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Theories of Intelligence and Tests of intelligence 
Dr Salman Kareem Chairperson - Miss Sherry A A ( Clinical Psychologist...
Defining intelligence 
 Binet (1916) defined it as the capacity to 
judge well, to reason well, and to 
comprehend well. ...
 Thorndike (1921) defined 
 it as the power of good responses from the point of 
view of truth or fact 
 Thurstone (192...
Defining intelligence 
 Piaget (1972) defined 
 it as referring to the superior forms of 
organization or equilibrium of...
Wechlser (1939) defined 
“it as the aggregate or global capacity of an 
individual to act purposefully, think rationally, ...
Definition 
 Aggregate and Global implies it is revealed 
by an individual behaviour as a whole. 
 Purposeful implies th...
•Charles Spearman’ Two factor theory 
 His hypothesis is all intellectual tasks must 
entail the exercise of a factor kno...
•Two Factor Theory 
 An individual has 
overall supply of 
mental energy and the 
"S" factor is invoked 
for specific pur...
•LouisThrustone 
 He contributed that 
Spearman’s g factor consists 
of seven sub factors ( 
Primary mental abilities) 
...
•Cattell & Horne 
 Fluid Intelligence 
 characterized by Biological factors 
 capacity to learn new ways of solving pro...
Robert Sternberg's Triarchic Theory 
 Analytical intelligence 
 Basic information processing skills 
 Creative intellig...
Howard Gardner’s 
Theory of Multiple Intelligences 
 Gardner (1983, 
1999) supports 
Thurstone’s idea that 
intelligence ...
Howard Gardner’s 
Theory of Multiple Intelligences 
 8 types of intelligence 
 speculates about a 9th – 
 “existential ...
Intelligence Description 
Linguistic The ability to speak and write well 
Logico-mathematical The ability to use logic and...
Howard Gardner’s 
Theory of Multiple Intelligences
18 
Principles of Test Construction 
For a psychological test to be acceptable it must fulfill 
the following three criter...
19 
Standardization 
•The standardization of a test involves giving it to a large 
number of people at different ages and ...
FLYNN EFFECT
21 
Normal Curve 
Standardized tests establish a normal distribution 
of scores on a tested population in a bell-shaped 
p...
22 
Reliability 
A test is reliable when it yields consistent results. To 
establish reliability researchers establish dif...
23 
Validity 
•Validity of a test refers to what the test is supposed to 
measure or predict 
•that they actually measure ...
History of Intelligence Testing 
1. Head Circumference (Francis Galton 
1880) – first attempts to measure 
intelligence 
2...
 30 items of increasing difficulty - 1905 
 Revision 1908 – age specific versions 
 These were developed to identify ch...
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale 
3. Lewis Terman (1916-72) first U.S. 
intelligence test 
 Interested in gifted childre...
 Developed Intelligence Quotient 
IQ = (MA/CA)*100 
MA= Mental Age; CA = Chronological Age
1916 Stanford-Binet 
Sample Items for 12 yr olds 
1. Orange. 
45. Sportive. 
80. Exaltation. 
92. Theosophy 
• FOR THE STA...
 Currently in its 5th edition 
 Assesses intelligence and cognitive abilities in 
children and adults aged 2- 23 yrs 
 ...
Binet Kamath Intelligence Scale 
 Kamath undertook a revision of the Stanford Binet 
Scales to suit Indian conditions. 
...
Weschler Intelligence Scale 
(David Weschler, 1939-81) – designed to show 
subtest scores 
 Less reliant on language/voca...
WAPIS-R Testing kit 
Testing Booklet 
Story Cards 
Puzzle Pieces 
Block Design
WAIS measures overall intelligence and 11 related 
aspects to assess clinical and educational 
problems.
WISC 
 This scale 
includes 12 
separate sub-tests. 
 Age 5+ to15+ 
 It yields Verbal 
IQ, Performance 
IQ and Full 
Sc...
Malin’s Intelligence Scale for 
Children (MISIC) 
 This IQ test was developed by Dr Arthur Malin. 
 It is an Indian adap...
Seguin Form Board 
 Aim: The individual has to 
insert geometrical shaped 
blocks into corresponding 
recesses as quickly...
