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  • nice job kashif may i have some other notes regarding psychology concept
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  1. 1. INTELLIGENCE BY Kashif Salman Made by kashif salman
  2. 2. INTELLIGENCE <ul><li>Psychologists hold divergent views on what intelligence is, how it develops, its relevance with human life achievement and how best to measure it. </li></ul><ul><li>Binet & Simon(1905):considered the essence of intelligence as; to judge well, to comprehend well and to reason well. </li></ul><ul><li>Terman(1916):described intelligence as” the ability to carry out abstract thinking” </li></ul><ul><li>Haggerty :believed intelligence is the ability to deal with novelty. </li></ul><ul><li>Garret :thought of intelligence as capacity to utilize symbols. </li></ul>Made by kashif salman
  3. 3. INTELLIGENCE Def. <ul><li>Thurstone(1938): viewed intelligence as consisting of seven primary mental abilities; verbal comprehension, verbal fluency, number, spatial visualization, memory, reasoning and perceptual speed. </li></ul><ul><li>To coordinate all the views, one may rely on the definition given by DAVID WECHSLER(1977); </li></ul><ul><li>The global capacity to think rationally, act purposefully, and deal effectively with the environment. Its mean for Wechsler intelligence is an effective, rational & goal directed behavior. </li></ul>Made by kashif salman
  4. 4. FACTOR ANALYSIS THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE <ul><li>One important issue is whether intelligence is a single factor or made up of particular components. </li></ul><ul><li>1)spearman G-Factor theory(1904):Intelligence is a general ability. </li></ul><ul><li>British psychologist Charles Spearman believed that a common factor or general mental capacity is at the core of different mental abilities. </li></ul>Made by kashif salman
  5. 5. FACTOR ANALYSIS THEORIES Cont. <ul><li>Spearman also noted most people are best in one or two particular areas and so he included specific factor “S” that allow a person to excel on particular task. </li></ul><ul><li>For example student who has trouble in math's may excel in Bio. </li></ul><ul><li>The combination of “G” and “S” factors provides the specific intelligence level of an individual. </li></ul>Made by kashif salman
  6. 6. FACTOR ANALYSIS THEORIES Cont. <ul><li>2)Thurstone’s group factor theory(1937):Intelligence is a cluster of abilities. </li></ul><ul><li>He disagreed with Spearman’s notion and proposed that there are seven primary mental abilities each a relatively independent element of intelligence. </li></ul><ul><li>The primary mental abilities are; verbal comprehension, verbal fluency, number, spatial visualization, memory, reasoning and perceptual speed. </li></ul>Made by kashif salman
  7. 7. FACTOR ANALYSIS THEORIES Cont <ul><li>3)G.P Guilford(1967)’ three dimensional theory: It is also an example of group factor theory. </li></ul><ul><li>His 3d model provides 120 factors of intelligence. Each factor is represented by a cell in the cube and combination of three dimensions; </li></ul><ul><li>1)Operations (cognition, memory, convergent products, divergent products, evaluation,) </li></ul><ul><li>2)contents (figural, symbolic, semantic, behavioral.) </li></ul><ul><li>3)products (units, classes, relations, transformations, systems, implications.) </li></ul>Made by kashif salman
  8. 8. FACTOR ANALYSIS THEORIES Cont <ul><li>4)cattel’s theory of fluid & crystallized intelligence(1967-87):He said there are two different kinds of intelligence. </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid intelligence is the ability to deal with new problems and encounters, e.g. remember a set of numbers. </li></ul><ul><li>Crystallized intelligence is the store of information, skills and strategies that people have acquired through their use of fluid intelligence. </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid intelligence is a general perceiving capacity- socialization & education. </li></ul><ul><li>Crystallized is cultural exposure, and formal education. </li></ul>Made by kashif salman
