criterion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>behavior (such as college grades) that a test (such as the SAT) is designed to predict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the measure used in defining whether the test has predictive validity </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Assessing Intelligence <ul><li>Predictive Validity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>also called criterion-related validity </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. The Dynamics of Intelligence <ul><li>Mental Retardation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a condition of limited mental ability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>indicated by an intelligence score below 70 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>produces difficulty in adapting to the demands of life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>varies from mild to profound </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Down Syndrome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>retardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra chromosome in one’s genetic makeup </li></ul></ul>