 Measuring psychomotor and visuoperceptual 
abnormalities for children aged between 4 and 20 
yrs.
Raven’s Progressive Matrices 
 It is a test of observation and clear thinking. 
 Measures ability to form perceptual rel...
Raven’s Progressive Matrices
Bhatias performance test of 
intelligence 
 C M Bhatia 1955 
 5 subtests – 
 block design test 
 Alexander Pass along ...
Vineland Social MaturityScale 
 Edgar A Doll , 1935 
 Assess the social competence / maturity of 
individuals from birth...
 Semi structured informal atmosphere 
 Having mother along with the child. 
 + - if a particular behaviour has emerged ...
8 domains 
 Communication skills 
 General self help ability 
 Locomotion skills 
 Occupation skills 
 Self direction...
Distinguishing Features 
Tests Verbal Component Performance Component 
WISC Yes Yes 
MISIC Yes Yes 
SFB No Yes 
RPM No Yes
ICD 10 Classification 
 IQ 50 -69 
 Mild Mental Retardation. 
 IQ 35-49 
 Moderate Mental 
Retardation. 
 IQ 20-34 
...
Wechsler’s IQ Classification 
 IQ 90 – 109 
 Average Intelligence. 
 IQ 110-119 
 Above Average Intelligence. 
 IQ 12...
What Next? 
 In the case of students with an IQ of <85 it is 
preferable that a revised curriculum is 
followed with the ...
Further Investigations 
 This could be followed up with a 
Psychologist. 
 Possible reasons for poor school 
performance...
Conclusions 
 IQ tests are used as screening measures to 
understand the capability of the individual. 
 In order to get...
Thank you
Intelligence
Intelligence
Intelligence
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Intelligence

  1. 1. Theories of Intelligence and Tests of intelligence Dr Salman Kareem Chairperson - Miss Sherry A A ( Clinical Psychologist)
  2. 2. Defining intelligence  Binet (1916) defined it as the capacity to judge well, to reason well, and to comprehend well.  Terman (1916) defined it as the capacity to form concepts and grasp their significance.  Pintner (1921) defined it as the ability of an individual to adapt well to new situations in life
  3. 3.  Thorndike (1921) defined  it as the power of good responses from the point of view of truth or fact  Thurstone (1921) defined  it as the capacity to inhibit instinctive response, imagine a different response, and realize the response modification into behavior  Spearman (1923) defined it  as a general ability involving mainly the ability to see relations and correlates
  4. 4. Defining intelligence  Piaget (1972) defined  it as referring to the superior forms of organization or equilibrium of cognitive structuring used for adaptation to the to the physical and social environment  Sternberg (1985) defined it  as the mental capacity to automatize information processing and to emit contextually appropriate behavior in response to novelty  Gardner (1986) defined it as  the ability to solve problems or fashion products valued within some setting
  5. 5. Wechlser (1939) defined “it as the aggregate or global capacity of an individual to act purposefully, think rationally, and deal effectively with the environment”
  6. 6. Definition  Aggregate and Global implies it is revealed by an individual behaviour as a whole.  Purposeful implies that intelligent behaviour is goal directed which is based on drives and incentives.
  7. 7. •Charles Spearman’ Two factor theory  His hypothesis is all intellectual tasks must entail the exercise of a factor known as general intelligence(g factor)  In examining correlation of various subsets of intelligence, he found that certain subsets tend to correlate higher than others  Each individual type of item requiring "specific factor" called "S" factor.
  8. 8. •Two Factor Theory  An individual has overall supply of mental energy and the "S" factor is invoked for specific purpose as neurological engine.  He thought that it can be represented by a single number.
  9. 9. •LouisThrustone  He contributed that Spearman’s g factor consists of seven sub factors ( Primary mental abilities)  Verbal comprehension  word fluency  Numerical ability  spatial Visualization  associative memory  perceptual speed  Inductive reasoning
  10. 10. •Cattell & Horne  Fluid Intelligence  characterized by Biological factors  capacity to learn new ways of solving problems and performing activities  Decreases with age  Crystallized Intelligence  More characterized by environment  accumulated knowledge of the world we have acquired throughout our lives  increases with age
  11. 11. Robert Sternberg's Triarchic Theory  Analytical intelligence  Basic information processing skills  Creative intelligence  Ability to deal with novel versus routine problems  Practical intelligence  Ability to adapt to different contexts, and to select and shape contexts
  12. 12. Howard Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences  Gardner (1983, 1999) supports Thurstone’s idea that intelligence comes in multiple forms.  Gardner noted that brain damage may diminish one type of ability but not others e.g., savants.