  9. 9. FACTOR ANALYSIS THEORIES Cont <ul><li>5)Gardner theory of multiple intelligences(1993):He expanded the Thurstone basic notion of different mental abilities. </li></ul><ul><li>He proposed following independent intelligences; </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic intelligence; use of language. </li></ul><ul><li>Logical mathematical intelligence; </li></ul><ul><li>Musical intelligence; </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial intelligence; e.g. painter. </li></ul><ul><li>Bodily kinesthetic; athletes. </li></ul><ul><li>Personal intelligence; politicians, psychologists, sales. </li></ul>Made by kashif salman
  10. 10. INFORMATION PROCESSING INTELLIGENCE THEORIES <ul><li>Rather than focusing on the structure of intelligence, these theories concern with the form of its sub components. </li></ul><ul><li>These theories assume that people store material in memory and use the material to solve tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the most recent contributions to understand intelligence. </li></ul>Made by kashif salman
  11. 11. INFORMATION PROCESSING INTELLIGENCE THEORIES cont. <ul><li>1)jean Piaget’s cognitive theory(1970):His theory is called stage theory. He said intelligence is an adaptive process that involves an interplay of biological maturation and interaction with the environment . </li></ul><ul><li>He views intellectual development as an evolution of cognitive process, such as understanding laws of nature, perceiving mathematical rules and grammer. </li></ul>Made by kashif salman
  12. 12. INFORMATION PROCESSING INTELLIGENCE THEORIES cont <ul><li>Piaget’s stages of development: </li></ul><ul><li>Sensorimotor stage_ Birth- 2years_ development of object permanence& motor skills, capacity for symbolic representation. </li></ul><ul><li>Preoperational stage_2-7yrs_ development of language& thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete operational stage_7-12yrs_development of conversation. </li></ul><ul><li>Formal operational stage_12yrs-adulthood_development of logical and abstract thinking. </li></ul>Made by kashif salman
  13. 13. INFORMATION PROCESSING INTELLIGENCE THEORIES cont <ul><li>2)The triarchic theory of intelligence(1988):Robert Sternberg gave three types of intelligence. </li></ul><ul><li>Componential intelligence(academic ability); ability to solve problems, compare and contrast, judge, evaluate and criticize. </li></ul><ul><li>Experiential intelligence(creative&insight); abilities to invent, discover, suppose or theorize. </li></ul><ul><li>Practical intelligence(street smart); abilities to adapt to the demands of one’s environment, apply knowledge to practical situations. </li></ul>Made by kashif salman
  14. 14. THE MEASUREMENT OF INTELLIGENCE <ul><li>Individual tests: </li></ul><ul><li>Binet & Simon Scale, Revised(1911); </li></ul><ul><li>They arranged the items according to the age of children. The score of child is termed as” mental age”. </li></ul><ul><li>b) William Stern(1912);I.Q:He described I.Q as a rate between mental age and chronological age. </li></ul><ul><li>I.Q=M,A/C.A * 100 </li></ul>Made by kashif salman
  15. 15. MEASUREMENT OF INTELLIGENCE Cont. <ul><li>C) Stanford – Binet intelligence Scale(1916):The test originated by Alfred Binet in France and developed by Louis Terman at Stanford university. </li></ul><ul><li>It includes a series of age graded questions. </li></ul><ul><li>The SBIS derives an I.Q score. </li></ul>Made by kashif salman
  16. 16. MEASUREMENT Cont. <ul><li>d)Wechsler Scale of intelligence: The Wechsler scales use deviation IQs, which are derived by comparing a person’s performance with that of age mates. The Wechsler scale contains verbal and performance subtests that measure general information, comprehension, similarities, vocabulary, mathematics, block design and object assembly. </li></ul>Made by kashif salman
