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  1. 1. Intelligence
  2. 2. AgendaIntelligenceTheories/types/explanationsAssessment of IntelligenceVariations in intellectual ability
  3. 3. Have you ever consciously considered thesequestions?• • Am I an intelligent person?• • How intelligent am I?• • How do we judge if someone is intelligent ornot?• • How can we measure the intelligence of aperson?
  4. 4. There are some other questions too:• What is intelligence?• Is intelligence how one deals with others? or• Is intelligence how precisely we learn a newtask? or• Is it how good we are in our studies? Or• Is intelligence how well we can solveproblems? or
  5. 5. There are some other questions too:• Is it how we accurately judge people? or• Is intelligence all of this, or even more thanall this?• Different people may understand intelligencedifferently.If you think intelligence is all of this or evenmore than all this, then you are right.
  6. 6. Intelligence“The capacity to acquire andapply knowledge”(intelligence, 1993, theAmerican Heritage Collegedictionary)
  7. 7. IntelligenceAccording to Feldman “intelligence is thecapacity to understand the world, thinkrationally, and use resources effectivelywhen faced with challenges”Intelligence = f ( Person, environment)
  8. 8. Theories / types / explanations of intelligence:1. Sir Francis Galton’s theory2. James McKeen Cattell3. Spearman’s Theory of Intelligence4. Thorndike’s Theory: Social Intelligence5. Thurstone’s Theory of Intelligence: SevenPrimary Mental Abilities6. R.B Cattell and J.L Horn’s Theory; Crystallineand Fluid Intelligence7. Gardner’s multiple intelligence8. Information processing approaches9. Practical intelligence10.Emotional intelligence
  9. 9. Theories / types / explanations of intelligence:1. Sir Francis Galton’s theory “hereditary genius”2. James McKeen Cattell American psychologist who gave more importance tothe mental processes. First ever to use the term “mental test” for devicesused to measure intelligence. Developed tasks that were aimed to measure reactiontime, word association test, keenness of vision andweight discrimination. These tests were proved to be a failure as they werenot comprehensive and complex enough to measureintelligence
  10. 10. Theories / types / explanations of intelligence:3. Spearman’s Theory of Intelligence Factor analysis ‘g’ factor and ‘S’ factor are responsible forindividual differences ‘g’ factor can account for the general abilitythat is common in all people: as observedfrom the mental tests.
  11. 11. Theories / types / explanations of intelligence:4. R.B Cattell and J.L Horn’s Theory;Crystalline and Fluid Intelligence.Fluid intelligence: Intelligence that reflectsinformaon processing capabilities, reasoning,and memory. E.g. solve puzzle, analogy, orremember a set of numbers etcCrystallized intelligence: The accumulation ofinformation, skills, and strategies that are learnedthrough experience and can be applied inproblem solving situations. E.g. solution topoverty, unemployment etc
  12. 12. Theories / types / explanations of intelligence:5. Gardner’s multiple intelligenceA theory that proposes that there areeight distinct spheres ofintelligence.1. Musical intelligence2. Bodily kinestheticsintelligence3. Logicalmathematical4. Linguisticintelligence5. Spatial intelligence6. Interpersonal7. Intrapersonal8. Naturalistic
  13. 13. Theories / types / explanations of intelligence:6. Information processing approaches.- Cognitive psychologist- Examine the processes underlyingintelligent behaviors rather than focusingon the structure intelligence.- More time on initial encoding
  14. 14. •Practical intelligence–According to Sternberg,intelligence related to overallsuccess in living.– Analytical intelligence– Creative intelligence– Most traditional measures of intelligence do not relateespecially well to career success. (McClelland, 1993).– Career success requires PI as apposed to academic success.– Developed through observations of others’ behaviors.
  15. 15. •EmotionalIntelligence (EQ)–The set of skills that triggerthe accurate assessment,evaluation, expression, andregulation of emotions.• The ability to monitor one’s own and other’semotions.• To discriminate among emotions etc
  16. 16. •Assessing intelligene–Intelligence tests: Testsdevised to quantify a person’slevel of intelligence.– Sir Francis Galton’s approach (1822-1911) size and shape– The first formal measure of intelligence was developed byFrench psychologist Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon, in1905 in France.– His test items include: names of parts of body, comparelenghts and weights, counting coins, naming objects in apicture, filling in the missing words in a sentence etc
  17. 17. •Assessing intelligene– Three years– Shows nose, eyes and mouth. Repeats twodigits. Describes objects in a picture. Givesfamily name. Repeats a sentence of sixsyllables.– Fifteen years Repeats seven digits. Givesthree rhymes. Repeats a sentence of 26syllables. Interprets a picture. Solves aproblem from several facts
  18. 18. •Assessing intelligene– Later Revisions– • The original Binet- Simon scale was revised anumber of times.– • The American psychologist, Lewis Terman gavethe first Stanford revision of the scale in 1916.– • These revision comparison American standardsfrom age 3 to adulthood.– • Further revisions were made in 1937 and 1960.– • Stanford- Binet is one of the most widely usedtests even today.
  19. 19. •Assessing intelligene– Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised– WAIS-R and Wechsler Intelligence Scale forchildren-III: WISC-III– WAIS-R and WISC-III– • Psychologist David Wechsler developed both.– • The two tests consist of two major parts:– i. Verbal part/scale– ii. Performance or non verbal part/scale– .
  20. 20. •Assessing intelligene– Verbal scaleConsists of more conventional types ofproblems involving vocabulary definition,and comprehension of various concepts.• The subscales include:• Information• Comprehension• Arithmetic• Similarities
  21. 21. •Assessing intelligence– Performance ScaleIt involves assembling small objects andarranging pictures in a logical order.• The subscales include:• Digit symbol• Picture completion• Object assembly
  22. 22. •Assessing intelligenceAchievement testA test designed to determine a person’s level ofknowledge in a given subject area.Aptitude testA test designed to predict a person’s ability in aparticular area or line of work.
  23. 23. •Assessing intelligene– Validity: The property by which tests actuallymeasure what they are proposed to measure.– Reliability: The property by which test measuresconsistently what they are trying to measure.– Norms: Standards of test performance that permitthe comparison of one person’s score on a testwith scores of other individuals who have takenthe same test.
  24. 24. •Variation inintellectual ability– Mental retardation• Fetal alcohol syndrome• Down syndrom• Familial retardationMainstreamingFull inclusion