What is Intelligence ?
Intelligence is the ability to learn about, learn from
understand, and interact with one’s environment. This general
ability consist of a number of specific abilities :
Adaptability to a new environment or to
change in the current environment
Capacity for knowledge and the ability to
Capacity for reason & abstract thought
Ability to comprehend relationships
Ability to evaluate & judge
Capacity for original and productive thought
Approaches to define Intelligence:
• PSYCHOMETRIC APPROACH : gives emphasis on quantifying
cognitive factors that compose intellectual performance.
Lumpers ( psychologist who adherents of psychometric approach)
o Lump or put the cognitive factors together. They define
Intelligence as a general unified capacity for reasoning,
acquiring knowledge and solving problems.
Splitters ( psychologist who adherents of psychometric approach)
o Define Intelligence as consisting of separate mental
abilities that function more or less independently. Howard
Gardner, one of the splitters was against the idea that
intelligence is a single factor that can be measured by a
single score, such as IQ score. Based on Gadner’s multiple-
factor theory there are at least eight multiple
The ability to use the language
An linking to music; the person can compose
songs, sings very well
Involves numeric ability, good in abstract
The ability to correlate lines rhythm,
colors, spaces, these people tend to
become successful engineers, architects &
Good coordination to movements; ability in
Ability to understand oneself, own
thoughts and feelings
• INFORMATION-PROCESSING APPROACH : defines
intelligence by analyzing contents of the cognitive processes
which people employ to solve problems.
Robert Strenberg’s (1985) Triarchic Theory – states that
intelligence can be divided into three ways of gathering and
processing information. These are :
1) Analytical or logical thinking skills which are measured by
traditional intelligence tests
2) Problem-solving skills which need creative thinking
3) Practical thinking skills which help in the adjustment process of the
Assessment of Intelligence
Alfred Binet (french psychologist)
• Intelligences is a collection of mental abilities and the means to
measure one’s intelligence is through his ability to do cognitive tasks
such as understanding the meaning of terminologies or being able to
• In 1905, Binet and psychiatrist Theodore Simon succeeded in
developing the first standardized intelligence test known as Binet-
Simon Intelligence Scale. It contained questions that evaluate
vocabulary, memory, common knowledge and other cognitive
• Mental Age – method of estimating child’s intelligence through
comparing child’s intelligence through comparing child’s score on an
intelligence test with the scores of average children of the same age.
• Psychological Test - written, visual, or verbal evaluations
administered to assess the cognitive and emotional
functioning of children and adults.
• Two Characteristics of Good Psychological Test :
Reliability : refers to consistency. It means that a person’s scores on a
test or on similar tests given at different periods of time are close or
almost the same.
Validity : means that the test measures what it is supposed to measure.
Characteristics of a Good Test
Examples of Intelligence Test
• Raven Progressive Matrices – a widely use intelligence test in
many research and applied settings. In each item, one is asked
to find missing pattern in a series.
RPM was designed primarily as a measure of Spearman’s g.
There are 3 different tests for different abilities:
Colored Progressive Matrices (younger children & special
Standford Progressive Matrices ( average 6-80 years old)
Advance Progressive Matrices ( above average adolescents &
• The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale: Fourth Edition (SB: FE) is a standardized
test that measures intelligence and cognitive abilities in children and adults,
from age two through mature adulthood.
• The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale is considered to be one of the best and
most widely used intelligence tests available. It is especially useful in providing
intellectual assessment in young children, adolescents, and young adults.
• Purpose : The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale was originally developed to help
place children in appropriate educational settings.
• The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale is comprised of four cognitive area scores
which together determine the composite score and factor scores. These area
scores include: Verbal Reasoning, Abstract/Visual Reasoning, Quantitative
Reasoning, and Short-Term Memory.
• Verbal reasoning is understanding and reasoning using
concepts framed in words. It aims at evaluating ability to
think constructively, rather than at simple fluency
or vocabulary recognition.
• Abstract Reasoning : the ability to analyze information
and solve problems on a complex, thought-based level.
Abstract reasoning tasks involve skills such as :
Forming theories about the nature of objects, ideas,
processes, and problem solving;
– Understanding subjects on a complex level through
analysis and evaluation;
– Ability to apply knowledge in problem-solving using theory,
metaphor, or complex analogy; and
– Understanding relationships between verbal and non-
• Fluid intelligence refers to the
degree of flexibility in thinking
and the ability to reason
• Crystallized intelligence refers
to the degree in which an
accumulation of knowledge and
skills has taken place in the
course of life.
Fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence
What is Learning?
• Learning refers to relatively permanent change in
behavior that occurs as a result of practice,
experience or training.
Learning is a change in Behavior, for better or
It is change that occurs through practices or
experience; changes in behavior due to
maturation, sickness, accidents, fatigue, drug-
intake are not learning.
The changes in behavior must be relatively
permanent, that is, it must last for a