  17. 17. MEASUREMENT Cont. <ul><li>Wechsler Scales are following; </li></ul><ul><li>1)Wechsler Believe Scale(1939); For adults and most comprehensive. </li></ul><ul><li>2)Wechsler Adult intelligence scale(1958)WAIS;moves from easy to difficult, it is power test and speed test, includes a VERBAL SCALE & PERFORMANCE SCALE. It revised in 1980. </li></ul><ul><li>3)Wechsler intelligence scale for children (W.I.S.C) 1949;It is revised in 1980,includes verbal & performance tests, each contain six items. </li></ul><ul><li>4)Wechsler pre school & primary school of intelligence (W.P.P.I)1967; for the children b/w 4-6 years, measures deviation of IQ. </li></ul>Made by kashif salman
  18. 18. MEASUREMENT Cont. <ul><li>Group tests: Importance of these tests realized in the days of WW1 when large number of soldiers were to be recruited. </li></ul><ul><li>1)ARMY ALPHA; it is a verbal test, power and speed test, for educated people. </li></ul><ul><li>2)ARMY BETA; it is a non verbal & performance test, it is for illiterate people. </li></ul><ul><li>3)ARMY GENERAL CLASSIFICATION TEST; it is used during WW2 and still use. </li></ul><ul><li>4)OHIS QUICK SCORING INTELLIGENCE TEST; Ohis a student of Terman, developed one test for high school and one for university, 40 items in 10 minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>5)SCHOLISTIC APTITUDE TEST(SAT); used for admission test. </li></ul><ul><li>6)COLLEGE ABILITY TEST(GAT); </li></ul>Made by kashif salman
  19. 19. MENTAL RETARDATION <ul><li>It is defined by American association on mental deficiency-1973 as; </li></ul><ul><li>Significantly sub average general intellectual functioning existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period. Mental retards are distinguished by three qualities; </li></ul><ul><li>1)Perform below average on mental tests. </li></ul><ul><li>2)Don’t adopt to the demands their lives. </li></ul><ul><li>3)Problems appear at their early age of life. </li></ul><ul><li>1-3 % of population meets this criteria. </li></ul>Made by kashif salman
  20. 20. MENTAL RETARDATION cont. <ul><li>Levels of Retardation: </li></ul><ul><li>Mild – IQ:53-69 </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate –IQ:36-51 </li></ul><ul><li>Severe- IQ:20-35 </li></ul><ul><li>Profound-IQ: less than 20 </li></ul>Made by kashif salman
  21. 21. CHARACTERISTICS OF RETARDATION <ul><li>MILD: at birth not viewed as retarded, slower to walk, special education can guide to social conformity, 21+can achieve social and vocational skills. </li></ul><ul><li>MODERATE: noticeable delays in motor development, can learn simple communication, can’ progress in functional reading. </li></ul><ul><li>SEVERE: marked delay in motor development, little or no communication skills, 21+ can conform to daily routines. </li></ul><ul><li>PROFOUND: gross retardation, minimal capacity for functioning in Sensorimotor areas, obvious delays in all areas of development, 21+ need nursing care. </li></ul>Made by kashif salman
  22. 22. MTHODS OF STUDYING MR’s <ul><li>1)Taking a familial & developmental history. </li></ul><ul><li>2)Administering measures of intelligence. </li></ul><ul><li>3)Assessing social competence. </li></ul><ul><li>4)Identifying particular personality. </li></ul><ul><li>5)Evaluating performance & learning abilities. </li></ul>Made by kashif salman
  23. 23. ETIOLOGY OF RETARDATION <ul><li>A) Organic causes: </li></ul><ul><li>1)Chromosomal abnormalities; </li></ul><ul><li>Down’s syndrome(47 chr.). </li></ul><ul><li>Klinefelter’s syndrome(xxy,xxxy). </li></ul><ul><li>Turner’s syndrome(ox female). </li></ul><ul><li>2)Genetic defects. </li></ul><ul><li>3)Trauma-deficiency or injury during birth. </li></ul><ul><li>B) socio- cultural causes; socio economic status. </li></ul>Made by kashif salman
  24. 24. PREVENTION & MANAGEMENT <ul><li>1) Therapeutic abortion. </li></ul><ul><li>2)Blood test after birth. </li></ul><ul><li>3)Incubator for premature. </li></ul><ul><li>4)Parent education. </li></ul><ul><li>5)poverty alleviation. </li></ul>Made by kashif salman