  13. 13. Howard Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences  8 types of intelligence  speculates about a 9th –  “existential intelligence" = ability to think about the question of life, death and existence.
  14. 14. Intelligence Description Linguistic The ability to speak and write well Logico-mathematical The ability to use logic and mathematical skills to solve problems Spatial The ability to think and reason about objects in three dimensions Musical The ability to perform and enjoy music Kinesthetic (body The ability to move the body in sports, dance, or other physical activities Interpersonal The ability to understand and interact effectively with others Intrapersonal The ability to have insight into the self
  15. 15. Howard Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences
  16. 16. 18 Principles of Test Construction For a psychological test to be acceptable it must fulfill the following three criteria: 1. Standardization 2. Reliability 3. Validity
  17. 17. 19 Standardization •The standardization of a test involves giving it to a large number of people at different ages and computing the average score on the test at each age level. •important that intelligence tests be standardized on a regular basis •FLYNN EFFECT - In the past 60 years, intelligence scores have risen steadily by an average of 27 points.
  18. 18. FLYNN EFFECT
  19. 19. 21 Normal Curve Standardized tests establish a normal distribution of scores on a tested population in a bell-shaped pattern called the normal curve.
  20. 20. 22 Reliability A test is reliable when it yields consistent results. To establish reliability researchers establish different procedures: 1. Split-half Reliability: Dividing the test into two equal halves and assessing how consistent the scores are. 2. Test-Retest Reliability: Using the same test on two occasions to measure consistency.
  21. 21. 23 Validity •Validity of a test refers to what the test is supposed to measure or predict •that they actually measure intelligence rather than something else
  22. 22. History of Intelligence Testing 1. Head Circumference (Francis Galton 1880) – first attempts to measure intelligence 2. Binet-Simon (Alfred Binet 1909) – first “intelligence test”  comissioned by French gov to separate children into vocational vs academic schooling  did not design test to measure ‘intelligence’  created concept of mental age (MA)
  23. 23.  30 items of increasing difficulty - 1905  Revision 1908 – age specific versions  These were developed to identify children who needed ‘special’ education -  Binet believed that IQ could be increased by education
  24. 24. Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale 3. Lewis Terman (1916-72) first U.S. intelligence test  Interested in gifted children  translated and modified Binet’s scale  Heavy reliance on vocabulary/language skills  incorporated old items from the Binet scale, plus some new items  poorly standardized on 1000 children and 400 adults who were not selected with care
  25. 25.  Developed Intelligence Quotient IQ = (MA/CA)*100 MA= Mental Age; CA = Chronological Age
  26. 26. 1916 Stanford-Binet Sample Items for 12 yr olds 1. Orange. 45. Sportive. 80. Exaltation. 92. Theosophy • FOR THE STARTED AN WE COUNTRY EARLY AT HOUR • TO ASKED PAPER MY TEACHER CORRECT I MY • A DEFENDS DOG GOOD HIS BRAVELY MASTER 3-1-8-7-9 6-9-4-8-2 5-2-9-6-1 Vocabulary Grammar Similarities • Snake, cow, sparrow Memory • Book, teacher, newspaper • Wool, cotton, leather Interpretation Practical Problem Solving
  27. 27.  Currently in its 5th edition  Assesses intelligence and cognitive abilities in children and adults aged 2- 23 yrs  Total testing time 45-90 minutes  Hindi adaptation –Santhosh Kumar Kulshetertha
  28. 28. Binet Kamath Intelligence Scale  Kamath undertook a revision of the Stanford Binet Scales to suit Indian conditions.  The test has subtests from Age III to XXII.  For each item passed the child earns a credit of 2 months, 4 months or 6 months depending on the corresponding age.  IQ = Mental Age × 100 Chronological Age  The IQ thus obtained is classified.
