The assessment of intelligence


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The assessment of intelligence

  1. 1. The Assessment of Intelligence
  2. 2. Intelligence Testing: Yesterday and Today <ul><li>First, compulsory education in the United States and other countries resulted in a very diverse student body. To preserve resources, there was pressure to identify those most likely to succeed in school. </li></ul><ul><li>Second, scientists believed and ultimately demonstrated, that mental abilities could be measured. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Binet-Simon Scale <ul><li>Binet’s original purpose was to develop an objective method of identifying those truly lacking in academic ability. </li></ul><ul><li>Institutions such as schools, industries, military forces, and governments were interested in individual differences that might affect performance in those settings; thus, intelligence prospered (herrnstein & Murray, 1994). </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Concept of Intelligence <ul><li>What exactly is meant by the term intelligence? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we develop valid instruments for measuring it? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Definition of Intelligence <ul><li>Ability </li></ul><ul><li>Aptitude </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Ability is the currently available power to perform something and aptitude is the potential for performance after training. Achievement is a measure of successful performance in the past. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Three classes of definition: <ul><li>Definitions that emphasize adjustment or adaptation to the environment– adaptability to new situations, the capacity to deal with a range of situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Definitions that focus on the ability to learn—on the educability in the broad sense of the term. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>3. Definitions that emphasize abstract thinking– the ability to use a wide range of symbols and concepts, the ability to use both verbal and numerical symbols. </li></ul>
  9. 9. THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE <ul><li>FACTOR ANALYTIC APPROACHES </li></ul><ul><li>-Spearman (1927), the father of facto analysis, posited the existence of a g factor (general intelligence) and s factors (specific intelligence). </li></ul><ul><li>- the elements that test have in common are represented by g , whereas the elements unique to a given test are s factors. </li></ul>
  10. 10. CATTELL’S THEORY <ul><li>- Cattell described two important second-order factors that seem to represent a partitioning of Spearman’s g into two components: fluid ability (the person’s genetically based intellectual capacity) and crystallized ability (the capacities, tapped by the usual standardized intelligence test, that can be attributed to culture-based learning) </li></ul>
  11. 11. GUILFORD’S CLASSIFICATION <ul><li>Guilford proposed a Structure of the Intelligence model. </li></ul><ul><li>Components of intelligence could be organized into three dimensions: operations, contents, and products. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>OPERATIONS- cognition, memory, divergent production (constructing logical alternatives), convergent production (constructing logic-tight arguments), and evaluation. </li></ul><ul><li>CONTENT- areas of information in which the operations are performed: figural, symbolic, semantic, and behavioral. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>When a particular mental operation is applied to a specific type of content, there are six possible PRODUCTS: units, classes, systems, relations, transformations, and implications. </li></ul>
  14. 14. GARDNER’S MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES <ul><li>Human intellectual competence involves a set of problem-solving skills that enable the person to resolve problems or difficulties. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 9 intelligences: Logical-Mathematical, Linguistics, Musical, Spatial, Bodily-Kinesthetic, Interpersonal, Intra-personal, Naturalist, Spiritual. </li></ul>
  15. 15. STERNBERG’S TRIARCHIC THEORY <ul><li>Three aspects of intelligence: </li></ul><ul><li>Componential - Analytical thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Experiential - Creative thinking and characterizes the person who can separate elements of experience and combine them insightfully. </li></ul><ul><li>Contextual - “street smart” one who know how to play the game and can successfully manipulate the environment. </li></ul>
  16. 16. INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT (IQ) <ul><li>Mental Age- index of mental performance. </li></ul><ul><li>The IQ notion enables us to perform the following computation: </li></ul><ul><li>IQ= MA/CA x 100 </li></ul>
  17. 17. Deviation of IQ <ul><li>The ratio IQ is significantly limited in its application to older age groups. </li></ul><ul><li>A consistent (even if very high) mental age (MA) score accompanied by an increasing chronological age (CA) will result in a lower IQ. </li></ul><ul><li>Deviation IQ involves a comparison of an individual performance on an IQ test with that of his or her age peers. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Thus, the same IQ score has a similar meaning, even if two individuals are markedly different in age (e.g., a 22-year old vs. an 80-year old). </li></ul><ul><li>In both cases, an IQ of 100 indicates an average level of intellectual ability for that age group. </li></ul>
  19. 19. CORRELATES OF IQ <ul><li>School success </li></ul><ul><li>success in school is related to related to a host of variables, including motivation, teacher expectations, cultural background, attitudes of parents, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Occupational status and success </li></ul><ul><li>intelligence scores appear to be good predictors of job performance (Hunter & Hunter, 1984; Neisser et al. 1996) </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Group differences </li></ul><ul><li>Males tend to score significantly higher on measures of spatial ability and after puberty, on measures of quantitative ability. Females tend to score significantly higher on measures of verbal ability (Neisser et al, 1996) </li></ul>
  21. 21. HEREDITY AND STABILITY OF IQ SCORES <ul><li>Similarity in intelligence appears to be a function of the amount of genetic material shared (monozygotic twins are more similar in intelligence than dizygotic twins and siblings) (McGue, et al., 1993). </li></ul>
  22. 22. Relationship Weighted Average Correlation Number of Pairs Reared-together biological relatives MZ twins 0.86 4,627 DZ twins 0.60 5,546 Siblings 0.47 26,473 Parent/offspring 0.42 8,433 Half-siblings 0.31 200 Cousins 0.15 1,176 Reared-apart biological relatives MZ twins 0.72 65 Siblings 0.24 203 Parent/offspring 0.22 814 Reared-together nonbiological relatives Siblin gs 0.32 714 Adoptive parent/offspring 0.19 1,379