Structure of Intellect• Originated in Guilford’s Multiple Intelligence Theory.• It is used as an assessment tool for students.• It can determined learning disabilities as well as enrichment for gifted students.• Basically, this learning theory focuses on one’s ability to think and show it visually.
J.P Guilford• Joy Paul Guilford was an Americanpsychologist.•Born: March 7, 1897 in Nebraska•Died: November 26, 1987 inCalifornia• Was a psychology professor in theUniversity of Nebraska.
J.P Guilford and U.S Army• In 1941, he entered the U.S. Army as a Lieutenant Colonel and served as Director of Psychological Research Unit No. 3 at Santa Ana Army Air Base. There he worked on the selection and ranking of aircrew trainees as the Army Air Force investigated why a sizable proportion of trainees was not graduating.
J.P Guilford and U.S Army• Promoted to Chief of the Psychological Research Unit at the U.S. Army Air Forces Training Command Headquarters in Fort Worth, Guilford oversaw the "Stanines Project" which identified eight specific intellectual abilities crucial to flying a plane. (Stanines, now a common term in educational psychology, was coined during Guilfords project). Over the course of World War II, Guilfords use of these eight factors in the development of the two-day Classification Test Battery was significant in increasing graduation rates for aircrew trainees.
J.P Guilford and U.S Army• After the war, Guilford continued to work on the intelligence tests, focusing particularly on divergent thinking and creativity. He designed numerous tests that measured creative thinking.
Structure of Intellect• Guilford designed this assessment (SOI) tool to help the Air Force pilots who would succeed in the field.
Structure of Intellect• Guilford identified three fundamental components of intelligence. These were: – Contents (5 kinds) – Products (6 kinds) – Operations (5 kinds)
Structure of IntelligenceGuilfords original model was composed of 120 components because he had not separated Figural Content into separate Auditory and Visual contents, nor had he separated Memory into Memory Recording and Memory Retention.When he separated Figural into Auditory and Visual contents, his model increased to 5 x 5 x 6 = 150 categories.When Guilford separated the Memory functions, his model finally increased to the final 180 factors
Structure of IntellectEach ability stands for a particular operation in a particular content area and results in a specific product, such as Comprehension of Figural Units or Evaluation of Semantic Implications.
Structure of Intellect Content• Guilford meant that different people seemed to pay more attention to and think more effectively about different kinds of information, such as: Visual information directly from the senses or from imaging. Auditory information directly from the senses or from images. Symbolic items such as words and symbols which generally convey some meaning.
Content Semantic meanings often, but not always, associated with words. Behavioral information about the mental states and behavior of observed individuals. (Note: This type of content was added to the model based on abilities that emerged from his testing.) Daniel Goleman (1995) has popularized this as “social intelligence”.
Situations:• An artist might excel at processing visual information, but be poor at processing words, numbers and other symbolic content.• A researcher who excels at processing symbolic content such as words and numbers and semantic meaning, might be very poor at processing behavioral data and thus relate poorly with people.
Structure of Intellect Products• This dimension relates to the kinds of information we process from the content types: Units refers to the ability to perceive units in a content area. This might be symbolic units such as words, visual units such as shapes, or behavioral units such as facial expressions. Classes refers to the ability to organize units into meaningful groups or to sort units into the right groups.
ProductsRelations pertains to the ability to sense the relationships between pairs of units. Systems consist of the relationships among more than two units. Transformations is the ability to understand changes in information, such as rotation of visual figures, or jokes and puns in the semantic area. Implications refers to expectation. Given a certain set of information, one might expect certain other information to be true.
Structure of IntellectWith the two dimensions of content and product we can sort out all the kinds of information people can think about.People can talk about the implications of a symbolic series, the relationship of two sounds, or behavioral transformations such as changes in emotions.
Structure of Intellect Operations• This dimension describes what the brain does with and to these types of information: Cognition has to do with the ability to perceive the various items. Memory has to do with the ability to store and retrieve various kinds of information.
Operations Divergent Production has to do with the ability to access memory. It refers to the ability to find large numbers of things which fit certain simple criteria. Convergent Production is the search of memory for the single answer to a question or situation. This area includes most areas of logic type problem solving. It differs from divergence in the constraint of one right answer. It seems likely that performance on convergent tasks is actually the result of divergent production and evaluation, but it is an often tested for skill, and the one most often associated with IQ.
Operations Evaluation is the ability to make judgments about the various kinds of information, judgments such as which items are identical in some way, which items are better, and what qualities are shared by various items.
Situations:• The cognition of semantic units has to do with ones ability to recognize words, i.e. ones vocabulary.• Cognition of Behavioral Transformations would be the ability to perceive changes in the expressions of an individual.• People differ in their abilities to remember not only from other people, but also among various kinds of information.• Some people who are poor at remembering faces (behavioral units) may be excellent at remembering puns (semantic transformations).
Situations:• For example, the ability to divergently produce visual units includes the ability to list a great many images which include a circle.• Divergence in behavioral transformations would include the ability to revise stories about people.• Divergence in Symbolic Implications would include the ability to list various equations which can be deduced from given equations.
CriticismVarious researchers have criticized the statistical techniques used by Guilford.• According to Jensen (1998), Guilfords contention that a g-factor was untenable was influenced by his observation that cognitive tests of U.S. Air Force personnel did not show correlations significantly different from zero.• According to one reanalysis, this resulted from artifacts and methodological errors. Applying more robust methodologies, the correlations in Guilfords data sets are positive.
Criticism• In another reanalysis, randomly generated models were found to be as well supported as Guilfords own theory.
Criticism• Guilfords Structure-of-Intellect model of human abilities has few supporters today. Carroll (1993) summarized the view of later researchers: "Guilfords SOI model must, therefore, be marked down as a somewhat eccentric aberration in the history of intelligence models; that so much attention has been paid to it is disturbing, to the extent that textbooks and other treatments of it have given the impression that the model is valid and widely accepted, when clearly it is not."
Key Principles1. Reasoning and problem-solving skills2. Memory and Oppositions3. Decision-making skills4. Language-related skillsBased on a combination of the three components of intelligences measures a wide range of abilities needed for academic success.
Implications for EducationThe Structure of Intellect’s philosophy is that intelligence is not fixed.Intelligence can be learnt.IQ tests implements narrow abilities where theSI measures a wide variety of abilities.Need to consider all students are different.
“Psychology should be the chief basic science upon which thepractices of education depend. It should have suppliededucation with the information it needs concerning theprocesses of understanding, learning, and thinking, amongother things. One of the difficulties has been that such theoryas has been developed has been based primarily upon studiesof behavior of rats and pigeons. As someone has said, someof the theory thus developed has been an insult even to therat.” J.P. GUILFORD, The Nature of Human Intelligence
References:• Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. New York: Basic Books.• Guilford, J. (1950). Creativity. American Psychologist , 5, 444-454.• Guilford, J. (1967). The Nature of Human Intelligence. New York: McGraw-Hill.• Guilford, J. (1977). Way beyond the IQ. Buffalo, NY: Creative Education Formation.• http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/intellect.html• http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/guilford.html• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DR-lAzk66YU• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OsxqOIR9mzA&feature=related• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eN3e2GLP0Ns• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tDgeTqHtUf0