  29. 29. Weschler Intelligence Scale (David Weschler, 1939-81) – designed to show subtest scores  Less reliant on language/vocabulary skills  Contains Verbal and Performance subtests  Performance compared to same age peers – raw score has different interpretation depending on age  Designed widely used test for adults (WAIS), children (WISC), and preschoolers (WPPSI)  Indian adaptation WAPIS – Prabha R
  30. 30. WAPIS-R Testing kit Testing Booklet Story Cards Puzzle Pieces Block Design
  31. 31. WAIS measures overall intelligence and 11 related aspects to assess clinical and educational problems.
  32. 32. WISC  This scale includes 12 separate sub-tests.  Age 5+ to15+  It yields Verbal IQ, Performance IQ and Full Scale IQ. Verbal Tests • Information • General Comprehensi on • Arithmetic • Similarities • Vocabulary • Digit Span Performance Subtests • Picture Completion • Picture Arrangement • Block Design • Object Assembly • Coding • Mazes
  33. 33. Malin’s Intelligence Scale for Children (MISIC)  This IQ test was developed by Dr Arthur Malin.  It is an Indian adaptation of the WISC and similar to the WISC subtests.  Covers only 10 years.  Picture Arrangement is excluded in this version.  Some items are adapted to suit Indian culture.  Verbal IQ, Performance IQ and Full Scale IQ are obtained from this test.
  34. 34. Seguin Form Board  Aim: The individual has to insert geometrical shaped blocks into corresponding recesses as quickly as possible.  Used particularly for young children and supplemented with other tests.3-11 yrs  Advantages:  Spontaneous arousal in children.  Amenable & brief.
  35. 35.  Measuring psychomotor and visuoperceptual abnormalities for children aged between 4 and 20 yrs.
  36. 36. Raven’s Progressive Matrices  It is a test of observation and clear thinking.  Measures ability to form perceptual relations, reason by analogy independent of language and formal schooling.  It consists of 5 sets of 12 items each.  Each item contains a figure with a missing piece.  Norms are available for age 6 – 16.
  37. 37. Raven’s Progressive Matrices
  38. 38. Bhatias performance test of intelligence  C M Bhatia 1955  5 subtests –  block design test  Alexander Pass along test  Pattern drawing test  Immediate memory  Picture construction test  11 yrs and above  Not used on mentally retarded persons
  39. 39. Vineland Social MaturityScale  Edgar A Doll , 1935  Assess the social competence / maturity of individuals from birth to 25 yrs and above.  A J Malin – Indian version , Nagpur Child Guidance Centre  birth – 15 yrs  8 domains , 89 items  Gives information on social age from which social quotient could be calculated.
  40. 40.  Semi structured informal atmosphere  Having mother along with the child.  + - if a particular behaviour has emerged  - if it has not emerged.
  41. 41. 8 domains  Communication skills  General self help ability  Locomotion skills  Occupation skills  Self direction  Self help eating  Self help dressing  Socialization skills
  42. 42. Distinguishing Features Tests Verbal Component Performance Component WISC Yes Yes MISIC Yes Yes SFB No Yes RPM No Yes
  43. 43. ICD 10 Classification  IQ 50 -69  Mild Mental Retardation.  IQ 35-49  Moderate Mental Retardation.  IQ 20-34  Severe Mental Retardation.  IQ Below20  Profound Mental Retardation.
  44. 44. Wechsler’s IQ Classification  IQ 90 – 109  Average Intelligence.  IQ 110-119  Above Average Intelligence.  IQ 120-129  Superior Intelligence.  IQ 130 and above  Very Superior Intelligence.
  45. 45. What Next?  In the case of students with an IQ of <85 it is preferable that a revised curriculum is followed with the help of a resource person.  In the case of students with 90 and above IQ points and still showing a discrepancy between capability and achievement scores further investigations need to be done.
  46. 46. Further Investigations  This could be followed up with a Psychologist.  Possible reasons for poor school performance: 1. Specific Learning Disability. 2. English as a Second Language issues (ESL). 3. ADHD/ ADD issues. 4. Emotional Disturbance.
  47. 47. Conclusions  IQ tests are used as screening measures to understand the capability of the individual.  In order to get authentic results it is advisable that the test must be conducted by a trained psychologist.  Principal, teachers, parents and the student need to understand the purpose of undergoing an evaluation.
  48. 48. Thank you

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